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IS Network

Standards and
Protocol
Main Key Points:
Use of IS Network
Types of networks
Network Services
Network Standards and Protocols
Open System Interconnection Model
Information System
+ Networks
= IS Networks
Typical Line of Networks
Dedicated circuit

Switched circuit
Main Types of Switching
Mechanism
Circuit Switching

Packet switching
Types of Networks
Personal Area Network (PAN)
Local Area Network (LANs)
Wide Area Network (WANs)
Metropolitan Area Network (MANs)
Storage Area Network (SANs)
Network Services
Types Network Services
Configuration and management
E.g. DHCP
Remote Access
File management
E.g. FTP
Print services
Information
E.g. WWW, Video Sharing
Communication
E.g. email, chat, videoconference
Common Network Services
Email Services
Directory Services
Network Management
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol
(DHCP)
Domain Name System (DNS)
Network Architecture
Standards
Challenges
Interoperability
Availability
Flexibility
Maintainability
Open System
Interconnection
Architecture
Computer Networks : communication (information sharing)
between different systems

Protocols : rules which guides the communication

Communication Model : protocols that are grouped


together (e.g: OSI Communication Model)

OSI Model : every system participating in the model is open for


communication with other systems
- developed by ISO, an organization which works on
standardization of protocols
Purposes of network architecture
standards
Big picture of communication over network is
understandable through this OSI model
We see how hardware and software work together
We can understand new technologies as they are
developed
Troubleshooting is easier by separate networks
Can be used to compare basic functional relationships
on different networks
OSI Model
Application Layer
7 SMTP, FTP, Telnet

Presentation Layer
6 Format data, Encryption

Session Layer
5 Start and stop session

Transport Layer
4 TCP, UDP, Port Numbers

Network Layer
3 IP Address, Routers

Data Link Layer


2 MAC Address, Switches

Physical Layer
1 Cable, Network Interface Cards, Hubs
Layer 1: Physical
Concerned with the transmission and reception of the
unstructured raw bit stream over a physical medium
Activates, maintains, and deactivates the physical
connection
Voltages and data rates needed for transmission is
defined in the physical layer
Converts the digital/analog bits into electrical signal or
optical signal
Data encoding is done in this layer
Layer 2: Data Link
Provides the functional and procedural means to transfer
data between network entities and to detect and possibly
correct errors that may occur in the physical layer
Synchronizes the information which is to be transmitted over
the physical layer
Make sure data transfer is error free from one node to
another, over the physical layer
Transmitting and receiving data frames sequentially
Sends and expects acknowledgement for frames received
and sent respectively
Resending non-acknowledgement received frames
Establishes a logical layer between two nodes
Manages the frame traffic control over the network, signal the
transmitting node to stop when the frame buffers are full
Layer 3: Network
Networking layer provide:
Routing
Subnet traffic control
Frame fragmentation
Logical-physical address mapping
Subnet usage accounting
Layer 4: Transport
Transportlayer provides:
Message segmentation
Message acknowledgment
Message traffic control
Session multiplexing
Layer 5: Session
Dialogcontrol
Synchronization
Layer 6: Presentation
Data reformatting
Encryption
Compression
Layer 7: Application
Resource sharing and device redirection
Remote file access
Remote printer access
Inter-process communication
Network management
Directory services
Electronic messaging (such as mail)
Network virtual terminals