Anda di halaman 1dari 45

CHAPTER 4

Source Models

Open
Outline & Learning Objectives
Introduction
Chapter Liquid Discharge
Vapor Discharge
Outline Flashing Liquids
Liquid Pool Evaporation or Boiling

After completing this chapter, students should


be able to do the following:
Understand the requirements for
Instructional consequence modeling procedure
Learning To describe the possible options of how
Objectives materials could be released from any
process due to an accident
To apply suitable source model in order to
estimate the amount of released materials

Open 2
Consequences Analysis Procedure
Loss of containment
Rupture or break in pipeline
Selection of a Release Incident Hole in a tank or pipeline
Runaway reaction
To describe release accident Fire external to vessel
Total quantity released
Selection of a Source Model
Release duration
Release rate Neutrally buoyant models
Results from the models
Selection of a Dispersion Model Downwind concentration
Area affected
Duration

Models Flammable/Toxic
TNT Equivalency
Multi-Energy Explosion Response vs dose
Fireball Probit model
Selection of Fire Selection of Toxic response
Results
& Explosion Model Effect Model No. of individuals affected
Blast overpressure
Radiant heat flux Property damage
Escape
Emergency Response Mitigation Factors
Containment dikes
PPE

Consequence Model

Open 3
Introduction

Spills of materials can lead to disaster


toxic exposure
fire
explosion
Materials are released from holes, cracks in various plant
components
tanks, pipes, pumps
flanges, valves
Source models represent the material release process
provision of useful information for determining the
consequences of an accident
rate of material release
total quantity released

Open 4
Source Models

Several basic source models frequently used;


Flow of liquid through a hole
Flow of liquid through a hole in a tank
Flow of vapour through holes
Flashing liquids
Liquid pool evaporating or boiling

Open 5
Release Mechanisms

Classified into wide and limited aperture releases.

Wide aperture large hole develops and substantial


amount of material released in a short time.
E.g. overpressure and explosion of a storage tank.

Limited aperture material is released at a slow rate


that upstream conditions are not immediately affected.
E.g. Release from cracks, leaks etc

Relief system is designed to prevent over-pressure

Open 6
Release Mechanisms Limited Aperture

Figure 1 Various types of limited aperture releases.


Open 7
Release Mechanisms Influence of
physical state

For gases or vapours stored in a tank,


a leak results in a jet of gas or vapour

Released of vapour
Open 8
Release Mechanisms Influence of
physical state

Stream of liquid flashing partially into vapour (stored under


pressure above boiling point
Stream of escaping liquid

Released of vapour or two phase liquid


Open 9
Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
A mechanical energy balance describes the various energy
forms associated with flowing fluids:
dP u g Ws
z F
r 2a g g m
c c
where
P is the pressure (force/area)
r is the fluid density (mass/volume)
is the avg. instantaneous velocity of the fluid (length/time)
gc is the gravitational constant (length mass/force time)
a is the unitless velocity profile correction factor with the
following values: (0.5 for laminar flow), (1.0 for plug flow),
(>1.0 for turbulent flow)
z is the height above datum (length)
F is the net frictional loss term (length force/mass)
Ws is the shaft work (force length)
m is the mass flow rate (mass/time)
Open 10
Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
Typical simplification on the mechanical energy balance
Incompressible Fluid - Density is constant dP P

No elevation difference (z = 0) r r
No shaft work, Ws = 0
Negligible velocity change (small aperture), u = 0

Liquid escaping through


a hole in a process unit.
Open 11
Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole

Equation for velocity of fluid exiting the leak through a


small hole:
2 g c Pg
u Co
r
Mass flow rate Qm resulting from a hole of area A:

Qm r uA ACo 2 r g c Pg

The total mass of liquid spilled depends on the total


time that the leak is active.

Open 12
Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole

The discharge coefficient Co is a function of the


Reynolds number of the fluid escaping the leak
and the diameter of the hole
As a guideline;
For sharp-edge orifices and Re > 30,000, Co ~ 0.61.
The exit velocity is independent of the hole size.
For well rounded-nozzle, Co = 1
For short pipe attached to vessel with length to
diameter ratio < 3, Co = 0.81.
When Co is unknown, use Co = 1 to maximise the
computed flows.

