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ASUHAN KEPERAWATAN

KLIEN DENGAN
PERILAKU KEKERASAN di
KELUARGA & KOMUNITAS

Rr Dian Tristiana
diantristiana@fkp.unair.ac.id
anne_rristy@yahoo.com

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


Marah merupakan perasaan jengkel yang
timbul sebagai respon terhadap
kecemasan atau kebutuhan yang tidak
terpenuhi yang dirasakan sebagai
ancaman (Stuart dan Sundeen, 1995)

Perasaan marah adalah


normal untuk setiap individu

manifestasi dapat berfluktuasi

rentang adaptif dan maladaptif.

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RENTANG RESPON MARAH

Respon Adaptif Respon Maladaptif

Asertif Frustrasi Pasif Agresif Kekerasan

Dalam setiap orang terdapat kapasitas untuk


berperilaku pasif, asertif, dan agresi/perilaku
kekerasan (Stuart dan Laraia,1998)

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DEFINISI PERILAKU KEKERASAN

the intentional use of


Perilaku dg tujuan melukai physical force or power,
secara fisik & psikologis threatened or actual,
against oneself, another
Verbal Non verbal person, or against a group
or community, which
Diri sendiri either results in or has a
Orang lain high likelihood of
Lingkungan resulting in injury, death,
psychological harm,
maldevelopment, or
AMUK deprivation (WHO)
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Keperawatan Primer
Kesehatan Jiwa Sekunder
Tersier
Individu
Sehat
Keluarga

Kelompok Risiko/Rentan

Komunitas Sakit/Pemulihan

Keluarga: Suami-Istri, anak (KDRT, Kekerasan pd anak, lansia, dll)


Kelompok : Anak, Remaja, Lansia, Dewasa (Wanita) (bullying,
penelantaran, trafficking, narapidana (LP), dll)
Komunitas : desa, wilayah (tawuran, perang, bencana, dll)

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DEFINISI PK DI KELUARGA DAN
KOMUNITAS
Perilaku kekerasan di keluarga dan
komunitas merupakan suatu tindak
kekerasan dalam lingkup keluarga,
kelompok dan komunitas.

Family
Children: Youth: Women
Child Substance
Abuse abuse,
bullying

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


KLASIFIKASI PERILAKU KEKERASAN
Physical abuse
Direct dan Indirect Psychological abuse
Exploitation
Physical neglect
Psychological neglect
Self neglect
Violation of Rights

self-directed violence (self abuse, suicide attempt=self mutilation)


interpersonal violence (Family and intimate partner violence)
collective violence (structural &economic violence: teroris, kelompok terorganisasi )

physical
sexual
Selain itu
1
Laten psychological
2
Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga
Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga
KDRT (Kekerasan Dalam Rumah Tangga)

kekerasan yang terjadi dalam lingkungan rumah tangga


(abuse of power perpetrated mainly (but not only) by men
against women in a relationship or after separation. It
occurs when one partner attempts to physically and/or
psychologically dominate and control the other.

Dasar Hukum
UU NO. 23 TAHUN 2004
TENTANG
PENGHAPUSAN KEKERASAN DALAM RUMAH TANGGA

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


BENTUK KDRT
Secara fisik: menampar, memukul, menjambak rambut,
menendang, menyundut dengan rokok, melukai dengan
senjata, dsb
Secara psikologis; penghinaan, komentar-komentar
yang merendahkan, kecemburuan, rasa marah,
intimidasi, mengancam, isolasi, verbal abuse. dll.
Secara seksual; kekerasan dalam bentuk pemaksaan dan
penuntutan hubungan seksual.
Secara ekonomi; tidak memberi nafkah istri, melarang istri
bekerja atau membiarkan istri bekerja untuk dieksploitasi,
kontrol keuangan
Secara Sosial; Melarang bertemu teman atau keluarga,
Melarang keluar rumah, dibuntuti...

