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Explain of base and part of herbs


contain useful materials

Systematic Classification of Herbs

Manufacturing simplicia of herbs

Identification simplicia and herbs

Explain usefulness and useful


materials of herbs

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Definition of Drug or Medicine

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Definition of Traditional
Base on Permenkes RI No.
Medicine
246/Menkes/Per/V/1990,
Traditional Medicine are all useful materials
from herbs, animal, mineral, galenical substance
by traditional method based on experiences

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Galenical Substance
Herbs or animal extraction produce Galenical
substance

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Range of Pharmacognocy
Pharmacognocy is part of :
Biopharmacy
Biochemistry and
Chemicals synthesis

Its become a broad range, as same as definition of


pharmacognocy by Fluckiger

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Pharmacognocy consist of following aspects:
Macroscopic and Microscopic observation
Identification, Isolation, Purification and drug or
medicines synthesis

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Definition of Simplicia
is a natural substance useful that no processing on it
besides drying/evaporation

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Simplicias Preparation:
Natural Substance

Systematic and - Herbs


morphology of - Animal
plants - Mineral
Systematic and
Identification
Natural Substance
of drug
- Collectionsi
- Drying
- Simple Preparation
- Lasting
- Storage
Prepared
Pharmacognocy Substance
( Simplicia )

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Nomenclature of Plant
Latins Name of Plan
Ex: Oryza sativa

Genus: Species:
Oryza sativa
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If latin name of plants come from 2 words and more (3
words), 2 from 3 words separated by mark (-) .
For example :
Strychnos nux - vomica
Hibiscus rosa sinensis

Homonim: 1 latin name is used for 2 different plan

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Complete scientific name of plan:
Latin name
Abbreviation of name of botanist

For example:
Name of botanist: Abbreviation: Complete name of plan:
Linnaeus L Oryza sativa L
Miller Mill Foeniculum vulgare Mill
Houttuyn Houtt Myristica fragrans Houtt

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Nomenclature of Simplicia

Based on Indonesian Pharmacopeia those Name of


Simplicia consist of genuss name or speciess name
of plant, than following by part of plants name

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Part of Plant
Cormus ( plants body) common be 3 part:
radix (root)
caulis (stem), dan
folium (leaf)

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Other parts of plant:
gema (bud),flos (flower),
fructus (fruit), semen (seed) pulpa (flesh fruit),
tubera (tuber), rhizoma (rhizome), bulbus (onion),
Cortex (bark of stem/fruit), lignum (wood)
herba (herb/part of plant which growth top of
ground)

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The Example of Simplicias
1.Genus + part of plants name:
Name:
Cinchonae Cortex, Digitalis Folium,
Thymi Herba, Zingiberis Rhizoma
2.Species + part of plants name:
Belladonnae Herba, Serphylli Herba,
Ipecacuanhae Radix, Stramonii Herba
3.Genus + species + part of plants name:
Curcumae aeruginosae Rhizoma,
Capsici frutescentis Fructus

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Latins Spelling

We have known that Alphabetical Latin and Alphabet


in Indonesian language are same letter but it can be
divided into writing and spelling

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Latins SpellingLatins Spelling
In the following table are some examples of spelling letter
or word of Latin:

Letter/
Read Example Spelling
letters
ae e Galangae ga-la-nge
Lobeliae lo-be-li-e
c k jika diikuti huruf a, Cacao ka-ka-o
o, u atau huruf mati Cola ko-la
Curcuma kur-ku-ma
Fructus Fruk -tus
c s jika diikuti huruf Cera Se-ra
e, i, y Citri Sit-tri
Glycyrrhiza Gli-si-ri-sa

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cc kk jika diikuti Succus Suk-kus
huruf a , o, u

cc ks jika diikuti Coccinella Kok-si-ne-la


huruf
e, i, y

ch kh jika diikuti Cinchona Sin-ko-na


huruf
hidup

ch h jika diikuti huruf Strychni Strih-ni


mati
eae e Dioscoreae Di-es-ko-re
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eu e +u Oleum O-le-um

