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AREAS AND VOLUME


Mohd Effendi Daud (Dr. Sc)
B.Surv (UTM, Malaysia) Msc (UTM, Malaysia), Dr. Sc (Nagoya Univ., Japan)
(Geomatic Division)
Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, MALAYSIA.
Phone : +6074537363; +60197853740; Fax : +6074537060
E-mail : effendi@uthm.edu.my
Web: http://www.fkass.uthm.edu.my/

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INTRODUCTION
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Area is often required in the context of design,


e.g., we might need the surface area of a lake,
the area of a tract of land or of a cross-
sectional area of road cutting.
Volumes are often calculated by integrating
the area at regular intervals e.g., along a road
centerline, or by using regularly spaced
contours.

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INTRODUCTION
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We need to know the volume of materials in


virtually all facets of civil engineering
especially in design and construction e.g.,
earthwork computations, amount of cut or fill,
amount of concrete, and etc.
There are two cases for calculating the areas:
Areas of Straight Boundary
Area of Irregular Boundary

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AREAS OF STRAIGHT
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BOUNDARY

The determination of areas depend upon the


topography of the terrain and the accuracy
required.
The area of land portion, may be determined
by the following methods:
from the field notes, and
from the plotted plan or map

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AREAS OF STRAIGHT
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BOUNDARY

Computation of Areas from Field Notes


Whenever the area of a plot of land is to be
determined directly from the field notes, it should be
ensured that the survey lines include the whole area
and the land is divided into geometrical figures such
as:-
Triangles,
Squares,
Rectangles and etc.

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AREAS OF STRAIGHT
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BOUNDARY
Computation of Areas from Field Notes
= 0.5*ab*Sin C
= 0.5*ac*Sin B
Case 1: = 0.5*bc*Sin A

Area of triangle ABC is given as ss a s bs c


where, s a b c
1
2

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AREAS OF STRAIGHT
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BOUNDARY
Computation of Areas from Field Notes

Case 2:

1
bh
2
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AREAS OF STRAIGHT
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BOUNDARY
Computation of Areas from Field Notes

Case 3:

The area of a rectangle a b


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AREAS OF STRAIGHT
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BOUNDARY
Computation of Areas from Field Notes

Case 4:

a b d
1
The area of a trapezium
2

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AREAS OF STRAIGHT
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BOUNDARY

Computation of Areas from Plans


1. Graphical method

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AREAS OF STRAIGHT
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BOUNDARY

Computation of Areas from Plans


2. Instrumental method

The Planimeter

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AREA BY COORDINATES
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The area of shape ABCDEA can be calculated


in the following manner????

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AREA OF IRREGULAR
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BOUNDARY

1.The Trapezoidal Rule


Offset Must be
even ordinates

A1
A2 A3 A4 A5

where,
O1, O2, : Offset
L : Interval between offset (constant)
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AREA OF IRREGULAR
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BOUNDARY

1.The Trapezoidal Rule


Trapezoidal formula

A1 = (O1 + O2) L
A2 = (O2 + O3) L
A3 = (O3 + O4) L and,
A5 = (O5 + O6) L

= L/2 [(O1 + O6 + 2(O2 +O3 + O4 + O5)]

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AREA OF IRREGULAR
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BOUNDARY

2.The Simpsons Rule


In Simpsons Rule, it is assumed that the irregular
boundary is comprised of parabolic arcs.
Parabola arc

A = P/3 [(O1 + O7 + 4(O2+O4 + O6) + 2(O3 + O5)]

A = P/3 [1st + last ordinates) + 4 (even ordinates)


+ 2 (odd ordinates)]
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AREA OF IRREGULAR
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BOUNDARY

2.The Simpsons Rule


Parabola arc

It is important to note that Simpsons Rule requires an


even number of divisions of the area, i.e. the total
number of ordinates must be odd.