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PENYEBAB KDRT/ALASAN KEKERASAN
Financial pressure on the
family causing stress

Drug & alcohol abuse by one or


more family members
Typical and Acceptable
male behaviour
Abuse within extended families,
generational abuse
Culturally acceptable
behaviour

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


Yg harus dilakukan korban

Mempersiapkan perlindungan diri,


seperti uang, tabungan, surat-surat
penting untuk kebutuhan pribadi
dan anak

Korban Sebaiknya Menceritakan kejadian kepada orang lain,


seperti teman dekat, kerabat, lembaga-
lembaga pelayanan/konsultasi
Melaporkan ke polisi
Mencari jalan keluar dengan konsultasi
psikologis maupun konsultasi hukum
Pergi ke dokter untuk
mengobati luka-luka yang
dialami, dan meminta dokter
membuat visum.

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


PRINSIP PEDOMAN DALAM MENOLONG
KORBAN KDRT
Prioritaskan Keamanan korban dan anaknya
Hargai integritas dan hak setiap korban perempuan
tentang pilihan hidupnya sendiri
Yakinkan bahwa pelaku bertanggung jawab pada
kekerasan dan harus menghentikannya
Advokasi pada kepentingan korban KDRT dan anak-
anaknya
Acknowledging the need to make changes in
the health care system to improve the health
care response to domestic violence
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PRESENTATION OF DOMESTIC VIOLENCE VICTIMS
IN THE HEALTH CARE SETTING

- Dapat dilihat, multiple sites; tidak bisa dijelaskan;


Injuries berbagai tahap penyembuhan
- Luka memar, keseleo, laserasi minor hingga fraktur

Penggambaran Nyeri (persisten dengan atau tanpa luka);


Gangguan tidur, nafsu makan menurun, dll
secara Medis
miscarriages and spontaneous or multiple
Obstetrical or abortions, injuries, unexplained pain, depression,
Gynecologic anxiety disorders, suicide attempts and substance
Manifestations abuse during pregnancy

Psychiatric depression, anxiety and panic


Presentations disorders, eating disorders,
somatoform disorders and alcoholism

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


THE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS RESPONSE TO
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

Preparing to Ask About Abuse


Routinely inquiring about abuse
Assessing safety
Documenting the abuse
Discussing options and resources
Providing advocacy and referral
Treating medical and mental health
problems
Providing for follow-up care

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


THE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS RESPONSE TO
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Contd
Questions to Keep in Mind
Is this patient currently being abused? Has she been abused in
the past? Is she still at risk?
Who is the perpetrator? What kind of access does the
perpetrator have to the patient/victim?

How has the abuse affected the patients health?


Is it safe for her to go home? How much danger is she in? If she
stays? If she leaves? Is she suicidal, homicidal or otherwise in
danger? Is her partner?
Are there warning signs that allow her to anticipate
impending danger? Does she have a safety plan? Can you
or someone else help her develop one?

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


THE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS RESPONSE TO
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Contd
Questions to Keep in Mind Contd..
What does she need? Information, support, shelter, counseling,
support group, legal advocacy, mental health services, access to other
resources? Can she manage this herself, or does she need more help
with the initial steps?
What resources are available in your community that could
help her deal with the abuse: shelter, safe homes, counseling,
support groups, legal advocacy? Are they sensitive to cultural
issues, to mental health problems, substance abuse, to gay
and lesbian issues? Are they accessible and multilingual?

How is she feeling about the fact that


youdoare
How yourasking?
own feelings and responses affect your ability
to provide appropriate care?

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


THE HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS RESPONSE TO
DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Contd
Initial Concerns for Battered Women
SAFETY AND PRIVACY (environment, other person,
safety staff)
WOMEN WITH DISABILITIES (personal care attendant)

LANGUAGE BARRIERS
CONFIDENTIALITY (confines with law,
no access w/ permitt)
RESPECT AND EMPOWERMENT

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IDENTIFICATION OF ABUSE

Routine Screening How To Ask?


a. Questionnaire
b. Direct question DIRECT QUESTIONS
Did someone hit you? Who was it? Was it
your partner/husband?
Has your partner or ex-partner ever hit you
Framing Quest (Jebakan) or physically hurt you? Has he ever
Ex. Because so many women I threatened to hurt you or someone close
see in my practice are to you?
involved with so who hits
them, threatens them,
continually puts them down,
INDIRECT QUESTIONS
or tries to control them, I now You seem to be concerned about your
ask all my patients about partner. Can you tell me more about
abuse. that? Does he ever act in ways that
frighten you?

