Anda di halaman 1dari 26

Seventh Edition

CHAPTER MECHANICS OF
MATERIALS
6 Ferdinand P. Beer
E. Russell Johnston, Jr.
John T. DeWolf Shearing Stresses in
David F. Mazurek
Beams and Thin-
Lecture Notes: Walled Members
Brock E. Barry
U.S. Military Academy

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display.


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Contents
Introduction
Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element
Concept Application 6.1
Shearing Stresses in a Beam
Shearing Stresses txy in Common Types of Beams
Further Discussion of the Distribution of Stresses in a ...
Sample Problem 6.2
Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element of Arbitrary Shape
Concept Application 6.4
Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members
Plastic Deformations
Sample Problem 6.3
Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members and Shear Center
Concept Application 6.5
Concept Application 6.6

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-2
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Introduction
Transverse loading applied to a beam
results in normal and shearing stresses in
transverse sections.

Distribution of normal and shearing


stresses satisfies
Fig. 6.1 All the stresses on elemental
areas (left) sum to give the resultant
shear V and bending moment M.
Fx x dA 0
M x y t xz z t xy dA 0
Fy t xy dA V M y z x dA 0
Fz t xz dA 0 M z y x M

When shearing stresses are exerted on the


vertical faces of an element, equal stresses
must be exerted on the horizontal faces

Fig. 6.2 Stress element from section of a


Longitudinal shearing stresses must exist
transversely loaded beam. in any member subjected to transverse
loading.
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-3
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element


Consider prismatic beam AB
For equilibrium of beam element
Fx 0 H D C dA
Fig. 6.4 Transversely loaded beam with A
vertical plane symmetric cross section.
M D MC
H y dA
I A
Note,
Q y dA
A
Fig. 6.5 Short segment of beam with stress dM
element CDDC defined. M D MC x V x
dx

Substituting,
VQ
H x
I
H VQ
q shear flow
x I
Fig. 6.6 Forces exerted on element CCDC.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-4
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shear on the Horizontal Face of a Beam Element


Shear flow,
H VQ
q shear flow
x I
where
Q y dA
A
first moment of area above y1
2
I y dA
A A'
Fig. 6.7 Short segment of beam with second moment of full cross section
stress element CDDC defined.

Same result found for lower area


H VQ
q q
x I
Q Q 0
first moment wit h respect
to neutral axis
H H

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-5
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Concept Application 6.1

SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.

Calculate the corresponding shear


force in each nail.
Fig. 6.8a Composite beam made of
three boards nailed together.

A beam is made of three planks,


nailed together. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 25 mm and
that the vertical shear in the beam is
V = 500 N, determine the shear force
in each nail.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-6
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Concept Application 6.1

SOLUTION:
Determine the horizontal force per
unit length or shear flow q on the
lower surface of the upper plank.
VQ (500 N)(120 106 m3 )
Fig. 6.8b-c Cross section with flange area for q
computing shear on nail highlighted. Cross section I 16.20 10-6 m 4
compound areas for finding entire section moment of
inertia. 3704 N
Q Ay m
0.020 m 0.100 m 0.060 m
6 3 Calculate the corresponding shear
120 10 m force in each nail for a nail spacing of
1 0.020 m 0.100 m 3
I 12 25 mm.
1 0.100 m 0.020 m 3
2[12 F (0.025 m)q (0.025 m)(3704 N m
F 92.6 N
0.020 m 0.100 m 0.060 m 2 ]
16.20 106 m 4
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-7
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shearing Stresses in a Beam


The average shearing stress on the horizontal
face of the element is obtained by dividing the
shearing force H on the element by the area
Fig. 6.7 Short segment of beam with
smaller stress element CDDC defined. A of the face.
H q x VQ x
t ave
A A I t x
VQ

It

Fig. 6.9 Stress element CDDC On the upper and lower surfaces of the beam,
showing the shear force on a horizontal
plane. tyx= 0. It follows that txy= 0 on the upper and
lower edges of the transverse sections.

As long as the width of the beam cross section


remains small compared to its depth, the shearing
Fig. 6.11 Beam cross section showing stress varies slightly along the line D1D2.
that the shearing stress is zero at the
top and bottom of the beam.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-8
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shearing Stresses txy in Common Types of Beams


For a narrow rectangular beam,
VQ 3 V y 2
t xy 1 2

Ib 2 A c
3V
t max
2A
Fig. 6.13 Geometric Fig. 6.14 Shearing
terms for rectangular stress distribution on
section used to calculate transverse section of
shearing stress. rectangular beam. For American Standard (S-beam)
and wide-flange (W-beam) beams
VQ
t ave
It
V
t max
Aweb
Fig. 6.15 Wide-flange beam. (a) Area for finding first moment of
area in flange. (b) Area for finding first moment of area in web. (c)
Shearing stress distribution.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6-9
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Further Discussion of the Distribution of


Stresses in a Narrow Rectangular Beam
Consider a narrow rectangular cantilever beam
subjected to load P at its free end:
3 P y 2 Pxy
t xy 1 2 x

2 A c I

Fig. 6.18 Deformation of cantilever


beam with concentrated load, with a
Shearing V is constant and equal in magnitude to the
parabolic shearing stress distribution. load P.
Normal strains and normal stresses are unaffected by
the shearing stresses.
From Saint-Venants principle, effects of the load
Fig. 6.19 Cantilever beam with
multiple loads. application mode are negligible except in immediate
vicinity of load application points.
Stress/strain deviations for distributed loads are
negligible for typical beam sections of interest.
Fig. 6.20 Deformation of cantilever
beam with distributed load.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 10


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 6.2

SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.

