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Petroleum Systems

PS insp

The Petroleum System and/or the Hydrocarbon


Machine

Oil is found in the minds of men

or, more fully,

Where oil is first found is, in the final analysis, in the minds of
men.

Wallace E. Pratt, Chief Geologist, Humble Oil Company


Frequently cited by Michel T. Halbouty, past AAPG
president
and winner of AGIs Legendary Geoscientist Award

Wallace E. Pratt Michel T. Halbouty


FROM
ANTICLINE HUNTING

TO
PETROLEUM SYSTEM
Anticline Hunting :
Penerapan pertama kali secara ilmiah konsep
geologi dalam explorasi Migas.
Sterry Hunt, 1861

Petroleum System :
Penerapan konsep geologi paling mutakhir dlm
eksplorasi Migas
Dow, 1974 Oil System,
Perrodon, 1980 Petroleum System
Anticline Hunting
Observasi :
1842 : Sir William Logan menghubungkan terdapatnya rembesan
minyak dengan struktur antiklin di P. Gaspe di mulut S. St
Lawrence Canada.

Observasi pertama yg menghubungkan terdapatnya minyak


bumi dengan antiklin

1859 : Kolonel William Drake membor minyak secara komersial


di dekat rembesan.
Awal industri migas

1860 : Henry D Rogers Akumulasi minyak yang ditemukan


oleh William Drake terdapat pada sumbu antiklin
Anticline Hunting
1861 :
Sterry Hunt
Ceramah di Montreal Canada
Publikasi di Montreal Gazette
The History of Petroleum

Andrews seorang guru besar geologi Marrieta College


Menunjukkan keberadaan minyak dan gas sepanjang antiklin

Keduanya percaya bahwa akumulasi minyak pada


puncak antiklin adalah akibat retakan
Anticline Hunting
Pendapat Logan, Rogers, Hunt, Andrews dan
Winchel sedikit sekali diperhatikan oleh perusahaan.

I.C White Geologist pertama yang


mendemonstrasikan kebenaran teori antiklin.

Teori antiklin diterima oleh ahli geologi di zaman itu


dan digunakan dalam pencarian minyak bumi

Mulailah era Anticline Hunting

1897 : Pertamakali geologist dipekerjakan oleh


perusahaan Migas (Southern Pacific Oil Company)
Anticline Hunting
Pada awalnya konsep Antiklin cukup berhasil
Gabungan antara Rembesan dan Antiklin

Lama kelamaan kurang berhasil


Antiklin tanpa rembesan dibor juga

Pemikiran berkembang:
Kenapa ada antiklin yang menjadi tempat
akumulasi minyak dan ada pula yang tidak ?
Batuan Reservoir

Setelah diteliti ternyata antiklin yang mengandung


minyak adalah antiklin yang terdapat batuan
yang berpori

Lahirnya konsep batuan reservoir

Konsep ini sebetulnya sudah mulai dikemukakan


oleh Alexander Wichel dari Michigan (1860)
bahwa batupasir yang terdapat di antiklin cukup
mempunyai pori untuk menyimpan minyak tetapi
karena keberhasilkan konsep antiklin fenomena
ini kurang diperhatikan.
Batuan Reservoir

Lahirnya konsep batuan reservoir

Hanya antiklin yang mengandung


batuan reservoir yang dapat
terisi minyak
Batuan Induk
Pemikiran batuan reservoir tersebut terus
berkembang lebih lanjut karena adanya fakta bahwa
Ada struktur antiklin di dalamnya juga terdapat batuan
reservoir
Tetapi antiklin tersebut setelah dibor tidak juga mengandung
minyak

Apa penyebab kegagalan konsep tersebut ?

Lahirnya konsep batuan induk


Perdebatan origin dari migas

Lebih lanjut Lahirnya konsep Petroleum System


Petroleum System

Sejarah Petroleum system


Dow 1972, 1974 menerbitkan tulisan dalam
AAPG ;
Oil-Oil,
Oil-source rock correlation

Dapat memisah dan menghubungkan


minyak dalam reservoir tertentu dengan
batuan sumber tertentu (source rock)

Oil System
Petroleum System
Perrodon 1980, 1983
Pertama kali menggunakan istilah Petroleum System
tetapi dalam bahasa Perancis statement utamanya
adalah sebagai berikut:

The geologic criteria governing the distribution of


pools, and in particular the combined presence of
source rocks, reservoirs and seals, generally exhibit
a certain geographic extension which is reflected by
the formation of a family of pool or even better, a
petroleum system, a structured set of natural
elements of the same species or having the same
function.
Petroleum System
Demaison 1984
Generative Basin :
Areas underlain by mature source rocks
are called petroleum generative
depression or hydrocarbon kitchens