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ASSESSMENT

Is the victims Does she want you Does she need to


partner here now to call security or call someone to
or likely to return? the police? pick up her
children?
Addressing
What would she like you Does she have an order of
to do if her partner tries Immediate protection? If so, does she
to get her to leave the
health care setting?
Safety want the abuser arrested
if he shows up?
Needs
Does she need to be home by a
Does she want certain time in order to avoid
to leave with Does she further abuse? If so, try to
her partner? want to expedite the evaluation, but at a
minimum make sure she receives
keep referral numbers for domestic
violence advocacy resources.
hidden and
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ASSESSMENT Contd.

Chief Complaint/ History of Present Illness


ask in detail about what happened. Ask specifically when
this abusive episode started, who inflicted the injuries, and
whether there have been prior incidents. Ask the patient
to describe both current and prior patterns of abuse. Ask
if the abuse is increasing in frequency or severity, if there
is a history of alcohol or drug use, and if weapons are
involved. Elicit the relationship between physical and/or
psychological symptoms and the abuse.

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


ASSESSMENT Contd.

Physical Examination and Preservation of


Evidence
explained in detail
Expressing compassion, maintaining eye contact
Perform a thorough physical exam including neurologic
exam and mental status exam if indicated.
Carefully evaluate and describe injuries. Include in your
description the type of injuries, the number, size, location using a
body map
Record non-bodily evidence of torn clothing and broken
jewelry

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


ASSESSMENT Contd.

Expanded Primary Care Assessment


history of prior abuse with the patients current
partner or history of past abuse as a child. Questions
to ask her include: How has the abuse affected her?
Her children? What does she do to cope with the
abuse? How does she protect herself and her
children? How does she see herself and her situation?
What would she like to happen? What has she tried?
Where is she in the process of trying to change her
life?

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


ASSESSMENT Contd.

Safety and Lethality Assessment


Violence, threats (victims or children), weapons,
how danger?

Suicide and Homicide Assessment


attempted suicide in the past? Have you ever thought
about killing yourself?

Mental Heath Assessment


Severe depression, panic disorder, psychosis,
suicidality or substance abuse

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INTERVENTION

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INTERVENTION Contd..

Providing Information About Domestic Violence


Safety Planning
-leaving or staying somewhere else temporarily
-addressing recurring violence if she returns to the abuser
-addressing recurring violence if the abuser is removed
Contacting the Police

Child Abuse Reports

Referral (Penyerahan)

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Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga
KEKERASAN SEKSUAL

pelecehan seksual eksploitasi seksual


Perkosaan penyiksaan seksual
perbudakan
prostitusi paksa
intimidasi/serangan bernuansa
seksual
pemaksaan kehamilan
seksual termasuk ancaman atau
percobaan perkosaan
pemaksaan aborsi pemaksaan perkawinan
perdagangan praktik tradisi
perempuan penghukuman tidak bernuansa seksual yang
untuk tujuan membahayakan atau
seksual manusiawi dan mendiskriminasi
bernuansa seksual perempuan
kontrol seksual termasuk pemaksaan busana
dan kriminalisasi perempuan lewat aturan
diskriminatif beralasan moralitas dan agama
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KEKERASAN SEKSUAL
Women and girls are the vast majority of victims
Men and boys, however, are also at risk
Siapa Women of all races are targeted, but some
yang are more vulnerable than others
berresiko Most victims know their perpetrators
Repeat victimization is common
The majority of perpetrators are male
Young people are especially at risk
Teens and young adults LGBT community People who
are homeless
People with disabilities
Undocumented immigrants
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The Impacts of Rape and Sexual Assault
Physical Health Non-genital physical injury Genital trauma
Sexually transmitted infections Pregnancy
General Health Risk

Mental Health Psychological symptoms perceived as physical


Sexual dysfunction Substance abuse

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


WHAT SHOULD WE DO
- Support the survivor Listen and believe
- Serve as a liaison between survivors
survivor and systems Be Assist survivors in
graciously assertive regaining control over
- Facilitate survivors decision- their life
making Present options
- Inform survivor of their rights Keep confidentiality
- Prepare survivors by providing Respect and understand
necessary information cultural differences
- Inform of other services
available