Design the beam based on allowable


normal stress.
A timber beam AB of span 10 ft is to
support the three concentrated loads Check shearing stress.
shown. Knowing that for the grade of
timber used, Redesign beam based on allowable
all 1800 psi t all 120 psi shearing stress, if needed.

determine the minimum required depth


d of the beam.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 11


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 6.2


SOLUTION:
Develop shear and bending moment
diagrams. Identify the maximums.

Vmax 3 kips
M max 7.5 kip ft 90 kip in

Fig. 1 Free-body diagram of beam with shear and


bending-moment diagrams.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 12


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 6.2


Design beam based on allowable normal stress.
M max
all
S
90 103 lb in.
1800 psi
0.5833 in. d 2
d 9.26 in.
Fig. 2 Section of beam having
depth d.
Check shearing stress.
3 Vmax 3 3000 lb
t all 138.8 psi.
2 A
2 3.5 in. (9.26in.)
Since tall = 120 psi, the depth d = 9.26 in. is not
1 bd3
I 12 acceptable and we must redesign the beam on the
I 1 2 basis of the requirement that tm 120 psi..
S bd
c 6
Allowable shear stress controls.
16 3.5 in.d 2
3 Vmax 3 3000 lb
t m 120 psi. t all
0.5833 in.d 2 2 A 2 3.5 in. ( d )
d 10.71in.
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 13
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Longitudinal Shear on a Beam Element


of Arbitrary Shape
We have examined the distribution of
the vertical components txy on a
transverse section of a beam. We now
wish to consider the horizontal
Fig. 6.4(repeated) Beam example. components txz of the stresses.
Consider prismatic beam with an
element defined by the curved surface
CDDC.
Fig. 6.22 Short segment of beam with element Fx 0 H D C dA
CDDC of length x. a
Except for the differences in
integration areas, this is the same
result obtained before which led to
VQ H VQ
H x q
I x I
Fig. 6.23 Forces exerted on element CDDC.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 14


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Concept Application 6.4

SOLUTION:
Determine the shear force per unit
length along each edge of the upper
plank.

Based on the spacing between nails,


determine the shear force in each
nail.

A square box beam is constructed from


four planks as shown. Knowing that the
spacing between nails is 1.5 in. and the
beam is subjected to a vertical shear of
magnitude V = 600 lb, determine the
shearing force in each nail.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 15


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Concept Application 6.4


SOLUTION:
Determine the shear force per unit
length along each edge of the upper
plank.

q

VQ 600 lb 4.22 in 3


92.3
lb
I 27.42 in 4 in
Fig. 6.24b-c (b) Geometry for finding first
q lb
moment of area of top plank. (c) Geometry for f 46.15
finding the moment of inertia of entire cross 2 in
section.
For the upper plank, edge force per unit length

Q Ay 0.75in.3 in .1.875 in . Based on the spacing between nails,


4.22 in 3
determine the shear force in each
nail.
For the overall beam cross-section,
lb
1 4.5 in 1 3 in F f 46.15 1.75 in
I 12 4
12
4
in
27.42 in 4 F 80.8 lb

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 16


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members


Consider a segment of a wide-flange
beam subjected to the vertical shear V.
The longitudinal shear force on the
element is
VQ
H x
I
The corresponding shear stress is
H VQ
Fig. 6.25 (a) Wide-flange beam section with t zx t xz
vertical shear V. (b) Segment of flange with t x It
longitudinal shear H.

Previously found a similar expression


for the shearing stress in the web
VQ
t xy
It
NOTE: t xy 0 in the flanges
t xz 0 in the web
Fig. 6.26 Stress element from flange segment.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 17


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members


The variation of shear flow across the
section depends only on the variation of
the first moment.
VQ
q tt
I

For a box beam, q grows smoothly from


Fig. 6.28 Box beam showing shearing stress (a) in
flange, (b) in web. Shaded area is used for
zero at A to a maximum at C and C and
calculating the first moment of area. then decreases back to zero at E.

The sense of q in the horizontal portions


of the section may be deduced from the
sense in the vertical portions or the
sense of the shear V.

Fig. 6.30 Shear flow, q, in a box beam section.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 18


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Shearing Stresses in Thin-Walled Members

For a wide-flange beam, the shear flow


increases symmetrically from zero at A
and A, reaches a maximum at C and
then decreases to zero at E and E.

Fig. 6.27 Wide-flange beam sections showing


shearing stress (a) in flange and (b) in web. The The continuity of the variation in q and
shaded area is that used for calculating the first
moment of area. the merging of q from section branches
suggests an analogy to fluid flow.

