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KONSEP, SEJARAH DAN

CAKUPAN MIKROBIOLOGI
DESI KARTIKASARI, M.Si
Mikrobiologi
Ilmu yang mempelajari bentuk, sifat, kehidupan dan
penyebaran jasad hidup yang termasuk mikroba
(jasad renik, mikrobia dan mikroorganisme).
Mikroba = mikro (kecil/sangat kecil)
bios (hidup/kehidupan)
Mikrobiologi ilmu yang mempelajari mikroorganisme
dan aktivitasnya. Hal ini terkait dengan struktur,
bentuk, reproduksi, fisiologi, metabolisme dan
identifikasi dan meliputi penyebarannya di alam.
MICROBA ADA DI BERBAGAI HABITAT
Eksplorasi mikroba pengurai hidrokarbon

Kapang Bakteri

Khamir

Penelitian : Eksplorasi bakteri pengurai minyak dari Kali Donan Cilacap dan Tanjung Perak Surabaya
(Nimatuzahroh et al., 2003-2005)
Mikroba (bakteri dan yeast) hasil isolasi

Bakteri Yeast

Beberapa koleksi mikroba potensial pendegradasi minyak hasil


eksplorasi dari Sumur minyak Wonocolo Bojonegoro
(Nimatuzahroh et al, 2009)
UKURAN MIKROORGANISME
Satuan m ; 1m = 1/1000 mm =0,001 mm
Size of Microbes

Microbes vary in size ranging


from 10 nm (nanometers) to
100 mu (micrometers) to the
macroscopic.

Viruses in nm = 10-9 m (meter)

Bacteria in um = 10-6 m

Helminths in mm = 10-3 m
Ukuran sel --- organisme
Arti penting mikro
Ilmu terpadu (dasar dan terapan)
Mempelajari jasad renik (mikrobia) yang unisel
(bakteri, virus, alga)
Jasad renik berbeda dgn hewan dan tumbuhan
(tersebar dalam tanah, udara, air dan tubuh M.H)
Berperan dalam menimbulkan penyakit (realita)
Memberi kontribusi positif (menjaga keseimbangan
M.H dengan senyawa kimia yang ada dilingk)
Mampu merombak limbah
Diperairan mrpkn mata rantai makanan
Sebagai pabrik kimia krn mampu melakukan
perubahan substrat di alam
Aspek yang dikaji
Sel mikroba sebagai sel hidup
Mikroba merupakan kelompok jasad renik
Keanekaragaman dan evolusi mikroba
Aktivitas mikroba
Mampu tumbuh pada berbagai macam substrat
Organisme yang termasuk mikroba
Bakteri
Kapang
Khamir
Alga
Protozoa
Virus
The Microbes
viruses protozoa

bacteria

bacteriophage

algae
cyanobacteria
spirochaetes

fungi
Bacteria

Prokaryotes

Peptidoglycan cell walls


QuickTime and a
Binary fission TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Ex: Escherichia coli
Archaea

Prokaryotes
Lack peptidoglycan
Live in extreme environments
(extremophiles)
Include:
Methanogens
Extreme halophiles
Extreme thermophiles
Fungi

Eukaryotes

Chitin cell walls

Molds and mushrooms are QuickTime and a


multicellular TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

Yeasts are unicellular


Protozoa

Eukaryotes

Mostly saprobes and commensals

May be motile by means of


pseudopod, cilia or flagella QuickTime and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Algae

Eukaryotes
Cellulose cell walls
Photosynthetic
QuickTime and a
Produce molecular oxygen and TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
organic compounds
Part of food chain
Helminths

Eukaryotes
Multicellular animals
Parasitic flatworms and roundworms
called helminths QuickTime and a
TIFF (U ncompressed) decompressor
Microscopic stages in life cycles are needed to see this pi cture.
Viruses