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VOLUMES
Mohd Effendi Daud (Dr. Sc)
B.Surv (UTM, Malaysia) Msc (UTM, Malaysia), Dr. Sc (Nagoya Univ., Japan)
(Geomatic Division)
Faculty of Civil & Environmental Engineering,
Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, 86400 Batu Pahat, Johor, MALAYSIA.
Phone : +6074537363; +60197853740; Fax : +6074537060
E-mail : effendi@uthm.edu.my
Web: http://www.fkass.uthm.edu.my/

With Wisdom, We Explore


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INTRODUCTION
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In civil engineering calculation of volumes of


earthwork is required.
There are several methods available for the
determination of the volume of three dimensional
figures and earthworks.
Generally the methods are based on using field
survey techniques to acquire data that represents
the shape of the land so that volume calculations can
proceed.
The methods are as follow:

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VOLUMES
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Cross-Sections
A cross-section of the natural surface indicates the
existing ground profile normal to a fixed direction at
a selection point.
The fixed direction is usually of significance such as
the center line of a road.
Example of cross sections are described as follow:

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VOLUMES
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Cross-Sections
For a cut or fill on horizontal ground

Area = h(2b + nh)


where h is the average cutting depth, n is the side slope
and b is the formation width
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VOLUMES
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Cross-Sections
For a cut and fill on sloping ground

Assuming a cut such as the Fig.


the cross-sectional area is found
firstly by calculating WL & WG.

WL = S(b + nh)/(S + n)
WG = S(b + nh)/(S-n)

Thus Area = (h + b/n)(WL + WG) - b2/n

1: S & 1: n
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For cut and fill

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W1 = g (b/2 + hs) / (g-s)


W2 = g (b/2 - hs) / (g-s)

Vol of cutting= (b/2 + gh)/[ (g - s)]


Vol of filling=With
(b/2Wisdom,
gh)/[We(gExplore
- s)]
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VOLUMES
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Volumes from Contours

contour 190
contour 188
contour 186
contour 18
contour 182

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VOLUMES
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Volumes from Contours - solutions

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VOLUMES
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Volumes from Contours - solutions


SIMPSON formula

I = d/3 [ (A1 + An) +4(A2 + A4 + .. + An-1) + 2(A3) ]

= d/3 [ (A1 + A5) +4(A2 + A4 ) + 2(A3) ]

= 2/3 [ (3150 + 210) +4(840 + 2460 ) + 2(1630) ]

= 2/3 [ (3360) +4(3300 ) + 2(1630) ]

= 13,213.3 m

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VOLUMES
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Volumes from Spot Heights

This method is particularly useful for large, open


excavations such as tank, borrow pits etc.
The area is divided into a grid, and levels obtained at
the intersection points.
The spacing of the grid depends on the terrain,
accuracy required, and resources available.

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VOLUMES
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Volumes from Spot Heights


There are two methods
Rectangular base, and
Triangular base

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VOLUMES
Rectangular base - solution
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Dug Dug Occurance No. (N) x (X)
Points Reduced Level (Reduced Level) Level (X) (N)
A 13.15 10.00 3.15 1 3.15
B 13.70 10.00 3.70 2 7.40
C 14.33 10.00 4.33 1 4.33
D 13.94 10.00 3.94 2 7.88
E 14.80 10.00 4.80 4 19.20
F 14.97 10.00 4.97 2 9.94
G 15.17 10.00 5.17 1 5.17
H 16.10 10.00 6.10 2 12.20
J 14.67 10.00 4.67 1 4.67

16 73.94
Average (Dug) = 73.94/16 = 4.62
Volume = Area x Average
= (30 x 25) x 4.62 = 3465.9 m2
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VOLUMES
Triangular base - solution
www.uthm.edu.my Dug Dug Occurance No. (N) x (X)
Points Reduced Level (Reduced Level) Level (X) (N)
A 13.15 10.00 3.15 1 3.15
B 13.70 10.00 3.70 3 11.10
C 14.33 10.00 4.33 2 8.66
D 13.94 10.00 3.94 3 11.82
E 14.80 10.00 4.80 6 28.80
F 14.97 10.00 4.97 3 14.91
G 15.17 10.00 5.17 2 10.34
H 16.10 10.00 6.10 3 18.30
J 14.67 10.00 4.67 1 4.67

24 111.75

Average (Dug) = 111.75/24 = 4.66


Volume = Area x Average
= (30 x 25) x 4.66 = 3492.2 m2
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Pheewww! End of Part VI

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