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Review: Cognitive Assessments II

Ambiguity (extrinsic/intrinsic)

Item difficulty/discrimination relationship

Questionnaires assess opinions/attitudes

Open-/Close-ended item construction +/-

Factors affecting response rate

Psychomotor Assessments

HPHE 3150
Dr. Ayers

Process Testing
ch. 11
Guidelines for Sport Skills Testing and
Motor Performance Tests

acceptable reliability and validity

simple to administer and take

easy to understand instructions

inexpensive & do not require extensive equipment

reasonable time for preparation and administration

involve only one participant
teacher must assess EACH student individually

encourage correct form

suitable difficulty

interesting and meaningful

exclude extraneous variables

provide for accurate scoring

provide target scoring guidelines (if accuracy

sufficient trials

yield diagnostic scores

Effective Testing Procedures

Pretest Duties
time, forms, procedures, instructions

Testing Duties
location, materials, cheating, safety, absences,

Posttest Duties
transcription, item analysis (practical value;
construct validation), reporting, confidentiality
Developing Psychomotor Tests
Wilsons (1993) modified 10-step flowchart (p. 284-6)
Review criteria for a good test
Analyze sport/activity to select critical elements to test
Review the literature
Select/Construct test items
Determine the exact testing procedures
Peer Review
Pilot Test
Look at reliability, validity, objectivity
Establish norms or standards
Construct test manual to fully describe test
Reevaluate the instrument occasionally
Issues in Skills Testing
In addition to reliability and validity
(the most important issues)


Testing method
Objective skills tests?
Alternative/authentic assessment? See chapter 14
Skills Test Classification

Accuracy-based (targets)

Repetitive Performance (wall-volley; process matters)

Total Body Movement (focus; game-like or product-


Distance or Power (focus; game-like or product-based?)


Teach force/speed
BEFORE accuracy
Subjective Rating Scales
Relative Which of these is
Rank-order value? +/-
like norm-referenced
Evaluation against a fixed standard
Using critical elements helps

Common Errors
Halo Effect (bias for/against performer)
"Standard" Error (judges employ different perspectives)
Central-tendency (hesitancy to assign extreme values)
Rating Scales Suggestions
Develop well-constructed scales

Train raters well

Explain common rating errors to raters

Permit ample time to observe performance

If possible, use multiple raters

Developing Well-Constructed Scales

State objectives in terms of observable behavior

Select traits that determine success

Define selected traits in observable behavior

Select and develop the rating instrument

Define degrees of success

Test and revise the rating scale

Use the scale in an actual testing situation

Ability or Skill?
general, innate psychomotor trait (overarm throw)

specific, learned psychomotor capacity (vb spike)

determined with concurrent validity (sport-specific)
Measurement Aspects of the Domain
of Human Performance

Muscular Strength
Anaerobic Power
Tell a friend one
Kinesthetic perception
specific example
of two different
ability measures
Purposes of Human Performance
Testing and Analysis



Tell another friend one
specific example
of how to use testing to
do one of these
Effective testing consists of . . .

Including sport relevant variables

Selecting reliable and valid tests
Developing sport specific protocols
Controlling test administration
Maintaining individuals rights to privacy
Repeating the tests periodically
Interpreting the results for the performer and interested
parties (e.g., coaches, parents, etc.)
With a partner:
Find 1 skill test and 1 ability psychomotor test that
you think will be useful to you professionally and
bring a copy to our next class

Description, equipment, procedures, recording form,

standards (if applicable)

We will select a few of these to conduct in

lab on Friday, so choose carefully!

Explain why one thing you learned today

will matter to you as a professional