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Silabus Materi Kuliah

Geologi Hidrokarbon (MGS325)


Dosen : Ir. H.Taat Purwanto MT & Ir. Arista Muhartanto MT
Kompetensi yang diharapkan dicapai oleh Peserta :

Mahasiswa diharapkan mampu mengerti proses terakumulasinya minyak dan gas bumi
dalam suatu cekungan dan mengetahui keterdapatan minyak dan gas bumi tersebut
dengan menggunakan metode wireline-logging

Isi :
Mempelajari kualitas batuan induk yang berkaitan dengan kuantitas material organik
dan tingkat kematangan, proses migrasi dan pengelompokannya, jenis-jenis batuan
reservoar, tipe-tipe perangkap hidrokarbon, dan batuan penyekat/seal. Pola
sedimentasi dan potensi hidrokarbon pada cekungan- cekungan sedimen di Indonesia.
Pembuatan peta net oil dan gas, penentuan parameter resistivity water (Rw), geologic
correlation, pembacaan data wireline logging, meliputi : log gamma ray & spontaneous
potensial untuk identifikasi litologi, log resistivity untuk identifikasi kandungan
reservoar, log density & log neutron untuk identifikasi porositas. Perhitungan
volumetric menggunakan metoda trapezoidal dan pyramidal.
Daftar Pustaka :
North F.K., 1985, Petroleum Geology, British Library Catalog, 617 hal.
Waples D.W, 1985, Geochemistry in Petroleum in Exploration, IHRDC Publishers, 232
hal.
Welte & Tissot, 1984, Petroleum Formation and Occurrence, Springer-Verlag Berlin
Heildelberg, 699 hal.
Schlumberger, 1989, Log Interpretation Principles/ Applications, Schlumberger
Educational Services, 345 hal.
Asquith G., 1982, Basic Well Log Analysis for Geologist, APPG Publishers, 216 hal.
Pencaharian Migas

Industri
MIGAS
Penuh
Resiko

Akumulasi di tempat2
Mencari tempat2
MIGAS tertentu di dalam Kulit Bumi
yang Keadaan Geologinya
memungkinkan untuk
dijumpainya MIGAS/HC

1. Source Rock (Batuan Induk)


2. Migration Path (Jalur Migrasi)
Petroleoum
3. Reservoir Rock
Geology
4. Trap (Perangkap)
5. Seal (Lapisan Penutup)
1st
SEDIMENTARY BASIN
ECONOMICS
NOT
IMPORTANT

2nd
PETROLEUM SYSTEM

3rd
PLAY
ECONOMICS
VERY
IMPORTANT

4th
PROSPECT

Magoon and Dow (1994)


Sedimentary basins, petroleum systems, plays, and
prospect can be view as separate levels of investigation, all
of which are needed to better understand the genesis and
habitat of hydrocarbons.
Sedimentary basin investigations emphasize the
stratigraphic sequence and structural style of sedimentary
rocks.
Petroleum system study describe the genetic relationship
between a pod of active source rock and the resulting oil
and gas accumulations.
Investigation of play describe the present-day geologic
similarity of a series of present-day traps.
Study of prospects describe the individual present-day trap
PETROLEUM SYSTEM
Petroleum System Definition
Geologic components and processes necessary to generate and store hydrocarbons, including a mature
source rock, migration pathway, reservoir rock, trap and seal. Appropriate relative timing of formation of
these elements and the processes of generation, migration and accumulation are necessary for
hydrocarbons to accumulate and be preserved. The components and critical timing relationships of a
petroleum system can be displayed in a chart that shows geologic time along the horizontal axis and the
petroleum system elements along the vertical axis. Exploration plays and prospects are typically
developed in basins or regions in which a complete petroleum system has some likelihood of existing.

Elements Processes
Source Rock Generation
Migration Route
Migration
Reservoir Rock
Accumulation
Seal Rock

Trap Preservation
Loss of carbon and related petroleum potential in the sedimentary cycle
Caprock/
Seal

Reservoar
Rock

Source
Rock
Stages of Hydrocarbon Generation Migration Pathways
Characterizing Source Rocks
To be a source rock, a rock must have three features:
1. Quantity of organic matter
2. Quantity capable of yielding moveable hydrocarbon
3. Thermal maturity
The first two components are products of the depositional setting. The third is the
function of the structural and tectonic history of the province.