Open 13
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
Example

At 1 p.m. the plant operator notices a drop in pressure in


a pipeline transporting benzene. The pressure is
immediately restored to 100 psig. At 2.30 p.m. a -inch
diameter leak is found in the pipeline and immediately
repaired. Estimate the total amount of benzene spilled.
The specific gravity of benzene is 0.8794.

Open
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
Example Solution
The drop in pressure observed at 1 p.m. is indicative of a
leak in the pipeline. The leak is assumed to be active
between 1 p.m. and 2.30 p.m., a total of 90 minutes. The
area of the hole is

A
d

3.140.25in 1ft 144in
4 4
3.41 10 4 ft

The density of the benzene is,

r 0.879462.4lb m / ft 3 54.9lb m / ft 3

Open
Flow of Liquid through a Hole
Example Solution
Using the leak mass flow rate equation given (slide 12)
and a discharge coefficient of 0.61 is assumed for this
orifice-type leak, the mass flow rate is
Qm AC o 2 rg c Pg


3.41 10 4 ft 0.61
lb ft lbm lb in
( 2 ) 54.9 m 32.17 100 f 144
ft 3 lb f s in ft
lbm
1.48
s
The total quantity of benzene spilled is

1.48 lb m (90 min)( 60 s min) 7990lb m


s

1090 gallons

Open
Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank

An orifice-type leak in a process vessel. The energy due to the


pressure of the fluid height above the leak is converted to
kinetic energy as the fluid exits through the hole. Some
energy is lost due to frictional fluid flow.
Open 17
Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank

Equation for instantaneous velocity of fluid exiting the


leak :
g c Pg
u Co 2 ghL
r
The instantaneous mass flow rate Qm resulting from a
hole of area A:

g c Pg
Qm ru A rACo 2 ghL
r

Open 18
Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank

The liquid level height in the tank at any time t;


2
Co A 2 g c Pg g Co A
hL h
o
2 ghL t
o
t
r
L
At 2 At

The mass discharge rate at any time t;

g c Pg rgC 2 2
oA
Qm ru A rACo 2 ghL
o
t
r At

Open 19
Liquid Discharge
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank

The time te for the vessel to empty to the level of the


leak is found;

1 At g c Pg o
2 g c Pg
te 2 ghL
Co g A r r

If the vessel is at atmospheric pressure, Pg = 0;

1 At
te 2 ghL
o

Co g A

Open 20
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank
Example
A cylindrical tank 20-feet high and 8-feet in diameter is
used to store benzene. The tank is padded with nitrogen
to a constant, regulated pressure of 1 atm gauge to
prevent explosion. The liquid level within the tank is
presently at 17 feet. A 1-inch puncture occurs in the
tank 5 feet off the ground due to the careless driving of
a fork lift truck. Estimate
a. the gallons of benzene spilled,
b. the time required for the benzene to leak out, and
c. the maximum mass flow rate of benzene through
the leak.
The specific gravity of benzene at there conditions is
0.8794.

Open
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank
Solution

The density of the benzene is


r (0.8794)(62.4l b m ft 3 )
54.9 lb m ft 3
The area of the tank is
d (3.14)(8ft )
At 50.2ft
4 4
The area of the leak is
(3.14)(1in )(1ft 144in )
A 5.45 10 3 ft
4
The gauge pressure is

Pg (1atm)(14.7 lb f in )(144 in ft ) 2.12 103 lb f ft

Open
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank
Solution
a. The volume of benzene above the leak is

V At hLo ( 50.2ft)( 17 ft 5ft )(7.48 gal ft 3 ) 4 ,506gallons


This is the total benzene that will leak out.
b. The length of time for the benzene to leak out is:

