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Kingdom Plantae

AP Biology
Common Ancestor

The closest living


relative of plants
are in the green
algae are
charophytes (aka
charophyceans)
At one time they
had a common
ancestor

AP Biology
Land
plants
evolved
new
emergent
properties
to adapt
to life on
land
AP Biology
Derived Traits of Terrestrial
Plants
1. Exhibit alternation of generations producing an embryo
that is for some time dependent upon the female
gametophyte.
2. Plants produce spores coated with sporopollenin to
prevent dehydration and waxy cuticles for other plant
parts. Embryophytes- protected embryo
3. Multicellular gametangia to produce eggs and sperm.
4. Apical meristem- Area found on the tips of shoots and
roots and other locations that specialize in the process of
mitosis.

AP Biology
Alteration of Generations= all plants have a life cycle with two
multicellular stages
Haploid multicellular
1. Gametophyte produces organism (gametophyte)
haploid gametes by mitosis Mitosis
1
Mitosis

2. Two gametes unite 5 n


n n

(fertilization) and form a 2


n
Spores n
diploid zygote Gametes

3. The zygote develops into a


multicellular diploid MEIOSIS FERTILIZATION
sporophyte
4. The sporophyte produces 2n

haploid spores by meiosis 4 2n


Zygote
3
5. The spores develop into Mitosis

multicellular haploid Diploid multicellular


gametophytes organism (sporophyte)

AP Biology
AP Biology
1- Nonvascular (Bryophytes)
Mosses, Liverworts, & Hornworts
Nonvascular land plants (no
xylem and phloem)
Have structures that
resemble leaves and roots
(rhizoids)
Gametophyte dominant
generation
Seedless
Form spore capsules
(sporophyte)
Sperm swims to eggs
through water droplets
AP Biology
2- (Vascular) ferns

Have vascular tissue (conductive)


Xylem-moves water and minerals
upward and is strengthened with
lignin in cell walls
Phloem moves water and organic
nutrients both up and down.
Leaves (microphylls with single
strand of vascular tissue) and
roots evolved as extensions from
the stem
Sporophyte dominant
Need water for sperm to swim

AP Biology
Seed Plants

Seeds and pollen


eliminates the necessity
of water for
reproduction
Both can be carried long
distances and have a
thick coats to resist
drying out
Spread by wind, insects,
animals, etc.
AP Biology
Two Types of Seed Plants
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms both
reproduce by seeds
Gymnosperms make naked seeds
protected in cones
Angiosperms make seeds surrounded by
a mature ovule (fruit)
Angiosperms produce flowers to attract
pollinators

AP Biology
3-Gymnosperms
Gymnosperms do not produce
fruit or flowers
Phylum Coniferophyta- Conifers
are the largest gymnosperm
group with 575 species
Most do not shed their leaves in
the fall
Includes pine tree, junipers, and
sequoias
It takes 2 years to produce a
seed
Sporophyte dominant
AP Biology
4-Flowering Plants (Angiosperms-
90%)
Phylum Anthophyta
A flower is a structure specialized for
reproduction
Flower can have both male and female
reproductive organs (Perfect flower-
monoceious)
Imperfect flowers (dioecious )have
only male (staminate flowers) or only
female (pistillate flowers)

AP Biology
Parts of the Flower
Sepal-leaf like and protects the
floral bud
Petals-Usually showy with colors
to attract pollinators
Stamen-male reproductive organ
consisting of stalk like filament
with anther (pollen sac)
Pistil-female reproductive organ
with sticky stigma at the top,
stalk like style, and enlarged
ovary (base) with ovules

AP Biology
Fertilization

AP Biology
Fertilized Egg to Seed

Fertilized egg or zygote will gives rise to


the seed embryo
Endosperm will provide nutrients to the
embryo
Ovule becomes the seed coat
The ovary under the influence of
hormones will become the fruit
Fruit of the plant is used to protect
enclosed seeds and aids in their dispersal
(entice animals to eat)
AP Biology
Comparison Of Monocots Versus Dicots

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