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STRATEGI PEMBELAJARAN

PBL
Detty Iryani
Bagian Pendidikan Kedokteran FK-Unand
Sejarah PBL
Bukanlah merupakan hal yang baru
1. 1889, T.C. Chamberlin: The methode of multiple
working hypotheses ~ problem-solving
2. 1916, Dewey: Perkenalkan mahasiswa dengan
situasi kehidupan nyata (real-life) dan fasilitasi agar
mendapatkan informasi untuk memecahkan
masalah
3. 1930, Miller dan 1940, Katona: Ketidak efektifan
metode pemberian solusi (ready-made solution)
pada mahasiswa
Sejarah PBL
Di dunia kedokteran:
1. 1961, Case Western University, Cleveland, Ohio: hybrid PBL

2. 1966, Mc Master University Medical School, Canada: double


track Mahasiswa PBL lebih baik: - motivasi
- solving problems
- self-study

3. 1973, University of Newcastle, Australia


1975, University of Limburg, Maastricht

PBL berkembang ke seluruh dunia (pendidikan kedokteran)


Apa itu PBL?

Suatu strategi pembelajaran:


menggunakan masalah sebagai stimulus untuk
menemukan atau mendapatkan informasi yang
diperlukan untuk memahami dan mencari solusinya
Karakteristik PBL
Pembelajaran bersifat student-centered yang aktif;
Pembelajaran dilaksanakan melalui diskusi kelompok kecil dan semua
anggota kelompok memberikan kontribusinya secara aktif;
Diskusi dipicu oleh masalah yang bersifat integrasi interdisiplin yang
didasarkan pada pengalaman/kehidupan nyata;
Diskusi secara aktif merangsang mahasiswa untuk menggunakan prior
knowledgenya
Mahasiswa terlatih untuk belajar mandiri dan diharapkan dapat menjadi
dasar bagi pembelajaran seumur hidup;
Pembelajaran berjalan secara efisien, karena informasi yang dikumpulkan
melalui belajar mandiri sesuai dengan apa yang dibutuhkannya (need to
know basis);
Feedback dapat diberikan sewaktu tutorial, sehingga dapat memacu
mahasiswa untuk meningkatkan usaha pembelajarannya;
Latihan keterampilan diberikan secara paralel.
Tujuan PBL
Membangun dan mengembangkan pembelajaran mahasiswa
yang memenuhi kriteria ketiga ranah pembelajaran (taxonomy
of learning domains).
- Di bidang kognitif (knowledges): berupa ilmu dasar dan ilmu terapan
secara terintegrasi;
- Di bidang psikomotor (skills): berupa scientific reasoning, critical
appraisal, information literacy, self- directed learning, life-long
learning;
- Di bidang affektif (attitudes): berupa value of framework, hubungan
antar-manusia, yang berkaitan masalah psikososial (psychosocial
issues)

Teori Konstruktivis
Strategi Pembelajaran PBL

Student-centered
Problem-based
Integrated teaching
Community-oriented/-based
Elective / Early clinical exposure
Systematic / Self-directed learning
The Learning Pyramid
Average
Retention Rate
Lecture 5%

Reading 10%
Audiovisual 20%

Demonstration 30%

Discussion group 50%


Practice by doing 75%
Teach others 80%

National Training Laboratories, Bethel, Maine, USA


METODE DAN STRATEGI
PEMBELAJARAN
SISTEM PBL
di
Fakultas Kedokteran
Universitas Andalas
Faculty Curriculum
Core curriculum : 80 %
Local studies : 20 %
- Vision and Mission / Renstra of University
- Prominent Health Problem in West Sumatra
- Electives

Conducted in 10 semesters
- 1st semester : General education
- 2nd 7th semester : Integrated medical education
- 8th 11th semester : Clinical experiences (clerkship)

Strategy of learning: PBL


FACULTY CURRICULUM

BLOCK BLOCK BLOCK BLOCK

MODULE MODULE MODULE

SCENARIO SCENARIO
weekly
weekly
SCHEME OF BLOCKS
Year Year Year Year Year Year
CLERKSHIP
6th

CLERKSHIP
5th

19 20 21 CLERKSHIP
4th

13 14 15 16 17 18
3rd

7 8 9 10 11 12
2nd

1 2 3 4 5 6
1st
Learning Strategy of PBL
1. Tutorial (small group discussion)
2. Introduction lecture
3. Private study (self-learning)
4. Diskusi topik
5. Basic medical practice
6. Skills lab/keterampilan klinik :
- laboratory
- procedural
- clinical
7. Plenary discussion
8. Clerkship
Tutorial as intervention media for
learning facilitation

Skills
lab

Lecture Tutorial SDL

Prakctice
Session
Peran tutorial
Tutorial dalam konteks PBL adalah suatu active
learning process dalam diskusi kelompok kecil
distimulasi oleh suatu problem (skenario)
mengaktifkan prior knowledge mahasiswa
difasilitasi oleh seorang tutor
dipimpin oleh seorang mahasiswa yang terpilih
dibantu oleh seorang sekretaris yang terpilih
Untuk mencapai tujuan belajar melalui aktivitas
terstruktur
Langkah-langkah PBL

Bervariasi :, 5, 6,7,12 jumps


Seven jumps :Maastricht
Dilaksanakan dalam 2 kali diskusi
Langkah 1-5 (pertemuan pertama)
Langkah 6 (diantara pertemuan pertama dan
kedua)
Langkah 7 (pertemuan kedua)

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Seven Jump

STEP 1. Clarify Unfamiliar Terms


STEP 2. Define the PROBLEM (s)
STEP 3. Brainstorm Possible Hypothesis or
Explanation
STEP 4. Arrange Explanation into a Tentative
Solution
STEP 5. Define Learning Objective
STEP 6. Information Gathering and Private Study
STEP 7. Share the Results of Information
Gathering and Private Study
Process
Students identify any words whose meaning is
unclear - other group members may be able to
provide definitions. Students should be made to feel
safe, enabling them to be honest about anything they
do not understand.

