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Teknologi Manufaktur

NTME 619, 3 SKS


What is manufacture ?
The vast majority of objects around us consist of
numerous individual pieces that are built and
assembled by a combination of processes called
manufacturing (Kalpakjian, 2009)
Important term
Design for manufacture (DPM) is a comprehensive
approach to integrating the design process with
production methods, materials, process planning,
assembly, testing, and quality assurance.
Assembly is an important phase of manufacturing and
requires a consideration of the ease, speed, and cost
of putting together the numerous individual
components of a product
Disassembly of a product is an equally important
consideration, for maintenance, servicing and
recycling of individual components.
Service. Products often have to be disassembled to
varying degrees in order to service and, if necessary,
repair them. The design should take into account the
concept that, for ease of access, components that are
most likely to be in need of servicing be placed, as
much as possible.
Environmental Issue Related
with Manf. Waste
Chips from machining and trimmed materials from sheet
forming, casting, and
molding operations.
Slag from foundries and welding operations.
Additives in sand used in sand-casting operations.
Hazardous waste and toxic materials used in various
products.
Lubricants and coolants in metalworking and machining
operations.
Liquids from processes such as heat treating and plating.
Solvents from cleaning operations.
Smoke and pollutants from furnaces and gases from
burning fossil fuels.
Recycle
Biological
Industrial
Green Design Manufacturing
1. Reduce waste of materials, by refining product
design, reducing the amount of materials used in
products, and selecting manufacturing processes
that minimize Scrap (such as forming instead of
machining).
2. Reduce the use of hazardous materials in products
and processes.
3. Investigate manufacturing technologies that produce
environmentally friendly and safe products and by-
products.
4. Make improvements in methods of recycling
5. Minimize energy use.
6. Encourage recycling by using materials that are a
part of either industrial or biological cycling, but not
both in the same product assembly. Ensure proper
handling of other waste.
Selection in materials
Ferrous metals: Carbon, alloy, stainless, and tool and die
steels
Nonferrous metals: Aluminum, magnesium, copper, nickel,
titanium, superalloys,
Refractory metals, beryllium, zirconium, low-melting-point
alloys, and precious metals
Plastics (polymers): Thermoplastics, thermosets, and
elastomers Ceramics, glasses, glass ceramics, graphite,
diamond, and diamond-like materials
Composite materials: Reinforced plastics and metal-matrix
and ceramic-matrix composites
Nanomaterials
Shape-memory alloys, amorphous alloys, semiconductors,
and superconductors
Consideration of material
selection
1. Properties of materials.
2. Availability
3. Service life
4. Material substitution in products
Selection of Manufacturing Processes
Machining
Casting
Forming - Bulk
Forming - Sheet
Polymer Processing
Joining
General Trends of Manufacturing
Global trends
Product variety and complexity continue to
increase.
Product life cycles are becoming shorter.
Markets have become multinational and global
competition has been increasing rapidly.
Market conditions fluctuate widely.
Customers are consistently demanding high-
quality, low-cost products and ontime
delivery.
Materials
Material composition, purity, and defects (impurities, inclusions, and
flaws) are coming under more control in order to further enhance overall
properties, manufacturing characteristics, reliability, and service life.
Developments have occurred in the selection of materials for improved
recyclability.
Developments continue in nanomaterials, nanopowders, composites,
superconductors, semiconductors, amorphous alloys, shape-memory
alloys (smart materials), tool and die materials, and coatings.
Testing methods and equipment, including the use of advanced
computers and software, particularly for ceramics, carbides, and
composite materials, are continually being improved.
Increasing control over the thermal treatment of materials is resulting in
more predictable and reliable properties.
Weight savings are being achieved with the use of materials with higher
strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratios, particularly in the
automotive and aerospace industries.
Manufacturing Operation

Improvements are being made in predictive models of the


effects of materialprocessing parameters on product
integrity, applied during a products design stage.
Developments continue in ultraprecision manufacturing,
micromanufacturing, and nanomanufacturing, approaching
the level of atomic dimensions.
Computer simulation, modeling, and control strategies are
being applied to all areas of manufacturing.
Rapid-prototyping technologies are increasingly being
applied to the production of tooling and direct digital
manufacturing.
Optimization of manufacturing processes and production
systems are making them more agile.
Manufacturing System
Advances in computer software and hardware
are being applied to all aspects of production.
Developments have occurred in control
systems, industrial robots, automated
inspection, handling and assembly, and sensor
technology.
Lean production and information technology
are being implemented as tools to help meet
major global challenges.
Goals in Manufacturing
View manufacturing activities not as individual, separate tasks, but as
making up a large system, with all its parts interrelated.
Meet all design requirements, product specifications, and relevant
national and international standards for products.
Build quality into the product at each stage of its production.
Implement the most economical and environmentally friendly (green)
manufacturing methods.
Continually evaluate advances in materials, production methods, and
computer integration, with a view toward realizing their appropriate,
timely, and economical implementation.
Adopt production methods that are sufficiently flexible in order to rapidly
respond to changing global market demands and provide on-time delivery
to the customer.
Continue efforts aimed at achieving higher lez/els of productivity and
eliminating or minimizing waste with optimum use of an organizations
resources.
Cooperate with customers for timely feedback for continuous
improvement of a companys products.