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Bell Ringer

Using only the PVC, move

the soda can, but you
cannot touch the can with
the PVC or blow on the can.
Explain how you did it.
Bell Ringer

Describe one of the stations

from last weeks lab in detail.
How do you believe a
transfer of charges caused
this to occur?
Electric charges at rest (static

Involves electric charges, the forces

between them, and their behavior in
Electric Forces
Arise from the particles in atoms

Alone: Billions and billions of times as

strong as the force of gravity

In Pairs: Cancel each other out and have

no noticeable effect
In an atom, a positively charged nucleus
is surrounded by electrons
The protons (+) in the nucleus attract the
electrons (-), while the electrons repel
each other
This attraction and repulsion behavior
gives an object its charge
Properties of Atoms
All electrons are identical, with the same mass
and same quantity of charge
The nucleus is composed of protons (all of
which are also identical) and neutrons
Atoms usually have as many electrons as
protons, so the atom has a zero net charge
Bell Ringer

Draw an atom and label the

protons, neutrons and
Which of these particles is
the easiest to remove?
The Fundamental
Like charges repel; opposite
charges attract
If the total positive charge balances the total
negative charge, the atom is neutral
If a particle is removed from the atom, it
becomes an ion
Positive Ion: Has lost one or more electrons
and has a net positive charge
Negative Ion: Has gained one or more
electrons and has a net negative charge
Removal of Electrons
The inner electrons are bound very tightly to
the atom
The outermost electrons of many atoms are
bound loosely and can be easily dislodged
Conductors and
Conductor: Materials which allow electric
charge to flow freely
Metals are good conductors because their
outer electrons are not bound tightly
Insulator: Materials which do not allow
electric charge to flow freely (i.e. glass,
Conductors and
Semiconductor: Materials that can be made
to behave as either a conductor or an
insulator of electricity
i.e.) germanium, silicon
Superconductor: Material that has infinite
conductivity at low temperatures so that
charge flows through it without resistance
Conservation of Charge
Electrons are never created nor
destroyed, but are simply transferred
from one material to another
No case of the creation or destruction of net
electric charge has ever been found
Electrons are always transferred in whole
they cannot be divided into fractions of
Coulombs Law
The force between two charges depends
on the magnitude of the charges and
the distance between them

F=k 2
Coulombs Law
F=k 2
Units of charge = Coulomb (C)
k is a proportionality constant called the
Coulomb constant
k 9,000,000,000 Nm2 9 Nm2
or 910
C2 C2
Other Useful Numbers
Charge of an -19
qe = -1.6 10 C
Charge of a -19
qp = +1.6 10 C
Coulombs Law
The force between two charges depends
on the magnitude of the charges and
the distance between them

F=k 2
Sample Problem
Two electrons are a meter apart.
What is the force between them?
What direction is it in?
Sample Problem
d = 1m
-19 -19
q = -1.6*10 C q = -1.6*10 C
p e

F=k 2
-19 -19
(-1.6*10 C)* (-1.6*10 C)
9 2 2
F = (9*10 N*m /C ) 2
(1 m)

F = 2.3*10 N
Sample Problem
Two electrons are two meters apart.
What is the force between them?
What direction is it in?
Coulombs Law
The force between the two particles
falls off as 1/d2

F=k 2
Bell Ringer
Two electrons are two centrimeters apart.
What is the force between them?
What direction is it in?
Items may be charged by friction
Electrons are moved from one object to
another by being scraped away
Items may be charged by contact
Electrons are moved without being
scraped off
Charging by Induction

Induction: The charging of an object

without direct contact
Charging by Induction

Grounding: Allowing charges to

move freely along a connection
between a conductor and the ground
(shown in sketch c)
Induction and
The bottom of the
negatively charged
cloud induces a
positive charge at
the surface of the
ground below.
In Summary. . .
Objects are electrically charged in one of
three ways:
By friction, when electrons are rubbed from
one object to another
By contact, when electrons are transferred
through direct contact without rubbing
Through induction when electrons are
gathered or dispersed by the presence of a
nearby charge (without physical contact)
Bell Ringer

Determine the electrical force

between two balloons with separate
charges of +3.5 x 10-8 C and -2.9 x 10-
8 C when separated a distance of 0.65

What is the direction?
2.16 x 10-5 N, attractive
Field Lines
Electric Fields have a magnitude and
Vector Quantities
Lines go away from positive
Lines go toward negative
Drawing Field Lines
From + to
Lines start
perpendicular to
the surface of the
Field strength is
shown by the
density of the field
Electric Shielding
All charge on a conductor gathers on the
If a charge is contained inside a conductor
the electric field is zero
If a charge is outside a conductor the inside
of the container will not be affected by the
outside charge
Example: Faraday Cage
Faraday Cage
Bell Ringer

Joann has rubbed a balloon with wool to give it a

charge of -1.0 x 10-6 C. She then acquires a plastic
golf tube with a charge of +4.0 x 10-6 C localized at a
given position. She holds the location of charge on
the plastic golf tube a distance of 50.0 cm above the
balloon. Determine the electrical force of attraction
between the golf tube and the balloon.
Charge Polarization
When one side of a
molecule is induced
to be slightly more
positive than the
other side
A capacitor stores
difference in electric
Usually stored in
parallel plates
Consists of two
conductors with an
insulator in between
Can hold this
separation of charge
for large periods of
This is why it is not
smart to take apart
an Old Television
Quick Review

Draw the electric field of

An electron and a proton
Two electrons

What are the three methods of charging

Give an example of each

What is the difference between a conductor and an

What is an ion?
A 4C charge and a -3C charge are 1 meter apart.
Which charge experiences a larger force?