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MT 101 ENGINEERING

MATERIALS
V. SIVAHAR

INTRODUCTION

societys needs.

INTRODUCTION

Materials are the substances of which

something is made or composed of.

INTRODUCTION

How are engineering materials classified?

1. Metals
2. Polymers (Plastics & Rubber)
3. Ceramics
4. Composites
5. Wood

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INTRODUCTION
Why Engineering Materials for
engineers?
Engineers design products and
systems, make them and monitor their
use. Material selection is an integral
part of these activities. Thus engineers
should have basic and applied
knowledge of materials.

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ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Electrons
(negatively
charged)
Dense (heavy) nucleus
(positively charged)

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ATOMIC STRUCTURE
Atomic number = number of protons
Atomic mass is measured in atomic mass
unit (amu)
1 amu = (mass of a C atom) / 12
1 amu = ______________ g

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BOHR THEORY
According to Bohr theory energy of an
electron is governed by just one factor
the main energy level
This is true only for the H atom

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MODERN ATOMIC THEORY
According to MAT, energy of an electron is
governed by four factors (not just one as
Bohr said)
These four factors are given by four
quantum numbers

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MODERN ATOMIC THEORY
1. Principal quantum number n
Indicates the main energy levels
n=1,2,37
2. Secondary quantum number l
Indicates the sub energy levels within the
main energy level
l=0,1,2,(n-1)

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MODERN ATOMIC THEORY
These sub energy levels are given letter
designations as s, p, d, f
3. Magnetic quantum number m
Accounts for the direction of the electron
cloud
m = -l to l including 0

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MODERN ATOMIC THEORY
4. Spin quantum number s
Accounts for the spinning of the
electrons
s = +1/2 or -1/2

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MODERN ATOMIC THEORY
Pauli Exclusion Principle:

No two electrons in a single atom can

have all four-quantum numbers the
same.

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MODERN ATOMIC THEORY

n l m s

+1/2

1 0[s] 0
-1/2

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n l m s
+
2 0[s] 0
-

-1
-

1[p] 0
-

+1
-
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MODERN ATOMIC THEORY
Aufbau Principle:
Sub-levels with the lowest energy are
filled before those with higher energy
1s
2s 2p
3s 3p 3d
4s 4p 4d 4f
5s 5p 5d 5f 5g

ATOMIC BONDING

BONDING

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ATOMIC BONDING
Primary bonds form when valence
electrons are present (outer shell not
completely filled)
Secondary bond forms when there are no
valence electrons (outer shell filled
completely)

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IONIC BOND
Ionic bond forms between highly
electropositive elements (metals) and
highly electronegative elements (non-
metals)
E.g.: NaCl

IONIC BOND

Na Cl

Na+ Cl-

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IONIC BOND
Electron transfer occurs from the
electropositive element to the
electronegative element, resulting in the
formation of cations and anions
Electrostatic attraction between these ions
makes the bond

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COVALENT BOND
Covalent bond forms within
electronegative elements that are close to
each other in the periodic table
Bond forms by the mutual sharing of the
valence electrons
E.g.: Cl2, CH4, Graphite, Diamond etc.

COVALENT BOND

Cl Cl

Cl Cl

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METALLIC BOND
Metallic bond forms in metals
It is an arrangement of positive ion cores
in a sea of electrons [electron cloud]
Electrons that form this electron cloud are
free to move within the structure and thus
known as free electrons
These free electrons make the metals
good conductors of electricity and heat

METALLIC BOND

Na Na Na+ Na+

Na+ Na+
Na Na

SEA OF ELECTRONS

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VAN DER WALLS BOND
Van der Walls bon forms between inert
gas atoms as well as between symmetric
molecules

Ar Cl Cl

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VAN DER WALLS BOND
Dipoles are formed within the atom (or
molecule) due to the uneven distribution of
the electrons. Electrostatic attraction of
these dipoles makes the bond
_
+
_
+ _
+

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HYDROGEN BOND
Hydrogen bond forms between
asymmetric molecules (especially when H
is present). E.g. HF. A dipole is created as
shown since electrons surround F
nucleus more uniformly than H.

_
H F +

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STRUCTURE
Arrangement of atoms or molecules in a
material is referred to as its structure.
Structure of a material can be either
crystalline or amorphous.
Crystalline ordered arrangement
metals, ceramics and some polymers
Amorphous random arrangement
glass and some polymers

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Atomic arrangement in a crystalline
material is usually described by a space
lattice.

In a space lattice atoms are placed at the

intersections of a 3-D network of lines as
shown.

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
The smallest unit that represents a crystal
structure is called a unit cell.
The unit cell for the above structure is
shown here.

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
The structure that is represented by the
above unit cell is known as simple cubic.

The other structures considered here are

body centered cubic (bcc), face
centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal
close packed (hcp).

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
a a a
a
a a
c
a a

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Number of equivalent atoms in a unit cell

SC (8 x 1/8 ) = 1 atom
BCC (8 x 1/8 +1) = 2 atoms
FCC (8 x 1/8 + 6 x 1/2 ) = 4 atoms
HCP (12 x 1/6 + 2 x 1/2 + 3) = 6 atoms

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Relationships between lattice parameter
Simple Cubic

a = 2R

R R
a

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Relationships between lattice parameter
Face Centered Cubic

a = 4R/2

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Relationships between lattice parameter
Body Centered Cubic
a2

a = 4R/3

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Relationships between lattice parameter

a = 2R and
c = a (8/3)

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

Example:

Copper (Cu) has a fcc structure with a lattice

parameter of 3.61. What is the density of Cu?