Determining the Source Rock Potential


The quantity of organic matter is commonly assessed by a measure of the total organic
carbon (TOC) contained in the rock. Quality is measured by determining the types of
kerogen contained in the organic matter. Thermal maturity is most often estimated by
using vitrinite reflectance measurements and data from pyrolysis analysis.
The table below shows the most common methods used to determined the potential of
the source rock.

To determine . Measure

Quantity of source rock Total Organic Carbon (TOC), present in the source rock

Proportions of individual kerogen


Quality of source rock
Prevalence of long-chain hydrocarbons

Thermal maturity of source Vitrinite reflectance


rock Pyrolysis (Tmax), etc
Minyak & Gas Bumi
ditemukan ?

Bat. Beku
Batuan Fault and Other Traps &
Sedimen Metamorf

CEKUNGAN SEDIMEN
(Sedimentary Basin) di Indonesia
berumur Tersier

Jenis CEKUNGAN SEDIMEN di Indonesia, dibedakan


berdasarkan :
1) Kedudukan terhadap jenis KERAK/LEMPENG (Plate)
2) Gerakan Relatif dari Lempeng (Koesoemadinata, 1978)
Plate Tectonics Basin Classification

Sumber : Koesoemadinata, 1978


AHLI GEOLOGI
SEBAGAI INDIVIDU

PASIF Bekerja pada satu sistem

1. Berfikir Lateral
AKTIF 2. Mempromosikan ide baru
3. Membuat sistem baru
BERPIKIR
LATERAL
Cadangan Migas Indonesia
terbatas ?
Batas tersebut ada di pikiran
sendiri

Oil is found in the mind of


people Find
Oils
BERPIKIR
LATERAL
Baru 25% Cekungan di
Indonesia dieksplorasi
Jumlah Cekungan Hidrokarbon sebanyak 60 cekungan
22 cekungan belum dieksplorasi
38 cekungan sudah dieksplorasi
15 cekungan produksi
11 cekungan belum produksi
12 cekungan belum terbukti
Peta Cekungan Migas di Indonesia
CADANGAN MINYAK BUMI INDONESIA
(Status 1 Januari 2003)

ACEH
NATUNA
176,40
291,81
NORTH 135,18 MALUKU
SUMATERA
EAST KALIMANTAN 7.47
110,62

IRIAN JAYA
CENTRAL 5075,70 1177,16
SUMATERA
132,43
673,7
SOUTH 5
SUMATERA

9,65
1112,82
WEST JAVA 235,87

EAST JAVA

TERBUKTI = 4,727,9 MMSTB


CADANGAN MINYAK BUMI (MMSTB) POTENSIAL = 4.403,5 MMSTB
TOTAL = 9,131,4 MMSTB
CADANGAN GAS BUMI INDONESIA
(Status 1 Januari 2003)

ACEH NATUNA

9.75
55,30
NORTH
SUMATERA EAST
1.06 KALIMANTAN

IRIAN JAYA
CENTRAL 49,14
9.62
SUMATERA
19.73
SOUTH
SOUTH
SUMATERA 21.43
SULAWESI

0.59

7.26
4.36
WEST JAVA

EAST JAVA

TERBUKTI = 91.170,12 TSCF


POTENSIAL = 86.958,65 TSCF
CADANGAN GAS BUMI (TSCF)
TOTAL = 178.228,77 TSCF
Potensi
Sumberdaya 5
Migas Indonesia

-5

Ind. Barat =
21 basin
Ind. Timur =
39 basin

TELAH DIPRODUKSI (15) CADANGAN POTENSIAL BELUM


EKSPLORASI (22) -10

CADANGAN BELUM BELUM TERBUKTI (15)


PRODUKSI (8)
SEDIMENTASI & STRATIGRAFI CEKUNGAN2 DI INDONESIA

Akhir Mesozoikum Seluruh cekungan Terlipat, Diintrusi,


Terangkat, dan Terdenudasi menyebabkan seluruh Batuan pada
umur tersebut (Beku atau Metamorfosa yang telah Tertetonikan)
dianggap sebagai Batuan Dasar (Basement) Batuan Pra-Tersier

Block Faulting (Pensesaran Bongkah) terjadi pada awal Tersier, dan


setelahnya dimulai sedimentasi Non-Marin, biasanya terjadi pada
Oligosen, tetapi pada Cekungan di P. Kalimantan terjadi pada Eosen

Proses sedimentasi dimulai awal Tersier (umumnya Oligosen), tetapi


di Cekungan di P. Kalimantan dimulai pada Eosen.