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


WHAT SHOULD WE DO
Empowerment Confidentiality

Crisis Deal quickly with an immediate problem:


Intervention emotional first-aid
Supporting survivor however she needs support
Normalizing reactions to trauma
Prioritizing and addressing victims concerns
Supporting significant others
Providing crisis education, referrals and follow-
up contact

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WHAT SHOULD WE DO

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WHAT SHOULD WE DO

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WHAT SHOULD THE VICTIM DO

1 Dorong korban agar tidak menyalahkan diri sendiri terhadap


perkosaan yang dialami
2 Jangan langsung membersihkan anggota badan atau mandi

Kumpulkan benda-benda yang bisa dijadikan bukti, pakaian


yang dikenakan pada saat kejadian, atau benda-benda pelaku
3 yang mungkin tertinggal. Ingat jangan menyentuh alat-alat
bukti dengan tangan. Gunakan plastik atau benda lain yang
tidak menghilangkan sidik jari pelaku.
Segera melapor ke pihak berwajib terdekat. Secara resmi setiap
4 korban perkosaan harus melapor ke polisi. Polisi akan
memberikan Surat Permintaan Visum et Repertum atau surat
dari polisi yang meminta dokter memeriksa tubuh korban

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WHAT SHOULD THE VICTIM DOCont
Jika korban memilih langsung ke layanan
kesehatan, maka pihak kepolisian bisa 5
didatangkan ke layanan kesehatan tersebut atau

Segera ke lembaga layanan terdekat. Perlu diketahui


6 sperma akan berada dalam vagina 4-5 jam. Namun masih
bisa ditemukan disekitar antara 24-36 jam.
Cari dukungan baik teman, orang terdekat, pendamping,
7 atau lembaga pengadalayanan yang dipercaya. Ceritakan
apa yang telah terjadi. Ini penting jika sewaktu-waktu
korban mengalami sakit, trauma dan sebagainya. Orang
yang diajak bisa membantu dalam proses peradilan.

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


KEKERASAN OLEH REMAJA
violent crime (homicide, etc.); Suicide; Fighting; Bullying; sexual
Jenis harassment; child/adolescent abuse; date/relationship violence; gang-
related violence
Belief that violence is an acceptable problem solving method or reaction ;
Cause Learned violence from family, community and media models; Poor
impulse control; History of abuse or trauma Youth at-risk characteristics ;
Risky Behavior

Nurse
History of violent and aggressive behavior Poor impulse control Poor
Asses anger management and problem solving skills History of other risky or
s inappropriate behaviors Prior history of abuse, neglect or trauma; Family
or community violence that results in the belief that violence is acceptable
Aggression Replacement Training Anger Management & Anger
Interve Management Skills Training Cognitive Mediation Training Cognitive-
ntion Behavioral Skills Training Moral Reasoning Development Program
Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT)

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kakak kelas menghukum Adik kelas ?
Hukuman push up, lari Menghina, membentak,
lapangan dll merendahkan dll
Dlm masa MOS
Tidak Dlm masa MOS

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


BOLEHKAH?
Surat Edaran Direktorat Jenderal Manajemen Pendidikan
Dasar dan Menengah Nomor 220/C/MN/2008 tentang
MOS/OSPEK
Kegiatan MOS (SE Dirjen Kemendiknas 2008).

kegiatan MOS diisi dengan kegiatan yang bersifat


edukatif dan bukan mengarah pada tindakan yang
destruktif atau kegiatan lain yang merugikan siswa Surat Direktorat Jenderal
baru baik secara fisik maupun psikologis. Manajemen Pendidikan
Dasar dan Menengah Nomor
1383/C.C4/MN/2010
MELAPORKAN KE GURU/INSTITUSI tentang Pelaksanaan MOS
PENDIDIKAN

kegiatan MOS berjalan sesuai dengan yang diharapkan dan


tidak terjadi bias, seperti adanya bullying, perpeloncoan,
pemalakan, dan hal-hal negatif lainnya; maka seluruh
kegiatan MOS dilaksanakan, dibimbing, dan diawasi guru

