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Miniature long bones:

these bones have a

appearance and
often they have
only one epiphysis.
Examples of this
class of long bones
are metacarpals,
metatarsals and
phalanges of both
upper and lower
Typical long bones:

They have an
elongated shaft and
two ends and are
represented by bones
such as humerus,
femur, radius, ulna,
tibia and fibula.

Bone is a dense type of connective tissue impregnated

with inorganic salts mainly the salts of calcium such as
calcium phosphate, calcium carbonate etc. The organic
portion of the bone constitutes one third (1/3) and the
inorganic salt component constitutes two third (2/3).
The inorganic salts are mainly responsible for rigidity
and hardness, which make bone resist compression
caused by the forces of weight and impact. The organic
connective tissue portion of the bone makes it resilient
and thus the bone can afford resistance to tensile
forces. In strength bone is comparable to iron and

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The Skeletal System
Types of bone
Types on the basis of shape: Types on the basis of region:
Long bones, Bones of axial skeleton,
Short bones, Bones of appendicular
Flat bones, skeleton
Irregular bones, Types on the basis of
Pneumatic bones, structure:
According to Macroscopic
Sesamoid bones approach;
Types on the basis of Compact bone,
development: spongy bone
Membranous bones, According to Microscopic
Cartilaginous bones, approach:
Membro-cartilaginous bones Fibrous bone,
; Lamellar bone
Modified long bones:
These bones either have modified shaft or
ends. They have no medullary cavity which is
present in the typical long bones. Examples of
this class of bones are clavicle and body of
Short bones:
These bones are short in posture and can be of
any shape. Most of them are named according
to their shape. Examples of this class of bones
include cuboid, cuneiform, scaphoid, trapezoid
etc. In fact all the carpal and tarsal bones are
included in this category.
Flat bones:
These bones are flat in appearance and have
two prominent surfaces. They resemble shallow
plates and form boundaries of certain body
cavities. Examples include scapula, ribs,
sternum etc.
Irregular bones:

The shape of
these bones is
irregular and they
do not fit into any
category of shape.
Examples of this
type of bones are
vertebrae, hip
bone and bones in
the base of skull.
Pneumatic bones:
Pneumatic bones:
Pneumatic bones can also be
categorized under the irregular bones
because they are also irregular in
shape but since there is a difference
between the two that is
characteristically very important
therefore they are often classified
separately. The characteristic
difference is the presence of large air
spaces in these bones which make
them light in weight and thus they
form the major portion of skull in the
form of sphenoid, ethmoid and
maxilla. Besides making the skull light
in weight they also help in resonance
of sound and as air conditioning
chambers for the inspired air.
Sesamoid bones:

These are not like the

other types of bones
because they are in the
form of nodules
embedded in tendons
and joint capsules. They
do not possess any
periosteum and their
ossification also takes
place after birth.
Examples of this type of
bones are patella,
Types of bone on the basis of
all bones are composed of same material. The
difference only is in the pattern of arrangement.
This classification is based on the same thing
that is pattern of arrangement of bony tissue.
The structural classification has two approaches
that are macroscopic approach and microscopic
Macroscopic approach divides the bones into
two categories that are;
Compact bone:
The part of a bone where bone substance to
bone space ration is a bigger quantity is called
compact bone. This means that there is more
bone tissue and less empty space.
Spongy bone:
The part of a bone where bone substance to
bone space ratio is a smaller quantity. This
means that there is more empty space and less
bone tissue.
Functions of Bones

Mechanical Functions of bones:

Synthetic Functions of Bones:
Metabolic Functions of Bones:
Mechanical Functions of bones:
At numerous places inside the body, bones serve to protect
important and delicate organs. The best examples to be quoted
here are those of brain (which is protected by the skull) and heart
(which is protected by the ribcage).
Because of their rigid nature, bones provide a framework around
which the body is built. So bones are responsible for the shape and
form of human body.
Working with skeletal muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints, the
bones form the moving machinery of human body. The major role
of bones in movement is that they act as levers, which make use of
the forces generated by skeletal muscles in a beneficial way.
Synthetic Functions of Bones:

Synthesis of blood cells:

The major synthetic role of bones is to produce blood
cells. The bones themselves are not capable of doing
this. Instead, they house the bone marrow, which
contains Hematopoietic stem cells, capable of
producing blood cells. In infants, bone marrow of all
long bones is capable of this synthesis, however, as a
person gets older, the red marrow turns into yellow
fatty marrow, which is no more capable of
hematopoiesis. The red marrow in adults and older
individuals is restricted to vertebrae and heads of tibia
and femur.
Metabolic Functions of Bones:
Mineral Storage:
Bones serve as an important store house of
minerals such as calcium and phosphorus.
Fat storage:
The yellow bone marrow of long bones act as a
storage of fats.
Role in acid-base balance:
Bone buffers the blood against excessive pH
changes by absorbing or releasing alkaline salts
Blood Supply of Bones:

Bones receive blood supply from a number of

different sources, all of which have their own
importance. The sources include Nutrient artery,
Epiphyseal arteries, Periosteal arteries and
Metaphyseal arteries.
Nerve Supply of bones:

Most of the nerves coming to bones are

sympathetic and vasomotor in function. Bones
form important sensory organs of the body to
provide useful information to the Central Nervous
Vertebral Column

The spine is the central support for the body. Another word for the spine is the
backbone. The spine is made of separate irregular bones called vertebrae. The
vertebrae are made up of spongy or cancellate bone surrounded by a layer of
compact bone. In between each vertebrae is a layer of cartilage that keeps the
bones from rubbing against each other.
There are twenty six vertebrae in the spine. Although each vertebrae can only
move a little bit, the total spine is very flexible. The spine of a human being is
curved. Most other mammals have a straight spine. The curves allow the spine to
support and balance the body on only two legs.