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Introduction

by
Eric Mayo Dagradi, dr, M.Kes,AIF
(Head of Physiology Department)
The term human physiology and its research
objectives.
Fundamental characters of living organism:
Metabolism, excitability and reproduction.
Regulation of physiological activities : Nervous
regulation, humoral regulation, autoregulation.
Cybernetic & automatic control system : Negative
feedback, positive feedback, feed forward control.
Specific
characteristics
and
mechanisms of
the human body
make it a living
being.
Levels of physiological research
Metabolism : It is the ability to use energy to
perform vital functions such as growth, movement,
and reproduction.
Excitability and Responsiveness : An organism is
responsive if it can sense (excitability) changes in
the environment and make adjustments that help
maintain its life.
Reproduction :
The formation of new cells or new organisms.
Is reproduction a homeostatic function???
Maintenanceof static or
constant conditions in
the internal
environment
Concentration of O2 and CO2
Concentration of nutrients and waste products
pH of internal environment
Concentration of salts and other electrolytes
Volume, temperature and pressure of extra
cellular fluid
Nervous regulation

Humoral regulation

Autoregulation
Reflex

Knee jerk reflex


Receptor
Afferent (sensory) nerve
Reflex centre (Brain or spinal cord)
Efferent (Motor) nerve
Effector
Humoral regulation
by hormone
Intrinsic ability of an organ to
maintain constant normal environment
independent of neural and hormonal
influences.
Eg: Autoregulation of blood flow despite of
changes in perfusion pressure.
(By metabolic and myogenic mechanisms)
Cybernetics is the theoretical study of
control processes in electronic,
mechanical, and biological systems

The analysis of flow of information in a system


Negative feedback mechanism

Positive feedback mechanism

Feed forward mechanism


When some factor becomes
excessive or deficient, a
control system initiates
negative feedback, which
consists of a series of
change that return the
factor toward a certain
mean value, thus
maintaining homeostasis
Arterial pressure regulating
mechanism by
baroreceptors.
Regulation of CO2 in
extracellular fluid.
Regulation of hormone
release.
Positive implies that, when a deviation from a
normal value occurs, the response of the system is to
make the deviation even greater.
(Why is positive feedback also called vicious cycle)

Eg : Inadequate delivery of blood to cardiac


muscle due to bleeding.
Stretching of
uterine cervix
during
parturition.

Action
potential
propagation.
Hemostasis (Blood coagulation)
When response has to occur rapidly, the brain
uses a principle called feed forward control.
Seen mainly in nervous system. Eg:
Conditioned reflex
Adaptive control.
Text book of medical physiology, Guyton
& Hall. 11th edition.
Review of Medical Physiology, William F.
Ganong. 22nd edition.
Web sites: www.physiol.net
www.biotopics.co.uk
1. Eric Mayo Dagradi, dr, M.Kes, AIF (Kepala Bagian
Ilmu Faal )
2. S. Djoni Husodo, dr, M.Kes. (Koordinator Pendidikan
Ilmu Faal)
3. Indri N. Rahayu, dr, M.Kes. (Koordinator Praktikum
Ilmu Faal )
4. Dody Taruna, dr. (Koordinator Ilmu Kesehatan Olahraga)
5. Asami, dr.
6. Nungki, drg, M.Kes (Koordinator Kedokteran Gigi)