Perkembangan Sedimentasi Tersier seluruh cekungan


memperlihatkan Pola Yang Sama, dimulai dengan suatu
Transgresi/Genang Laut, (Tersier Awal Miosen Tengah), dan
diakhiri dengan suatu Regresi/Susut Laut(Miosen Tengah
Plio/Plesitosen)
Pola tsb terlihat jelas di Cekungan Sumatera Selatan, dengan
kekecualian di Cekungan Jawa Timur
Diawali pengendapan yg merupakan suatu Daur Terestrial
Penghasil Minyak yg penting (source rock yg bagus)
conto : Cekungan Sumatera Tengah & Cekungan Sunda

Pengendapan Transgresi/Genang Laut


menghasilkan Reservoar Batupasir

Ditandai gejala menyolok Pembentukan Batugamping yg


Luas (terutama di L.Jawa) menandai Periode mulai
tergenangnya seluruh cekungan
misal : Fm. Baturaja (Cek. Sumatera Selatan), Fm. Kujung &
Berai (Cek. Jawa Timur Utara)
Pola/Daur
Sedimentasi Puncak Maksimum Transgresi ditandai oleh Pengendapan Serpih
di Indonesia Marine yg dianggap sebagai Batuan Induk antara lain :
Formasi Gumai (Cek. Sumatera Selatan), Fm. Telisa (Cek. Sumatera
Tengah)
Sedimentasi berlangsung terus sewaktu Peg. Bukit Barisan
(Sumatera) dan Peg. Selatan (Jawa) diangkat dan tererosi, di
beberapa tempat ditandai oleh Unconformity

Terjadi Regresi yg berlangsung terus selama Pliosen, dan diikuti


Perlipatan & Pensesaran pada Plio-Pleistosen
Regresi yg menghasilkan Reservoar Penting yang bersifat
Paralis/ Litoral
misal : Fm. Air Benakat (Cek. Sumatera Selatan), Fm. Ngrayong
(Cek. Jawa Timur Utara) & Fm. Balikpapan/Fm. Pulubalang (Cek.
Kalimantan Timur)
Eksplorasi

Peta Topografi Geologi Bawah Permukaan Tanah

Geologi Permukaan Tanah Foto Udara / Foto Satelit


Kegiatan Survei Geofisika
(seismik, gravity, magnet)
dalam Eksplorasi Migas
KEGIATAN PENGEBORAN
SUMUR EKSPLORASI