Reason
Unfamiliar terms act as an obstacle to understanding.
Clarification of even half - understood terms may
start the process of learning.

Written output
Words or names on which the group cannot agree a
meaning should be listed as learning objectives.
1. CLARIFY UNFAMILIAR TERMS
..Seven Jump: Step 1

ROLE OF THE TUTOR


Make sure that a leader, a secretary and a scriber are
available
One student reads the problem
Students can use the dictionary
Tutor makes sure that important words are
understood
Make sure that students limit themselves to the
definition without clinical interpretation
Process
This is an open session when students are encouraged
to contribute their view of the problem under
discussion. The tutor may need to encourage them all
to contribute to a fast-moving and wide-ranging
analysis.

Reason
It is quite possible for every member of tutorial group
to have a different - perspective, on a problem.
Comparing and pooling these views broadens the
intellectual horizons of those involved and defines the
task ahead.

Written output
List of issues to be explained
2. DEFINE THE PROBLEM(S)
..Seven Jump: Step 2

ROLE OF THE TUTOR


Help students focus on the essential part of the problem
and translate that into a short sentence (eg. presenting
feature and main circumstances)
Help the students to bring out points to be explained :
may ask questions
Make sure that all the points are written
Everyone underlines what he sees as concepts (words
which in the problem indicate phenomena to be
explained or suggest hypotheses)
Process
A continuation of the open session but students now try
to formulate, test and compare the relative merits of
their hypotheses or explanations of the problem or case.

Reason
This is a crucial step, that prompts the use of previous
learning and memory and allows students to test or
draw on anothers understanding; Links can be formed
between the items if incomplete knowledge that exist
within the group. If well handled by the tutor and group,
it pitches learning at the deeper level of 'understanding'
rather than the superficial level of 'facts'.

Written output
List of hypotheses or explanations
3. BRAINSTORM POSSIBLE HYPOTHESIS OR
EXPLANATION
..Seven Jump: Step 3

ROLE OF THE TUTOR


Generate explanatory hypotheses

Encourage everyone to participate
Encourage everyone to go in depth
Manage time, if it is not done by the leader
If a discussion does not progress, may propose a
learning objective
Process
Students will have thought of as many different explanations as
possible of what is occurring. The problem is scrutinized in fine
detail and compared against the proposed hypotheses, or
explanations, to see how they will match and if further exploration
is needed. This starts the process of defining learning objectives,
although it is inadvisable for them to be recorded in writing too
soon

Reason
This stage actively processes and restructures existing knowledge
and identifies gaps in understanding. Making written records of
learning objectives too soon hinders thinking and short-circuits the
intellectual process, resulting in objectives that are too broad and
superficial.

Written output
This involves organizing explanations for problems, representing
them schematically, trying to link new ideas with each other, with
existing knowledge and with different contexts. This process
provides a visual output of the relationships between different
pieces of information and facilities storage of information in long-
term memory.
4. ARRANGE EXPLANATION INTO
TENTATIVE SOLUTION (SCHEMATICALLY)
..Seven Jump: Step 4

ROLE OF THE TUTOR


Guide students in the construction of a schema or a
diagram illustrating links between hypotheses
Uncertain links may be underlined by asking open
questions
Stimulate, encourage students to develop a diagram
which will guide their study and will help the encoding
of information
Process
The group agrees a core set of learning objectives that all
students will study. The tutor encourages them to be
focused, not too broad or superficial and achievable
within the time available. Some students may have
objectives that are not shared by the whole group
because of their own personal learning needs or
interests
Reason
The process of consensus uses the expertise of the entire
tutorial group (and tutor) to synthesize the foregoing
discussion into appropriate and attainable learning
objectives. This not only defines the learning objectives
but also pulls the group together and concludes the
discussion.
Written output
Learning objectives
5. DEFINE LEARNING OBJECTIVES
..Seven Jump: Step 5

ROLE OF THE TUTOR


Help students to specify objectives which are not
content or chapters to read but rather what has to be
understood in order to analyze and solve the problem
Make sure that objectives determined in the tutors
guide have been dealt with ; otherwise, make students
discover them by open-ended questions
Ask how and which resources students intend to work
with
Process
This could include finding material in textbooks,
carrying out a computerized literature search using
the Internet looking at pathological specimens, talking
to an expert, and anything else that will help provide
the information the student is seeking.

Reason
Clearly an essential part of the learning process is
gathering and acquisition of new information, which
students do on their own

Written output
Students' individual notes
6. INFORMATION GATHERING
AND PRIVATE STUDY
Process
Students begin by returning to their list of learning
objectives. They first identify their individual sources of
information, pool their information from private study
and help each other understand and identify areas of
continuing difficulty for further study (or expert help).
After this, they attempt to undertake and produce a
complete analysis of the problem.

Reason
This synthesizes the work of the group, consolidates
learning and identifies areas of uncertainty, possibly
for further study.

Written output
Students' individual notes
7. SHARE THE RESULTS OF INFORMATION
GATHERING AND PRIVATE STUDY
..Seven Jump: Step 7

ROLE OF THE TUTOR


Synthesize and evaluation
Synthesize :
Which resources have been used
Go back to the diagram, validate it, bring precision or
correction
Keep close the problem
Invite students to ask their question, to deal with
controversial issues
Make links with concepts of preceding problems
Make sure that the concepts are mastered
May give feedback on learning at the end of this step