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Atomic Packing Factor [APF]
Volume of atoms in a unit cell

APF = ---------------------------
Volume of the unit cell

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Atomic Packing Factor [APF]

Simple Cubic Structure

4 R 3 1 4 R 3
APF 3 3 3 3 0.5236 52.36%
a 2R

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Atomic Packing Factor [APF]

4 R3 2 8 R3
APF 3 3 3 3
0.68 68%
a 4R

3

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
Atomic Packing Factor [APF]

4 R 3 4 16 R 3
APF 3 3 3
3
0.74 74%
a 4R

2

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
QUESTIONS
1. Find the diameter of the largest atom that
could
a) migrate through
b) be placed within a void space
in a simple cubic lattice with a lattice parameter
of 20A.

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
a) Consider a face of a simple cubic unit cell

R
d 2R a 2
d
R d a 2 2R a 2 a
d 2( 2 1) 0.818 A
0

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
b) Consider a diagonal plane of a simple
cubic unit cell
D 2R a 3
R

D
d a 3 2R a 3 a
R
d 2( 3 1) 1.464 A
0

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
QUESTIONS
2. Iron changes from BCC to FCC at 9100C at
increases by 2.3%. Find the percentage
change in volume and percentage change
in density on this transition.

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

V1 V2
BCC FCC

No. of atoms= n n
No. of unit cells= n/2 n/4
3 3
4R 4 1.023R
Volume of a U.C.= a3=
3 2

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE
3
n 4R
V1
2 3
3
n 4 1.023R
V2
4 2
V2 V1
Pecentage change in volume 100%
V1
1.66%

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CRYSTAL STRUCTURE

V1 V2
Pecentage change in density 100%
V2
1.69%

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MILLER INDICES
MI for directions
Z

T S

U V
R
O Y

P Q

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MILLER INDICES
MI for directions O = (0,0,0)
P = (1,0,0)
Z
Q = (1,1,0)

T S R = (0,1,0)
S = (0,1,1)
U V
R T = (0,0,1)
O Y
U = (1,0,1)
P Q V = (1,1,1)

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MILLER INDICES
MI for directions OQ [110]
Z
OV [111]

OT ?
U V
R
O Y

P Q

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MILLER INDICES
MI for planes
Z
Plane UVQP
T S Intercepts 1, ,
1 1 1
Reciprocals , ,
U V
R 1
O Y
1, 0, 0
P Q Miller Indices (100)

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MILLER INDICES
MI for planes
Find the Miller Indices of the
Z following planes:

T S I. VSRQ
II. TSVU
U V
R III. PUSR
O Y
IV. PTR
P Q V. OTSR

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MILLER INDICES
MI for planes
Note:
Z
I. All the faces in a cube belong to
the same family of MI (100)
T S II. Planes PUSR, OTVQ, PTSQ,
ORVU .. belong to the family
U V of (110)
R
O Y III. Planes PTR, PVR, OSQ ..
belong to the family of (111)
P Q

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MILLER INDICES
QUESTION
Sketch the atomic arrangements on the
following planes:
I. (100) of SC
II. (110) of SC
III. (100) of FCC
IV.(110) of BCC
V. (111) of FCC
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MILLER INDICES

MILLER INDICES

Close Packed Planes

If all the neighbor atoms in a crystal
plane touch each other , it is known as a
Close Packed Plane.
e.g. (100) of SC, (111) of FCC

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PLANAR DENSITY
Number of atoms in a unit area (usually 1m2)
is known as the planar density or aerial
density of a crystal plane.

QUESTION
Find the planar densities of the following planes
taking lattice parameter as 20A:
(100) of SC
(110) of SC
(100) of FCC
(110) of BCC
(111) of FCC
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ALLOTROPY
Ability of a single substance to exist in more
than one physical form. These allotropes are
generally stable over different temperature
ranges.
E.g. Iron

9100 C 13940 C

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DEFECTS IN CRYSTALS

1. Point defects
2. Line defects or Dislocations
3. Planar defects
4. Bulk defects

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POINT DEFECTS

Vacancy

Self-interstitial atom

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LINE DEFECTS
Dislocations present are two types:

1. Edge dislocation
2. Line dislocation

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LINE DEFECTS
Edge dislocation forms by the removal or
insertion of an extra half-plane

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LINE DEFECTS
Extra plane

Slip plane

Dislocation line

Core of dislocation

LINE DEFECTS

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PLANAR DEFECTS
Grain boundaries are the planar defects
found in crystalline materials.
Solidification of metals
Solidification occurs in three stages:
I. Nucleation
II. Growth of crystals
III. Formation of grain structure

PLANAR DEFECTS

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PLANAR DEFECTS
A grain is a group of atoms packed in a
particular orientation that is different from
that of the neighbor ones.
The surface that separates two adjacent
grains is known as the grain boundary.
Grain structure can only be observed
through a microscope after careful
preparation of samples (microstructure)