1 At g c Pg o 2 g c Pg
te 2 r gh L

Co g A r

1 50.2 ft


( 0.61 )( 32.17 ft s)
5.45 10 3 ft
1
ft.lb m lb f 2
2
32.17 lb .s 2.12 10 ft
3


2 32.17 12ft
f ft

lbm s
54 .9 3

ft

2484 ft 469 s ft ( 7.22 ft s ) 3386s 56.4minutes
s
Open
Flow of Liquid through a Hole in a Tank
Solution
This appears to be more than adequate time to stop the leak
or to invoke an emergency procedure to reduce the impact of
the leak. However, the maximum discharge occurs when the
hole is first opened.

c. The maximum discharge occurs at t = 0 at a liquid level


of 17.0 feet. The mass flow rate is:

g c Pg o
Qm rACo 2 ghL
r
(54.9 lb m ft 3 )(5.45 10 3 ft )(0.61) 3.26 10 3 ft s

Qm 10.4 lb m s

Open
Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole

Gas and vapour discharges are classified into throttling


and free expansion releases.
For throttling releases, the gas issues through a small
crack with large frictional losses; very little of energy
inherent with the gas pressure is converted to kinetic
energy.
For free expansion releases, most of the pressure
energy is converted to kinetic energy; the assumption
of isentropic behaviour is usually valid.
Source models for throttling releases require detailed
information on the physical structure of the leak; they will
not be considered here. Free expansion release source
models require only the diameter of the leak.

Open 25
Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole

A free expansion gas leak. The gas expands isentropically


through the hole. The gas properties (P,T) and velocity change
during the expansion
Open 26
Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole

The mass flow rate is given by the following


expression:
1
2/

2gc M P P
QM C0 AP0



Rg T0 1 P0
P

0

where g is the ratio of the heat capacities

CP CV
The above expression describes the mass flow
rate at any point during the isentropic expansion

Open 27
Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
For safety studies, the maximum flow rate of vapour through
the hole is required
Pressure ratio resulting in the maximum flow through the
hole or pipe is given by the
( 1 )
Pchoked 2

Po 1

Pchoked is the maximum downstream pressure (choked


pressure).
For downstream pressure < Pchoked
Fluid velocity at the throat of the leak is the velocity of
sound at the prevailing conditions
Velocity and mass flow rate are independent of the
downstream conditions.

Open 28
Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole

Gas Pressurized within External Surroundings


Process Unit P < P choked

Po

To
At Throat:
U0=0
P = Pchoked
U = Sonic Velocity

Choked flow of gas through a hole. The gas velocity is


sonic at the throat. The mass flow rate is independent of
the downstream pressure.
Open 29
Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole

Gas Gamma P choked


Monotonic 1.67 0.487 P o
Diatomic and air 1.40 0.528 P o
Triatomic 1.32 0.542 P o

For an air leak to atmosphere (Pchoked = 14.7 psia), if


the upstream pressure is greater than 14.7/0.528 =
27.8 psia, or 13.1 psig, the flow will be choked and
maximised through the leak
Conditions leading to choked flow are common in
the process industries.
Open 30
Vapour Discharge
Flow of Vapour through a Hole

At the choked condition, the flow is maximum:


1
1
gc M 2
QM choked C0 AP0
RgT0 1
For sharp-edged orifices, Re > 30,000 (and not
choked), Co = 0.61.
For choked flows, Co increases as the downstream
pressure decreases. For these flows and for situations
where Co is uncertain, a conservative value of 1.0 is
recommended.
Values for the heat capacity ratio for a variety of
gases are provided in Table 4-3.

Open 31
Open 32
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
Example

A 0.1 inch hole forms in a tank containing

nitrogen at 200 psig and 80F. Determine the

mass flow rate through this leak.

