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Definition of Terms
1. Career development - prepares a person for progression along a designated
career path.
2. Career management - the process through which employees become aware of
their interests, values, strengths, and weaknesses.
3. Career - a general course that a person chooses to pursue throughout his/her
working life.
4. Career planning - a process whereby an individual sets career goals and
identities the means to achieve them.
5. Organizations career pathing - is that phase of HRM that sets up paths along
which the individual moves and progresses over time in the organization.
6. Career path - a flexible line of progression through which an employee typically
moves during employment with a company.
7. Career anchor - self-concept based on differing work motives and
abilities/guides; stabilizes and integrates a persons work experiences.
8. Career plateau - likelihood of additional hierarchical promotion or further job
advancement is low or permanently or temporarily blocked.
9. Career pathing - process by which an employee and his/her supervisor plan a
career progression that takes into account present experiences and skills.
1. To meet the immediate and future HR needs of the
organization on a timely basis.
2. To inform the organization and the individual about
potential career path within the organization.
3. To utilize existing HR programs to the fullest by
integrating the activities that select, assign, develop, and
manage individual careers with the organizations plans.
Career and the Individual
Are key information about career development
from the perspective of the individual taking
the initiative to plan his/her own career.

Finding a suitable field Finding a job

Establishing career goals and a career path
Selecting relevant career advancement strategies
Switching careers if the need arises Retirement planning
A. Finding a Suitable Field
1. Influence of parent, relative, or friend
2. Reading colleges course catalog
3. Through counseling or testing
4. Professors, including academic advisers
5. Natural and forced opportunity

Information can be acquired through :

1. Reference books about career information
2. Computer-assisted career guidance
3. Career information in newspapers and magazines
4. Speaking to people
STEP 1 : Where am I?
STEP 2 : Who am I?
STEP 3 : Where would I like to be and what would I like to happen ?
STEP 4 : An Ideal Year in the Future
STEP 5 : An Ideal Job
STEP 6 : Career by Objective Inventory
Planning to pursue their tertiary education
1. Examination or self-assessment of your interests
2. Examination of your abilities
3. Examining what you value in work
4. Career Exploration
5. Reality Check
6. Narrowing your choices and focusing on choosing a major
B. Conducting a Job Campaign

Some people who have identified a field do

not have to look for a job. The three major
aspects of the job campaign are job hunting
tactics, preparing a resume, and performing
well in an interview.
Job Hunting Tactics
1. Identify objectives
2. Identify potential contribution
3. Use multiple approaches and tactics
4. Use networking
Potential Sources of Contacts through Networking
a. Friends
b. Parents and other family members
c. Faculty and staff
d. Former or present employer
e. Community groups, churches
f. Trade and professional education
g. Career fairs
5. Persist
6. Take rejections in stride
7. Avoid common mistakes
a. Not knowing what type of work one wants to do;
b. Not taking the initiative to generate job leads; and
c. Having a poor resume
C. Establishing Career Goals
Career planning in the form of goal setting and
establishing a career path ideally preceds
finding a job.
D. Establishing Career Path
Many companies are developing multiple or
dual career path systems to give individual
contributors such as engineers, scientist, and
the like, additional career opportunities.
E. Career Advancement Strategies and
1. Make an accurate self-appraisal
2. Stick with what you do best
3. Identify growth fields and growth companies
4. Find the right organization for you
5. Display good job performance
6. Obtain broad experience
7. Find a sponsor and a mentor
8. Document your accomplishments
9. Rely on networking
10. Make the necessary career transitions
F. Career Switching
This refers to the shift from
one career to another. For
some, they switch careers
because they have no other
choice due to forced
retirement, layoff, or boredom
in their present job.
G. Making Career Change
STEPS in career change
I. Assessment of likes and dislikes
-Most people change careers because they dislike their present job, their
boss or their company.
II. Researching new careers
-Research the type of careers that center on your passions
III. Transferable skills
-Leverage some of your current skills and experience to your new career.
IV. Training and education
-You may find it necessary to update your skills and broaden your
V. Changing in or out
-Only few recognize that one happy employees can be happy and productive
again in a different capacity.
VI. Job hunting basics
-Try Job-Hunt Organization and other web sites.
VII. Be Flexible
H. Retirement


CAREER PLANNING- Its important to both
organizations and
A. Career management for new employees
-New employees usually encounter a number
of potential problems including their initial job
and its accompanying challenges.
B. Career management for mid-career employees
-Some mid-career problems include mid-career
plateau and job
Late Career Stageloss.
This is the final stage in an employee's career
where he/she has already reached an age of
adulthood and should eventually prepare
1. Companies must meet the needs of older
2. Companies must have taken steps to prepare
employees for retirement.
3. Companies must be careful that early
retirement programs do not discriminate against
older employers.