Acellular
Obligate intracellular parasites
Genome consist of DNA or RNA called
Core
Core surrounded by protein coat called QuickTime and a
TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor
Capsid are needed to see this picture.
Virion may be enclosed in lipid envelope
Penerapan praktis mikrobiologi
Bidang kedokteran
Perlindungan pasien terhadap mikroba penyebab penyakit,
pengenalan sifat-sifat khusus mikroba untuk menetapkan
pengendalianya dan pengembangan obat-obatan pencega
penyakit.
Bidang biokimia
pengembangan penelitian mengenai proses mikroba untuk
memahami metabolisme dalam tubuh manusia.
Bidang industri makanan fermentasi
Pengembangan penelitian kemampuan mikroba dalam hal
fermentasi shg diperoleh berbagai jenis makanan fermentasi yang
berkualitas tinggi. Pengembangan penelitian mengenai enzim yang
berperan dalam proses fermentasi agar mudah memproduksi
makanan fermentasi.
Sejarah Mikrobiologi
Ditemukannya mikroskop sederhana (Anthony van
Leeuwenhoek th 1632-1723.
Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) menemukan prinsip
fermentasi cairan buah anggur. Orang pertama yang
menggunakan istilah: aerob dan anaerob.
Joseph lister (1827-1912) menerapkan konsep
penyakit dan infeksi merupakan akibat dari masuknya
mikroba org pertama yang melakukan pencegahan
infeksi setelah operasi menggunakan antiseptik larutan
fenol
The First Microscope
Microbes were first observed by
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek
using a simple microscope (ca.
1673)
Reported his animalcules to the
Royal Society of London
The Pros and Cons

Louis Pasteur put an end to


Abiogenesis debate with his

Goose Neck Flask


Experiment

He is the father of
Microbiology
The Golden Age of Microbiology

Pasteurs Experiments

When the swan-necked flasks


remained upright, no microbial
growth appeared

When the flask was tilted, dust from


the bend in the neck seeped back
into the flask and made the infusion
cloudy with microbes within a day
Louis Pasteur

Showed microbes caused


fermentation
Studied spoilage and
introduced Pasteurization to
prevent it
Used cotton plugs in his
cultures to prevent air borne
contamination, devised Aseptic
Technique.
Antiseptics and Hand Washing
1860s - Joseph Lister used, carbolic acid, a
chemical antiseptic to prevent surgical wound
infections
Ignaz Semmelweis, a Hungarian physician
introduced hand washing as a means of preventing
transfer of puerpueral sepsis in obstetrical patients
Germ Theory of Disease

1876 - Robert Koch provided


proof that a bacterium causes
anthrax using experimental
steps now called the Kochs
Postulates

He was the first to use agar as


solid culture medium in
bacteriology.
Kochs Postulates
The microbe must always be present in every case of
the disease
It must be isolated in pure culture on artificial media
When inoculated into healthy animal host it should
produce the same disease
It must be isolated from the diseased animal again
Robert Koch (1843-1910) memulai pendekatan ilmiah thdp
mikrobiologi kedokteran (POSTULAT KOCH 1882)

1. Mikroba yang dicurigai harus selalu kedapatan bila


penyakit sedang berjangkit.
2. Mikroba itu harus dapat diambil untuk dibiakkan didalam
media secara murni, tanpa kehadiran jaringan jasad yang
sebelumnya dikenai.
3. Jika mikroba piaraan itu diinokulasikan kepada hewan
percobaan yang sehat, maka harus menimbulkan gejala
penyakit yang sama.
4. Mikrobia yang sudah diinokulasikan itu harus dapat
diambil dan bila dibuat piaraan murni haruslah
mempunyai bentuk yang sama seperti asalnya.
Robert Koch merupakan orang yang pertama yang
menggunakan agar untuk membuat medium padat
yang mengandung makanan.
Sifat agar: mencair pada sekitar suhuair mendidih,
menjadi padat kembali jika didinginka sampai
kurang lebih 43 derajat celcius.
The Golden Age of Microbiology