Peralatan survai well logging Ahli Geologi meneliti sampel


batuan dari inti pemboran (core)
Frequently used of geophysical methods for surface recording and typical application
Geophysical Physical Typical applications Comment on
method property applicability
measured
Seismology Seismic wave Delineation of Exploration seismology is
velocity, seismic stratigraphy and the most widely used
impedance structures in geophysical method in
contrast, petroleum exploration petroleum exploration.
attenuation,
anisotropy
Gravity Rock density Reconnaissance of Gravity survey are
Surveys contrast large-scale density generally less expensive
anomalies in but have less resolving
petroleum and power than seismic
mineral exploration exploration.
Magnetic Magnetic Reconnaissance of the Aeromagnetic surveys
Surveys susceptibility or crustal magnetic are widely used in both
the rocks intrinsic properties, especially petroleum and mining
magnetization for determination of application for
basement features determining large, deep
structure.
Electrical and Rock resistivity, Mineral exploration These methods are used
electromagneti capacitance, and most frequently in
c surveys inductance mining exploration and
properties well logging (resistivity,
SP, and induction log)
(Lines and Newrick, 2004)
So..
it is not that the resources of H/C
basins in Indonesia limited, but
there has to be another 42 basins (60%
of the number of basins in Indonesia)
yet to be explored in to prove that
Indonesia still have lots of oil & gas to
be found
Major Events for Oil in Indonesia
Year Events
1890 Telaga Said production field sold to a company that later merged
to form Royal Dutch Shell. First production was in 1892
1912 Standard oil of New Jersey through its Ducth subsidary received
Siklus-1 permission to explore for oil in South Sumatera
1921 The Talang Akar field discovered, which proved to be the biggest
find before World War II
1942 Japanese took over most oil fields during World War II and slow
production
1944 Caltex Minas field discovered. Largest oil field in Southeast Asia
1945 Indonesia declared independence from the Nederlands
1961 Government signs first PSC with Asamera for the Block A PSC in
Aceh
1962 Pan America Oil Company signe the first contract of work with
Siklus-2 Pertamina
1962 Indonesia Joined OPEC
1968 National oil companies Permina and Pertamin merged to form
Pertamina
1978 First LNG plant entered production
Siklus-3 2001 The Government revised Oil and Gas Law
2002 Upstream/downstream bodies formed
2003 Pertamina becomes a limited liability company
BERPIKIR
LATERAL
Konsep Siklus
Eksplorasi
Siklus eksplorasi migas Indonesia (I)

* ) Siklus Pertama:
minyak target dangkal,
penemuan gas ditinggalkan,
konsep dan teknologi sederhana,
lokasi on-shore,
reservoir batuan klastik,
struktur-struktur Pliosen-
Pleistocene,
endapan inversi/post-inversi.
Siklus Eksplorasi Migas Indonesia (I)
Siklus Eksplorasi Migas Indonesia (II)

Siklus Kedua:
minyak target kedalaman menengah,
gas dengan cadangan besar mulai dikelola,
konsep dan teknologi lebih maju,
lokasi on-shore dan off-shore,
reservoir batuan karbonat maupun klastik,
struktur-struktur Miocene,
endapan-endapan post-rift.
Siklus Eksplorasi Migas Indonesia (III)

Siklus Ketiga:
minyak dan gas target dalam,
gas dengan cadangan menengah mulai dikelola,
konsep dan teknologi mutakhir,
lokasi on-shore, off-shore, dan laut dalam,
reservoir batuan dasar (basement), karbonat, maupun klastik,
struktur-struktur Paleogene,
endapan-endapan synrift dan pre-rift.
Visualization of Exploration
Drilling Sequence at Banyu-Urip
MENGUASAI TEKNIK
KOMUNIKASI ALTERNATIF

1. Penguasaan Bahasa Inggris


2. Penguasaan Penggunaan
Software (Perminyakan +
Pertambangan)
3. Salesmenship Bisa dibentuk lewat kegiatan
organisasi kemahasiswaan
4. Net Working
MENGUASAI PORTOFOLIO
EKONOMI

Cash Flow
Analysis
Source: http://www.wtrg.com/oil_graphs/oilprice1947.gif
Number of "First Degree" Geoscience Graduates per Year

0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
1938
1940
1942
1944
1946
1948
1950
1952
1954
1956
1958
1960
1962
1964
1966
1968
1970
1972
1974
1938 - 2005

1976
University of Arkansas

1978
1980
1982
Geoscience Graduates vs Oil Price

1984
1986
1988
1990
1992
1994
1996
Note: Oil Prices from WTRG Economics (www.wtrg.com) and Graduate numbers from University of Arkansas

1998
2000
2002
2004
$0
$10
$20
$30
$40
$50
$60
$70
$80

World Oil Price Annual Average in 2004 US Dollars


PROSES PENCARIAN
MINYAK DAN GAS BUMI ?
Proses pencarian minyak dan gas bumi dimulai dari
penelitian geologi survei geologi permukaan dan
survei geologi seismik.
Data yang didapat, berupa data seismik 2D ataupun
seismik 3D memberikan gambaran kondisi geologi
mengenai lapisan batuan di bawah permukaan
Setelah dilakukan pemboran ujicoba (wild cat) dapat
dilakukan penelitian yang lebih detail mengenai
lapisan permukaan bumi proses logging atau
penilaian formasi.
Evaluasi Formasi dalam Eksplorasi Minyak &
Gas Bumi