Fig. 6.31 Shear flow, q, in a wide-flange beam


section.
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 19
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Plastic Deformations
I
Recall: Y
M Y maximum elastic moment
c
For M = PL < MY , the normal stress does
not exceed the yield stress anywhere along
Fig. 6.32 Cantilever beam having
maximum moment PL at section B-B. As the beam.
long as PL MY, the beam remains elastic.
For PL > MY , yield is initiated at B and B.
For an elastoplastic material, the half-thickness
of the elastic core is found from
3 1 yY2
Px M Y 1 2
Fig. 6.33 Cantilever beam exhibiting 2 3c
partial yielding, showing the elastic core at

section C-C.
The section becomes fully plastic (yY = 0) at
the wall when
3
PL M Y M p
2
Maximum load which the beam can support is
Mp
Fig. 6.34 Fully plastic cantilevered beam Pmax
having PL = Mp = 1.5Mg. L
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 20
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Plastic Deformations
Preceding discussion was based on
normal stresses only

Consider horizontal shear force on an


element within the plastic zone,
H C D dA Y Y dA 0

Fig. 6.35 (a) Beam segment in partially plastic


Therefore, the shear stress is zero in the
area. (b) Element DCCD is fully plastic. plastic zone.

Shear load is carried by the elastic core,


3 P y 2
t xy 1 where A 2byY
2A 2
yY
3P
t max
2 A

As A decreases, tmax increases and


Fig. 6.36 Parabolic shear distribution in elastic may eventually reach tY
core.
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 21
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Sample Problem 6.3

SOLUTION:
For the shaded area,
Q 4.31in 0.770 in 4.815 in
15.98 in 3

Fig. 1 Cross section dimensions for W10x68 steel


beam.
The shear stress at a,

t
VQ 50 kips 15.98 in 3
Knowing that the vertical shear is 50
kips in a W10x68 rolled-steel beam, It


394 in 4 0.770 in
determine the horizontal shearing t 2.63 ksi
stress in the top flange at the point a.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 22


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members and


Shear Center
Beam loaded in a vertical plane
of symmetry deforms in the
symmetry plane without
twisting.
My VQ
x t ave
Fig. 6.38 Load applied in I It
Fig. 6.37 Cantilevered channel vertical plane of symmetry.
beam with vertical plane of
symmetry.

Beam without a vertical plane


of symmetry bends and twists
under loading.
My VQ
x t ave
I It
Fig. 6.40 Deformation of
channel when not loaded in Fig. 6.39 Load
plane of symmetry. perpendicular to plane of
symmetry.

Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 23


Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Unsymmetric Loading of Thin-Walled Members and


Shear Center
Fig. 6.42 Shear
flow in each If the shear load is applied such that the beam
element results
in a vertical does not twist, then the shear stress distribution
shear and satisfies
couple. (a)
Shear flow, q. VQ D B E
(b) Resultant t ave V q ds F q ds q ds F
forces on It
elements.
B A D

Fig. 6.43 F and F indicate a couple Fh and the need for


Resultant force-
couple for the application of a torque as well as the shear
bending without
twisting, and load.
Fh
relocation of V e
to create same V
effect.
When the force P is applied at a distance e to the
left of the web centerline BD, the member bends
in a vertical plane without twisting.

Fig. 6.44 Placement of load to eliminate


The point O is referred to as the shear center of
twisting through the use of an attached the beam section.
bracket.
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 24
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Concept Application 6.5


Determine the location for the shear center of the
channel section with b = 4 in., h = 6 in., and t = 0.15 in.
Fh
e
I
where
b b VQ
Vb h
F q ds ds st ds
0 0 I I0 2
Vthb2

4I
1 3 1 3 h
2
I I web 2 I flange th 2 bt bt
12 12 2
1 th 2 6b h
12

Combining,
Fig. 6.46 (a) Channel b 4 in.
section. (b) Flange segment e e 1.6 in .
used for calculation of shear h 6 in .
2 2
flow.
3b 34 in .
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 25
Edition
Seventh
MECHANICS OF MATERIALS Beer Johnston DeWolf Mazurek

Concept Application 6.6


Determine the shear stress distribution for
V = 2.5 kips.
q VQ
t
t It
Shearing stresses in the flanges,
VQ V h Vh
t st s
It It 2 2I
Vhb 6Vb
tB
12
2 1 th2 6b h th6b h
62.5 kips 4 in
2.22 ksi
0.15 in 6 in 6 4 in 6 in
Shearing stress in the web,

t max

VQ V 8 ht 4b h 3V 4b h
1

It 1 th 2 6b h t 2th6b h
12
Fig. 6.47 (a) Channel section loaded at shear
center. (b) Section used to find the maximum 32.5 kips 4 4 in 6 in
shearing stress. (c) Shearing stress distribution. 3.06 ksi
20.15 in 6 in 6 4 in 6 in
Copyright 2015 McGraw-Hill Education. Permission required for reproduction or display. 6 - 26