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


BOLEHKAH?
Pasal 315 Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Pidana (KUHP) BUKAN
Tiap-tiap penghinaan dengan sengaja yang tidak MOS/OSPEK
bersifat pencemaran atau pencemaran tertulis yang
dilakukan terhadap seseorang, baik di muka umum
dengan lisan atau tulisan, maupun di muka orang itu Pasal 310 KUHP & Pasal 311
sendiri dengan lisan atau perbuatan, atau dengan KUHP
surat yang dikirimkan atau diterimakan kepadanya,
diancam karena penghinaan ringan dengan pidana
penjara paling lama empat bulan dua minggu atau ketentuan pidana
pidana denda paling banyak empat ribu lima ratus
rupiah. dan perdata

Penghinaan yang dilakukan dengan jalan selain menuduh suatu perbuatan,


misalnya dengan mengatakan a**ing, b*j***an dan sebagainya,
dikategorikan sebagai penghinaan ringan

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BOLEHKAH?
Pasal 1372 Kitab Undang-Undang Hukum Perdata (KUH
Perdata),
Tuntutan perdata tentang hal penghinaan adalah bertujuan mendapat
penggantian kerugian serta pemulihan kehormatan dan nama baik. (bukti
adanya putusan yang berkuatan hukum tetap)

Pasal 76C Undang-Undang Nomor 35 tahun 2014 tentang


Hukuman
Perubahan Atas Undang-Undang Nomor 23 Tahun 2002
Fisik tentang Perlindungan Anak (UU 35/2014)

bahwa setiap Orang dilarang menempatkan, membiarkan, melakukan,


menyuruh melakukan, atau turut serta melakukan Kekerasan terhadap Anak.
Bagi yang melanggarnya akan dipidana dengan pidana penjara paling lama 3
(tiga) tahun 6 (enam) bulan dan/atau denda paling banyak Rp72.000.000,00
(tujuh puluh dua juta rupiah)

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


BOLEHKAH?
SELAIN ITU
Pasal 1367 ayat (1) KUH
Perdata

seseorang tidak hanya bertanggung jawab, atas


kerugian yang disebabkan perbuatannya sendiri,
melainkan juga atas kerugian yang disebabkan
perbuatan-perbuatan orang-orang yang menjadi
tanggungannya atau disebabkan barang-barang
yang berada di bawah pengawasannya.

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


DEFINISI BULLYING
Bullying adalah saat seseorang atau sekelompok orang
secara berulang-ulang menggunakan perkataan atau
perbuatan yang disengaja untuk menyebabkan gangguan
fisik atau psikologis pada orang lain

Types of bullying a repeated pattern, the misuse


Physical
of power within relationships,
Verbal and behaviour which causes
Social harm (repeated, deliberate,
(Relational) power imbalanced)
Cyberbullying
Covert bullying, online bullying
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BULLYING

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BULLYING

The Roles in bullying Bullies bystander


victims

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BULLYING: Identification &
Intervention
BESIDES HURTING OTHERS, BULLIES DAMAGE THEMSELVES.
BULLIES
As they mature into adulthood, children who have bullied often show higher rates of:
Aggression Difficulty controlling their emotions
Antisocial behavior Traffic violations
Carrying weapons to school Convictions for drunk driving
Dropping out of high school Depression
Convictions for crime Suicide

Questionnaire
Consequences (short term) & education
Family Approaches pola asuh, pro social activity, psychology therapy
Reporting the incident to institusion
Follow up

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BULLYING: Identification &
Intervention
VICTIMS OF BULLYING INCLUDE GIRLS AND BOYS OF ALL AGES,
VICTIMS SIZES, AND BACKGROUNDS
Victims tend to share these characteristics and tendencies:
Low self-confidence Feelings of helplessness
Anxiety Self-blame for problems
Fearfulness Social withdrawal and isolation
Submissiveness Poor social skills
Depression or sad appearance Low popularity
Limited sense of humor Few or no friends
Below-average size, strength, or coordination Excessive dependence on adults

Headaches Skin problems Suicide


Abdominal pain Sleep problems School
Bed-wetting Crying Shooters
Depression

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BULLYING: Identification &
Intervention
VICTIMS
Ajari Korban untuk
fighting back
bullying the person who has
bullied them
remaining silent about the
problem.