Suryana Ino & Dono Nardio Total E&P Indonesia


Dn March, 2009Reference, date, place
Universitas Trisakti - Jakarta - Mei 2009.
Offshore Seismic

Land Seismic
Hasil seismik 2D, 3D dan hasil logging
OPERASI PENGEBORAN
(Drilling Operation)

Pemboran suatu cara untuk membuktikan apakah pada lapisan


yang diduga, benar memiliki kandungan hidrokarbon.
Proses pengeboran harus dilakukan secara aman, efektif dan
efesien di lapisan permukaan bumi sampai menembus formasi
yang diperkirakan terdapat cadangan minyak atau gas yg cukup
potensial untuk dikelola dan ekonomis untuk diproduksikan.
Pemboran sebagai jalan keluar masuknya fluida (dari reservoir ke
permukaan, dan dari permukaan ke sumur injeksi)
Pemboran untuk menyelidiki kandungan bawah tanah :
Isi kandungan batuan
Macam sifat batuan
Susunan perlapisan batuan
Umur dan sejarah pengendapan batuan tsb.
Tipe-tipe Pemboran

Pemboran lurus (Vertical Drilling)


Pemboran berarah (Directional Drilling)
Pemboran horizontal (Horizontal Drilling)
Pemboran di :
darat (on-shore),
lepas pantai (off-shore)
anjungan lepas pantai (off-
shore)
Berbagai Perangkap Migas
PETROLEUM SYSTEM DIAGRAM
Caprock/
Seal

Reservoar
Rock

Source
Rock
HYDROCARBON

POOLS
KITCHEN

68 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


EVALUASI DEEP PROSPECT DIBAWAH EXISTING LAYER (1500 2000
MS), REF.GNK-81 TERDAPAT OIL 182 BPOD (LAPISAN GK24)

SELATAN UTARA
GUNUNG KEMALA

EXISTING LIMAU

OBYEKTIF STUDY

???
INTERVAL 2366-2370 m:
HASIL : 227.5/182 BOPD
8.21 MMcfgpd

???
B

A
OIL WINDOW: 1200 m in Merbau Area
1500 m in Gunungkemala Area
A MIGRATION: Late-Midle Miocene....
-VERTICAL: Fault Zones
--LATERAL : along carrier beds

LIMAU

A
FIELD B

LEMATANG DEEP
SOURCE ROCK
? LEMBAK DEEP
DRAG FOLD & SHEAR FRACTURE ZONE POTENTIAL PATH-WAY MIGRATION SOURCE ROCK
FROM LEMATANG DEEP TO UPPERLAYING LIMAU RESERVOIR Mig. Path-way
GEOLOGICAL CROSSECTION WITH HC GENERATION

(Sarjono & Sardjito, 1989)


Petroleum System

Source rock
Maturity
Kitchen area
Migration pathway
Reservoir
Trap
Seal
PETROLEUM SYSTEM DIAGRAM
PETROLEUM SYSTEM
PETROLEUM SYSTEM DIAGRAM
PETROLEUM SYSTEM DIAGRAM
SUMMARY

Basin Geometry
Basin Filling and Stratigraphic Architecture
Source rocks distribution
Maturity, time and distribution (kitchen area)
Migration, time and framework
Reservoir, distribution, geometry and Quality
Trap formation, time and geometry
Relative of, maturation, reservoir development
and trap formation
Tahapan Eksplorasi Migas

Pemetaan Geologi permukaan dengan target struktur


antiklin dimana sekitarnya banyak rembesan minyak
atau gas.
Seismik digunakan untuk eksplorasi migas pertama
kali di lepas pantai (offshore) tahun 1960 an.
Seismik 3D diperkenalkan (lebih detail dan akurat untuk
imaging subsurface) tahun 1980 an.
Simulasi 3D diperkenalkan untuk integrasi data
reservoir, geofisika dan geologi tahun 1990 an.