A generative basin is define as a


sedimentary basin that contain one or
more petroleum generative depression
Petroleum System

Meissner et al. 1984 :


Hydrocarbon Machine
Sequence which contain all of the
elements involved in the process of
hydrocarbon generation from source
rock to consequent migration and
accumulation constitute what may be
termed natural geologic hydrocarbon
machines.
Petroleum System
Ulsimek 1986
Independent Petroliferous System (IPS)
.a body of rocks separated from
surrounding rocks by regional barriers to
lateral and vertical migration of fluid,
including oil and gas. Stratigraphically an
IPS is essentially homogeneous, it
includes source rocks, reservoir rocks,
traps and regional seal..
Petroleum System

Magoon 1987
The Petroleum System emphasizes the
genetic relation between a particular
source rock and resulting petroleum
accumulation..
Petroleum System

Definisi :
Magoon and Dow (1994)
Natural system that encompasses pod
of active source rock and all related oil
and gas and which includes all the
geologic element and processes that
are essential if a hydrocarbon
accumulation is to exist
PS defns
The Petroleum System and/or the Hydrocarbon Machine

A petroleum system: The integration in time and space of


source, migration, reservoir, trap, and seal. LBR

. . . a petroleum province can be considered as the final result of


an organized set of geologic events (in space and in time) that can
be called a petroleum system. In such a system, the sequence of
subsidence movements and associated flows is just as decisive as
lithologic and geometric factors in the formation of a group of
pools.
Perrodon & Masse 1984

The elements of a petroleum system consist of source rock,


migration path, reservoir rock, seal, and trap, and those elements
"must be placed in time and space such that a petroleum deposit
can occur.
Magoon 1987

All of the factors which affect the processes of hydrocarbon


generation, migration, and accumulation constitute elements of
a total system which may be described as a machine. Bibliography
Meissner et al. 1984 is on next page.
PS5
University of Georgia Department of Geology GEOL 4320/6320 Petroleum Geology

A petroleum system:
The integration in time and
space of source, migration
pathway(s), reservoir(s),
trap(s), and seal(s).
Petroleum System at Critical Moment
Critical Moment = Time of Expulsion/Migration

GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM


A Trap 250 Ma Trap Trap A

STRATIGRAPHIC
EXTENT OF
PETROLEUM SYSTEM

Overburden

Sedimentary
Essential

basin-fill
elements of Seal
POD OF ACTIVE petroleum
SOURCE ROCK system Reservoir
Source
Petroleum accumulation Underburden
Top of oil window
Bottom of oil window
Location for burial history chart

JMA Magoon and Dow, 1994


Four Levels of Petroleum Investigation
Petroleum System

Di dalam definisi dikemukakan


semua mengandung dua
pernyataan penting yaitu :

1. Element
2. Processes
Petroleum Systems
Elements Processes
Source Rock Generation
Migration Route Migration
Reservoir Rock Accumulation
Seal Rock Preservation
Trap
Petroleum System

Secara garis besar Petroleum


System dapat dibagi menjadi 2 sub
systems yaitu :

1. Generative Sub System


2. Migration and Entrapment Sub System
Petroleum System
- Generative Sub System

Element : Source Rocks


Richness, TOC
Kerogen Types : Type I, Type II, Type III
Oil prone, gas prone
Processes : Thermal Maturation
Rock eval/Pyrolysis, Tmax, Ro, TAI, TTI
Basin Mod, Thermal modeling.
Petroleum System
- Migration and Entrapment Sub System

Element : Generated hydrocarbon


Processes :
Expulsion (Primary migration)
Source rock Carrier bed
Expulsion model, expulsion and generation,
expulsion effeciency

Secondary migration
Within carrier bed to traps
Migration model, driving force, ristricting force.
Petroleum System
Entrapment Sub System
Element : Migrated hydrocarbon
Trap geometry
Reservoir rocks
Seal rock

Processes : Migration
Trapping
Critical Moment :

The critical moment is that point in time selected by the


investigator that best depicts the generation-migration-
accumulation of most hydrocarbons in a petroleum
system. A map or cross section drawn at the critical
moment best shows the geographic and stratigraphic
extent of the system.
Magoon, L.B., and W. G. Dow, 1994, The petroleum system, in Magoon, L. B, and
W. G. Dow, eds., The Petroleum SystemFrom Source to Trap: AAPG Memoir 60, p. 3-
24.

The critical moment is the time of source-rock maturation


and of migration of petroleum into its primary trap.
LBR
Burial History based on Pseudo well (seismic line c215 sp 3335)

Pseudo well

Oil generation on
4 Ma @ 3741 m

Paleocene

Gas generation Jurassic


on 2 Ma @ 5412
m

Slide 33
Petroleum System Summary and Chart

Slide 34
TUGAS 1
Buat resume tentang hakekat migas