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BULLYING: Identification &
Intervention
BULLYING SITUATIONS USUALLY INVOLVE MORE THAN THE BULLY
Bystander AND THE VICTIM. THEY ALSO INVOLVE BYSTANDERSTHOSE
WHO WATCH BULLYING HAPPEN OR HEAR ABOUT IT.

Hurtful Bystanders
Some bystanders instigate the bullying by prodding the bully to begin.
Other bystanders encourage the bullying by laughing, cheering, or making
comments that further stimulate the bully.
And other bystanders join in the bullying once it has begun.
Most bystanders passively accept bullying by watching and doing nothing. Often
without realizing it, these bystanders also contribute to the problem. Passive
bystanders provide the audience a bully craves and the silent acceptance that
allows bullies to continue their hurtful behavior.

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


BULLYING: Identification &
Intervention
Bystander

Helpful Bystanders
Bystanders also have the power to play a key role in preventing
or stopping bullying.
Some bystanders directly intervene, by discouraging the bully,
defending the victim, or redirecting the situation away from
bullying.
Other bystanders get help, by rallying support from peers to
stand up against bullying or by reporting the bullying to adults.

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


BULLYING: Identification &
Intervention
Bystander

refuse to join in
not watch
tell the person doing the bullying to stop
tell the person doing the bullying that you will talk to a teacher
say something supportive to the person who is being bullied or
invite them to join your group
say to the person being bullied that the other persons
behaviour is not okay.

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INTERVENSI BAGI PELAYAN KESEHATAN
proactive in engaging youth in discussions about solutions to
Advocacy bullying
and Policy Oversee implementation of anti-bullying policies and
practices
making Take political action to increase resources for prevention and
ensure the sustained funding of effective bullying intervention
and prevention programs.
Routinely monitor for and intervene quickly when risk factors are evident
Early Detection for children who bully and those who are bullied; ask screening questions
and Effective during wellness exams and patient visits.
Convene multidisciplinary, community-based coalitions to improve
Intervention coordination in the assessment, intake, and referral of children for
treatment, counseling, and other community services
Assist parents and caregivers in responding to signs of bullying and in
accessing a network of support and resources with attention given to at-
risk youth

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


INTERVENSI BAGI PELAYAN KESEHATAN
Consistently apply discipline codes that are more therapeutic
Community- than punitive
Wide Make schools, after-school, and youth services programs safe
zones where children will be assured of adequate adult
Prevention supervision.
Efforts Support the development of safe school policies and plans that
specifically address bullying behaviors and bias-motivated
harassment or prejudices.
Partner with schools to implement comprehensive bullying
prevention programs
Assist in evaluating the impact of interventions locally and
advocate for quality research nationally.
Promote training and continuing education in bullying
prevention strategies in health safety and medical fields and as
part of clinical supervision and guidance in teaching programs.

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


Pathways to prevention

Violence is a significant public health, human


rights and human development problem 1

General understanding that we should


2 halt violence

The complexity of human


conflicts- approach must take into
3 consideration context

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When Violence breaks out
Steps to stop violence
Govern
ments
Stop cycle of violence

Ensure basic needs Internati


onal
Civil Prevent organizati
are met society Violence ons &
Multinati
onals
Address symbolic
needs (religion etc)
Local
organizations
Plan Long term and
communities

conflict resolutions

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Long term strategies
WHO recommends strategies that
address underlying causes
low levels of education
harsh and inconsistent parenting

concentrated poverty
unemployment
social norms supportive of violence.

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Prevent violence: WHO strategies
complete schooling and pursue courses of higher education and
vocationa training.
Schools & Address gender norms and attitudes, improving school settings,
communities including, school policies and security.

Parental involvement through home-school partnerships;


Families Attachments between high risk youth and caring adults

Controling access to lethal means


promoting gender equality and economic
Societies empowerment of women

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


The role of Mental Health workers
Untreated MH disorders are risk factors to
perpetuation of violence
A lot of distress to individual family and
intergenerational -negative child outcomes

Reduce human functioning and


productivity- inc poverty

Risk factors for communicable and


non-communicable diseases
Increases vulnerability
to re-victimization
Risk factor to becoming Perpetrators

Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga


Any
Question?

Terima Kasih
Nursing Faculty of Universitas Airlangga