89 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Exploration review - Geophysical

90 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Geologist Geophysicist Reservoir

Dn March,
2009-
Reference,
91 date, place
Model from present Delta :
Fluvial Channel Fill FLUVIAL CHANNEL- FILL
DIMENSIONS:
- WIDTH: 1-2 KM
- THICKNESS: 15-20 M
POINT BAR

FLOW

POINT BAR

CREVASSE SPLAY
Dn March,
2009-
Reference,
92 date, place
Geologist Geophysicist Reservoir

Dn March,
2009-
Reference,
93 date, place
Mudlogging

Peranan & Tanggungjawab geologist di operasi


pemboran.
Evaluasi data bor dan pembuatan MudLog

94 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


95 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
96 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
97 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
Rig system - Circulation (1)

98 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Rig system - Circulation (2)
1. Well head 13. Gamma densimeter 25. Thermometer (in)
2. Rotary table 14. Electromagnetic flowmeter 26. Resistivity mud electrodes (in)
3. Kelly 15. Choke manifold 27. Mud suction
4. Rotary swivel 16. Thermometer (out) 28. Pump
5. Derrick 17. GZ 11 gas trap 29. Expansion vessel
6. Mud hose 18. Mud ditch 30. Electrical pumps
7. Stand pipe 19. Shale shakers 31. Dampener
8. Mud pressure sensor 20. Restor pit level sensor 32. Densimud
9. Weight under hook sensor 21. Pit no.1 33. Disc gas trap
10. Wireline anchor 22. Pit no.2 34. Settler-drier
11. RPM sensor 23. Pit no.3 35. Resistivity mud electrodes (out)
12. Rotomatic 24. Pit no.4

99 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Rig Type

100 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


101 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
Rate Of Penetration (ROP)

105 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Mudlog
Example
Drilling Rate Hydrocarbon Analysis

Interpreted
Visual Porosity
Chromotograph PPM
Depth (m) Continuous Total Analysis

Lithology
M. per Hr. Cuttings
Lithology Gas in air % Methane---
Propane---
Ethane---
Butane---
Remarks
Pentane---

20 15 10 5 1 10 PPM 1 K 10 K
LS: wht, dk, br, vf, xin, cin, hd
w tr foss

SH: dk gy, gy, frm, occ sft,


occ sity

SS: lt gy, cir, xin, sb ang, sb,


rnd, m grn, oil stn, bri yel
flour, bri gid stng cut

SH: dk gy, gy, frm, occ sft,


occ sity

SS: lt gy, cir, xin, sb ang, sb,


rnd, m grn, oil stn, bri yel
flour, bri gid stng cut

SH: dk gy, gy, frm, occ sft,


occ sity

106 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Wireline Logging

Cara kerja rekaman listrik dan data yg bisa


dipakai untuk interpretasi batuan tahun 1927
diperkenalkan oleh Schlumberger bersaudara.
Penentuan reservoir dan perhitungan porositas,
kandungan lempung dan saturasi air.
Pemilihan reservoir yg berisi hidrokarbon atau
air.
Mempergunakan data rekaman listrik untuk
perhitungan cadangan.

107 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Well Log
SP Resistivity

108 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Openhole Well Logs
Passive measurements
Gamma ray: Indicates lithology
Spontaneous potential: Indicates
lithology
Caliper: Hole condition

Active measurements
Resistivity: Fluid saturation, fluid
Cap rock type
Oil Porosity: Rock properties, quantity
of hydrocarbon
Density: Rock properties, seismic
response
Sonic log: Rock properties,
seismic response
Reservoir rock Source rock
109 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
Wireline Logging
cable

Tool system
Cartridge
Cartridge
electronic device
generator/power supply
telemetry system R

Sonde :
logging sensor(s)/receiver Sonde
transmitter
T

110 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


SP - Spontaneous Potential Log
Principle : measurements

111 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


SP - Spontaneous Potential Log

Summary
measure the potential difference of formation fluid and drilling
fluid

magnitude is measured from established shale-base line: negative


to the left and positive to the right

SSP can be obtained from thick and clean sand, for shaly and thin
sand it measures PSP that need to be corrected.