Cetaceum Se-ta-se-um

ff f Paraffinum Pa-ra-fi-num

ie i..+ ye Iecoris Iye-ko-ris

ii i +i Aurantii Au-ran-ti-i

j y Cajuputi Ka-yu-pu-ti

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ll l Vanilla Va-ni-la

mm m Gummi Gu-mi

Ichtammolum Ih-ta-mo-lum

nh n Ipecacuanhae I-pe-ka-ku-ane

oe eu Foeniculi Feu-ni-ku-li

Asafoetida A-sa-feu-ti-da

nn n Belladonna Be-la-do-na

Sennae Se-ne

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ph f Orthosiphon Or-to-si-fon

pp p hippoglossi hi-po-glo-si

qu kw quercus kwer-kus

rh r rhei re-i
rhizoma ri-zo-ma

rr r myrrha mi-ra

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sh sy shorea syo-re

purshiana pur-si-a-na

ss s Cassia ka-si-a

th t Mentha men-ta

tiae sie Liquiritiae li-kwi-ri-sie

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x ks jika tertera pada Pix p iks
tengah / akhir kata
radix ra-diks
cortex kor-teks
bixa bik-sa
x s jika pada permulaan xanthorrhiza san-to-ri-za
kata

y i jika didahului dan / hydrastis hi-dras-tis


atau diikuti oleh huruf
mati maydis ma-i-dis

y y jika diapit oleh 2 papaya pa-pa-ya


huruf hidup

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Identification of Herbs and Simplicia
Indonesian Name : Daun Saga
Name of Plant : Abrus precatorius L.
Familia : Papilionaceae
Name of Useful material : Glisirisin more than
Simplicia: 15%
Utility : Antisariawan
Abri Folium

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Microscopic of Abri Folium
Longitudinal section of pinnate leaf:
1. Upper Epidermis
2. Palisade Tissue
3. Sponge Tissue
4. Transport Bundle
5. Under Epidermis
6. Lid hair
7. Calcium Oscillate with Prismatic
Crystal

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Powder

Serbuk Daun Saga:


1. Lid hair
2. Upper Epidermis
3. Spiral Wood Artery
4. Palisade
5. Under Epidermis
6. Calcium Oscillate

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Alyxiae Cortex

Nama Indonesia
Name of Plane
: Kulit pulasari
: Alyxia reinwardtii Bl.
Familia : Apocynaceae
Useful material : Kumarin, volatile oil,
Name of sour organic
Simplicia: Utility : Antipyretic
Alyxiae Cortex

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Microscopic of Alyxiae Cortex
Longitudinal section of
liana leaf:
1. Cork Tissue
2. Felogen
3. Outside Cortex Tissue
4. Cortex Parenchyma
5. Stone Cell
6. Sap Artery
7. Phloem Tissue
8. Cyperus Microiria
9. Calcium Oscillate Crystal

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Microscopic of Alyxiae Cortex Powder

Powder of Liana Corrtex:


1. Cortex Parenchyma with Stone
Cell
2. Cork Tissue
3. Calcium Oxalate with Prismatic
Crystal
4. Stone Cell

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Baeckeae Folium
Indonesian Name : Daun jungrahab
Name of Plant: Baeckea frutescens L.
Familia : Myrtaceae
Name of simplicia: Useful Material : Volatile Oil
Baeckeae Folium Utility : Diuretic

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Microscopic of Baeckeae
Folium

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Microscopic of Baeckeae Folium Powder

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Boesenbergiae Rhizoma Indonesian Name : Rimpang temukunci
Name of Plant: Boesenbergia pandurata
(Roxb.) Schlecht.
Familia : Zingiberaceae
Name of simplicia: Useful Materials : Volatile Oil 0,06% -
Boesenbergiae 0,32%, resin, starch
Khasiat : Antidiarhea
Rhizoma

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Rhizoma

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Microscopic Boesenbergia Rhizoma Powder

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Sappan Lignum

Indonesian Name : Kayu Secang
Name of Plant: Caesalpinia sappan L.
Familia : Caesalpiniaceae
Name of Useful Material : Pigmen, tanin, galat sour,
brasilin
Simplicia: Utility : Antidiarhea
Sappan Lignum

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Lignum

Literature: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Lignum Powder

Sumber: Materia Medika Indonesia


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Endang Diyah Ikasari, 2008, Farmasi , Departemen
Booklist
Pendidikan Nasional, Jakarta
Sekber SMF, 2008, Farmakognosi Kelas X, Pusdiknakes,
Departemen Kesehatan, Jakarta
Dikdik Gunawan&Sri Mulyani, 2004, Ilmu Obat Alam
(Farmakognosi), Jilid I, Penebar Swadaya, Jakarta
Departemen Kesehatan, Materia Medika Indonesia, Jakarta
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www.google.com

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