Open
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
Solution
For the diatomic gas nitrogen, g = 1.4. Thus,
Pchoked 0.528200 14.7 psia 113.4 psia
An external pressure less than 113.4 psia will result in
choked flow through the leak. Since the external pressure
is atmospheric in this case, choked flow is expected and
Equation 40 applies. The area of the hole is


3.140.1in 1ft 2 144in 2 5.45 10
2
d 2
5
A ft 2
4 4
The discharge coefficient, Co, is assumed to be 1.0. Also,
Po 200 14.7 214.7psia
T0 80 460 540 o R
1 1
2
2.4 0.4
2

1 0.833 0.335
6.00

2.4
Open
Flow of Vapour through a Hole
Solution

Then, using the maximum flow rate equation:

1 1
g c M 2
Qm choked Co APo
R g To 1


1.0 5.45 10 5 ft 214.7 lb f in 144 in ft
1.4 32.17 ft.lbm lb f .s 28 lbm lb.mole
0.335

1545 ft.lb f
o
lb.mole R 540 R o

1.685lb f 5.064 10 4 lbm
2
lb 2
f .s 2

Qm choked 3.79 10 2 lbm s

Open
Flashing Liquid

Liquids stored under pressure above their normal


boiling point temperature present substantial problems
because of flashing.
If leak, the liquid will partially flash into vapor,
sometimes explosively.
Flashing occurs so rapidly that the process is assumed to
be adiabatic.
The fraction of the liquid vaporized is;

mv C p (T0 Tb )
fv
m H v

Open 36
Flashing Liquid

The fraction of the liquid vaporized can also be


determined using mean heat capacity and mean latent
heat of vaporization over the temperature range To to Tb;

mv C p (T0 Tb )
fv 1 exp
m H v

The fraction of the vaporized water can be obtained from


Steam Table;

H final H liquid f v H vapor H liquid

Open 37
Flashing Liquid

Two-phase flow conditions may be present for flashing


liquids escaping through holes and pipes.
If the fluid path length of the release is short (through a
hole in a thin wall container), non-equilibrium conditions
exist, and the liquid does not have time to flash within the
hole; the fluid flashes external to the hole. The fluid (liquid)
flow through hole applies;

Qm r uA ACo 2 r gc Pg

Open 38
Flashing Liquid

If the fluid path length through the release is greater


than 10 cm (through a pipe or thick-walled
container), equilibrium flashing conditions are
achieved and the flow is choked. A good
approximation is to assume a choked pressure equal
to the saturation vapor pressure of the flashing
liquid. This condition valid for liquids stored at a
pressure higher than the saturation vapor pressure
(P > P sat). The following equations apply;


Qm ACo 2 r f g c P P sat

Open 39
Flashing Liquid

For liquids stored at their saturation pressure P = P sat, the


mass flow rate is determined by;

H v A g c
Qm
v fg TC p

Open 40
Liquid Pool Evaporating or Boiling

Liquids with high Psat evaporate faster; the evaporation


rate (Qm) is a function of Psat.

A generalized expression for the vaporization rate;

Qm

MKA P sat P
Rg TL

For many situations, Psat >> P such as for an open vessel


or from a spill of liquid;
MKAP sat
Qm
Rg TL

Open 41
Liquid Pool Evaporating or Boiling
The concentration (in ppm) of a volatile in an enclosure
resulting from evaporation of a liquid;
KATP sat
C ppm 106
kQv PTL
For most situations T = TL;
KAPsat
C ppm 106
kQv P
The gas mass transfer coefficient is estimated using;
1/ 3
Mo
K Ko
M
Ko = 0.83 cm/s for water
Open 42
Liquid Pool Evaporating or Boiling
The rate of boiling is determined by assuming that all the heat
from the surroundings is used to boil the liquid in the pool ;
qg A
Qm
H v
The heat transfer from the surroundings can be from the
followings ;
From the ground by conduction
From the air by conduction and convection
By radiation from the sun/adjacent sources such as fire
The heat transfer from the ground is given by;
k s Tg T
qg
ast 1/ 2

Open 43
Conclusion

Source models represent the material release process -


information for determining the consequences of an
accident

The purpose of the source model is to determine:


The form of material released, solid, liquid or vapour;
The total quantity of material released; and
The rate at which it is released.
These information is required for any quantitative
dispersion model study.

Two types of release mechanisms: wide aperture release


& limited aperture release influence the nature of
release of materials.
Open 44
Open 45