SSP reading can be used to calculate Rw and Vsh

SP defelection indicate the present of permeable bed

112 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


GR - Gamma-ray Log
Application
Identify lithology
Calculate shale content of a sand body (Vsh)
Correlation purposes
Provide a depth control/reference for other tools
Definition of facies and depositional environment
To replace SP log when it can not be run :
- Oil Based-Mud
- salt Water Based-mud (no contrast)
- carbonate formation
- large borehole diameter
- cased hole

NGS (Natural Gamma-ray Spectrometry)


Identify clay mineral type
Specific minerals identification:
- Uranium Ores (uranium potential)
- Evaporites (potassium potential)

113 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


GR - Gamma-ray Log
Vshale calculation

Possible error:
- sand line is not clean enough
- shale line is not pure shale
- clay mineral in sand is not
equivalent to the shale

114 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Density Log - Principle

A radioactive source applied to the


borehole, emits gamma
rays into the formations

These gamma rays collide with


the electrons in the formations

At each collision gamma ray loses


some energy to the electrons,
known as Compton scattering

The scattered gamma rays


reaching the detector are counted
as an indication of formation
density

115 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Neutron Log - Principle
Neutron are neutral particles having a mass almost identical to the
mass of a hydrogen atom.
High energy (fast) neutrons are continuously emitted from a
radioactive source in the sonde. These neutrons collide with nuclei
of the formation material, including hydrogen atoms.

At each collision the neutron loses some of its energy. The amount
of energy lost depends on the relative mass of the nucleus with which
the neutron collides. It loses more if it collides with hydrogen nucleus
since this last one has practically the same mass.

Therefore, if hydrogen concentration is large, most of the neutrons are


slowed and captured within a short distance of the source. On the contr-
ary, if the hydrogen concentration is small, the neutrons travel farther
from the source.
The neutron log is the counting of the rate of hydrogen concentration
change.
116 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
Sonic Log

The sonic log is a recording time t versus depth of


a sound wave to traverse 1 foot of formation.

Known as the interval transit time or transit time or t


or slowness.
It is the reciprocal of the velocity of the sound wave.

The interval transit time for a given formation depends


upon its lithology and porosity.
Therefore, if the lithology is known, its porosity can
be determined.

117 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Summary

The use of Sonic - Litho-Density and Neutron


logs
To determine the rock porosity

To determine the lithology

To identify reservoir fluids content particularly gas


(Density - Neutron separation)

To determine the overpressured zone

118 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Neutron Log - Separation NPHI/Rhob

Gas or light hydrocarbons


cause the apparent porosity
from density log to increase
(bulk density decrease) and
porosity from neutron to
decrease.

It makes the density neutron


logs separation over gas
reservoir quite specific.

119 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


High Resolution LDL/CNL logs

120 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Sonic Log
Porosity - DT relationship
(Raymer-Hunt)
Empirical formula:

t = {[(1-F)2/tma] + (F/tf)} -1

Used tma :
Wyllie Raymer-Hunt
sandstone 55.5 56
limestone 47.5 49
dolomite 43.5 44

fluid 189 189

121 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


122 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
Density Log - Principle

Porosity - Density relationship rb

Total mass =Fluid mass + Matrix mass


Fluid
F
1*rb = (F * rf ) + (1- F)* rma rf

F = (rma- rb) / (rma- rf) Matrix


1-F
rma

Used rma
sandstone 2.65
limestone 2.71
dolomite 2.87
anhydrite 2.98
Note:
Better model than sonic porosity
Possible error due to non-homogenous matrix compositions,
e.g. Sst is not purely silica or Lst is not purely carbonate

123 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


124 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
125 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place
Archies Equation
Empirical constant
(usually near unity) Resistivity of

a Rw formation water,

Sw = n
-m


Water m
m Cementation
exponent
saturation,
fraction Saturation
exponent
Rt (usually near 2)

(also usually Resistivity of


near 2) Porosity, uninvaded
fraction formation, -m
Dn March,
2009-
Reference,
126 date, place
Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place 127
Resources = GRV * N/G * *
Shc *InFVF * RF
Place volumes or Accumulations (OIP / GIP)

GRV= Gross Rock Volume (saturated with HC)


N/G = Net reservoir proportion within the GRV
= Porosity (average for the Net reservoir vol. saturated with HC)
Shc = HC saturation (proportion of the occupied by oil or gas average
for the Net reservoir vol.)
FVF = Formation Volume Factor (ratio of HC vol. at atmospheric conditions
vs Reservoir conditions)
RF = Recovery Factor (proportion of the HC vol. contained in the reservoir
that can be produced based on Mode development scenario)