Kochs Experiments
Simple staining techniques
First photomicrograph of bacteria
First photomicrograph of bacteria in
diseased tissue
Techniques for estimating CFU/ml
Use of steam to sterilize media
Use of Petri dishes
Aseptic techniques
Bacteria as distinct species
Kochs Postulates
Periode Spekulasi dan Perintisan
(jaman prasejarah 1850)
Pencarian jawaban atas permasalahan:
- penyebab kerusakan bahan makanan
- proses fermentasi
- penularan penyakit

Proses fermentasi cairan buah anggur menjadi minuman


anggur beralkohol dianngap sbg proses kimia. Jika ada
pertumbuhan jasad renik (ragi) pada permukaan
larutan, dianggap sbg akibat proses tsb.
Pasteur (1830) memastikan bahwa proses
fermentasi adalah proses biologi, dimana mikroba
yang berperan adalah ragi.
Fracastorius (1478-1553) meyakinkan tentang
perpindahan dan penyebaran jasad penyebab
penyakit.
Roberth Koch (1881) metode isolasi, pembuatan
preparat, identifikasi biakan mikroba secara murni.
Petri (asisten R. Koch)
Menemukan cawan petri yang dipakai dalam teknik
isolasi mikroba
Gram
Menemukan sistem pewarnaan bakteri, yaitu
pewarnaan gram
fuchsine

Gram
Staining
Technique
Jaman sejarah-sekarang
Iwanoski (1892) = TMV (Tobacco Mozaic Virus)
Domagki (1839) = Obat sulfa untuk infeksi bakteri
Alexander Fleming (1945) = antibiotika penisilin
dari Pennicillium notatum
Waksman (1952) = antibiotika streptomisin dari
Streptomyces grisseus
Sir Alexander Fleming (1881-1955) : penemu
antibiotika Penicilin
Morfologi berkembang mjd berbagai disiplin ilmu

Virologi
Bakteriologi
Mikologi
Algalogi
Protozoologi
Mikrobiologi industri
Mikrobiologi tanah
Mikrobiologi makanan
Mikrobiologi kesehatan / farmasi
The Golden Age of Microbiology
Modern Uses of Microbes

Biotechnology, the use of microbes as miniature biochemical


factories to produce food and chemicals is centuries old.
Genetic engineering makes use of molecular biology and
recombinant DNA techniques as new tools for biotechnology.
Gene therapy replaces missing or defective genes in human
cells through genetic engineering.
Genetically modified bacteria are used to protect crops from
pests and freezing.
The Modern Age of Microbiology

How Do Genes Work?


Microbial genetics
Molecular biology
Recombinant DNA technology
Gene therapy
The Modern Age of Microbiology

Recombinant DNA Technology

Genes in microbes, plants, and


animals manipulated for practical
applications
Production of human blood-clotting
factor by E. coli to aid hemophiliacs

Gene Therapy

Inserting a missing gene or repairing


a defective one in humans by
inserting desired gene into host cells
The Modern Age of Microbiology

What Role Do Microorganisms Play in the


Environment?

Bioremediation uses living bacteria,


fungi, and algae to detoxify polluted
environments

Recycling of chemicals such as


carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur
The Modern Age of Microbiology

How Do We Defend Against Disease?


Serology
The study of blood serum
Von Behring and Kitasato
existence in the blood of
chemicals and cells that fight
infection
Immunology
The study of the bodys defense
against specific pathogens
Chemotherapy
Fleming discovered penicillin
Domagk discovered sulfa drugs
Worldwide Infectious Diseases Affecting Health Sciences

Increasing number of emerging diseases


(SARS, AIDS, hepatitis C, viral encephalitis)

Other diseases previously not linked to


microorganisms now are (gastric ulcers,
certain cancers, multiple sclerosis)
Infectious Diseases

United States Public Health Service


(USPHS) - agency where notifiable
diseases are reported

Centers for Disease Control (CDC)-


collects disease data around the U.S.
and publishes the MMWR (Morbidity
and Mortality Weekly Report)

World Health Organization (WHO)-


medical arm of the U.N., monitors
diseases worldwide.

Worldwide infectious disease statistics


Microbial Taxonomy

Traditional Whittaker 5 Kingdom System


Microbial Taxonomy

Woese-Fox 3 Domain System