1. Senior leadership roles

2. Productivity
3. Effective Retirement
Organizational Actions during Late
1. Understanding older employees -
Managing older employees requires
sensitivity to late career issues on the part
of the top management and supervisory
2. Performance standards and feedback -
Once confronted with low productivity
among senior employees, perfomance
problems should be stated in clear
behavioral terms and consequences should
3. Education and job restructuring - Ongoing
learning opportunities through the integration
of stimulating, responsible job assignments and
continuing education can play a major role in
the revitalization of the late career workforce.
4. Establishment of flexible work pattern - Most
retirees feel that they should be able to reduce
their working week to get ready for retirement.
5. Development of retirement planning
programs - this plays an important role in
helping employees make a smoother transition
from work to retirement.
Career Plateau
Defined as "the point in a career
where the likelihood of additional
hierarchical promotion is very low."
Employees can have plateau for
several reasons :
1. Lack of ability
2. Lack of training
3. Low need for achievement
4. Confusion about job responsibilities
5. Slow company growth resulting in reduced
development opportunities
Causes of Plateaus

1. Changing skill requirements

2. Flattening organizations
3. Boomer bulge
4. Increased automation
5. Rise of contigent workers
6. Popularity of business process outsourcing
7. Shifting career expectations
Possible Remedies for Plateaued
1. Employees must understand the reason for
the plateau
2.Employees should be encouraged to
participate in development activities
3. Employees should be encouraged to seek
career counseling.
Three actions that can aid in managing the
plateauing process
1. Prevent plateauees from becoming ineffective
2. Integrate the relevant career-related
information systems
3. Manage ineffective plateauees and frustrated
1. Learners as latecomers
2. Stars
3. Solid citizens
4. Deadwood
Rehabilitating Ineffective Plateaued Employees
1. Provide alternative means of recognition
2. Develop new ways to make their current jobs
more satisfying
3. Effect revitalization through reassignment
4. Utilize reality-based self-development
Identifying Occupational
5. Change managerial Orientation
attitudes toward
plateaued employees
Career counseling expert John Holland says that
a person's personality is another determinant of
career choices.
Personality Sample Sample Sample
Groups Interests Personal Compatible
Traits Occupations
Precise use of Practical, Shy, Engineer, tech. skilled
Realistic objects- mechanical, Conforming, Thing- trades, Military
electrical, actual, oriented
Exploration and exam Rational, Introverted, Scientific and analytic
Investigative of physical, Analytical, occupations
biological, cultural Intellectual
Use of various Creative, Expressive, PRO, Musician, Artist
Artistic materials to create Nonconforming
art forms: language,
music, drama
Interaction with Friendly, Outgoing, Teachers, Social
Social others to train, Tactful Workers
Interaction with Aggressive, Sales administration,
Enterprising others to attain Ambitious, Business-oriented
Identifying Career Anchor
Career Anchor is a self-concept based on
differing work motives and abilities. This self-
concept guides, stabilizes and integrates a
person's work experiences. Self concept is the
sum total of a person's perceptions and
Five Career
evaluations Anchors
of himself/herself.
1. Managerial competence
2. Technical/Functional Competence
3. Security
4. Creativity
5. Autonomy and independence
Career Management Responsibilities
of the Manager, the HR Manager, the
Company and the Employee
1. Avoid reality shock
2. Provide challenging initial jobs
3. Be demanding
4. Provide periodic job rotation and
job pathing
5. Provide opportunities for mentoring
Managers need to be
effective in performing the
four roles :
1. Coach
2. Appraiser
3. Advisor
4. Referral Agent
Human Resource Manager's Role
HR manager shoul provide information and
advice about training and development
opportunities or provide specialized services.
Company's Role
Responsible for providing employees with resources
needed to be successful in career planning.
This entails providing some or all of the following for
the employees :
1. Career workshops
2. Information on career and job opportunities
3.Career planning workbooks
4. Career counseling
Employee's Role
1. Take the initiative to ask for feedback
from supervisor and peers regarding their
strengths and weaknesses.
2. Identify their stage of career
development and development needs.
3. Gain exposure to a range of learning
4. Interact with employees from different
work groups inside and outside the
Benefits of Career Developmemt
A. Career Development Practices
1. Development programs
2. Job information systems
3. Individual counseling or career discussions
4. Employee self-assessment tools
5. Career path or career ladders
6. Career planning workshops
7. Succession planning
8. Career resource center
9. Preretirement workshops
10. Outplacement
B. Perceived Benefits as far as the Organization
is Concerned
1. Better alignment of employee competencies with
business goals
2. Better communication within the organization as
3. More motivated workforce
4. Improved retention and reduced turnover of valued
or key personnel
5. Enhanced productivity and profitability
6. Improved organizational competitiveness
7. Improved customer satisfaction and increased
customer loyalty
C. Perceived Benefits as far as Employees
are Concerned
1. Improved skills, attitudes and
2. Enhanced morale and job satisfaction
3. Improved opportunities for
4. Greater sense of company direction or a
clearer understanding of organizational
direction and values
5. Increased awareness of how to manage