Probabilistic multiplication of independant parameters

128 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Evaluasi Gross Rock Volume

Spill Point

H gas

H oil

Rock Volume = Surface (km2) * H gas or H oil (m) * Geometrical factor

129 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Method Standard GRV: New Surface/ Depth graph (lebih akurat)
Surface Depth Graph shows :
Volume of one layer including oil and / or gas fill
P95 Mode and P05 contacts

130 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Oil Resources : order of
magnitude Associated Gas:
Oil : 2 Mb
(0,3 Mm3) 30 Mm3
(GOR = 100)

RF = 0.3

0,8 Mm3
1,3 Mm3
1,75 Mm3

GRV: 10 Mm3 7 Mm3 FVF = 1/Bo = 0.75


(1 km x 1 km x 10 m) So = 0.75

PHI = 0.25
N/G = 0.7

131 Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place


Gas Resources
(simplified)

including
0,24 Mb ( 0,04 Mm3 )
Wet Gas 0,25 Gm3 Condensate
(8,7 bcf) CGR = 300 g/m3
(GCR = 2600 m3/m3 )
RF = 0.4

RF Gas = 0.75

Free Gas : 328 Mm3

1,75 Mm3 1,3 Mm3


GRV: 10 Mm3 7 Mm3
(1 km x 1 km x 10 m) FVF = 1/Bg = 250
Sg = 0.75

PHI = 0.25
N/G = 0.7

Dn March, 2009- Reference, date, place 132


BAGAIMANA MEMPRODUKSIKAN
MINYAK DAN GAS BUMI
KE PERMUKAAN ?
1. TAHAP PRIMARY RECOVERY :

a. Dengan tenaga dorong alamiah


(natural flow).
b. Dengan tenaga dorong buatan
(artificial lift).
a. TENAGA DORONG ALAMIAH
(Natural Flow)

Dengan tenaga dorong alamiah yang dimiliki


oleh suatu reservoir untuk menggerakan
minyak dan atau gas bumi yang dikandungnya,
sehingga mampu mengalir sendiri melalui pori-
pori batuan ke sumur-sumur penghasilnya.
NATURAL FLOW : DEPLETION DRIVE atau
SOLUTION GAS DRIVE atau DISSOLVED GAS DRIVE

OIL

daya dorong oleh gas larut


NATURAL FLOW : GAS CAP DRIVE

GAS
Initial GOC

present GOC

OIL

daya dorong oleh gas dari tudung gas


Selain juga dari gas larut
NATURAL FLOW : WATER DRIVE

GAS
Initial GOC

present GOC

OIL
present OWC

Initial OWC
WATER AQUIFER
daya dorong oleh air dari akuifer
selain juga gas dari larutan dan gas cap
NATURAL FLOW : DEPLETION DRIVE atau GAS DRIVE

GAS

daya dorong oleh gas itu sendiri


NATURAL FLOW : WATER DRIVE

GAS

present GWC

Initial GWC
WATER AQUIFER
daya dorong oleh air dari akuifer
selain juga oleh gas itu sendiri
B. TENAGA DORONG BUATAN
(Artificial LIft)

Artificial Lift dilakukan, jika tenaga


dorong alamiah sudah tidak mampu
atau tidak efektif lagi untuk
mengangkat minyak dan gas bumi ke
permukaan
Artificial Lift : Sucker Rod Pump
Artificial Lift : ESP
Artificial Lift : Gas Lift
2. TAHAP SECONDARY RECOVERY :
Tahap Secondary Recovery, dilakukan jika proses
primary recovery tidak efektif lagi mengangkat
minyak dan gas bumi ke permukaan, maka
dilakukan proses injeksi air atau injeksi gas.

3. TAHAP TERTIARY RECOVERY ATAU EOR:

EOR atau Enhanced Oil Recovery, dilakukan


jika proses secondary recovery kurang efektif
lagi dalam proses pengangkatan minyak dan
gas bumi ke permukaan
Prinsip Injeksi

SUMUR INJEKSI SUMUR PRODUKSI

RESERVOIR

FLUIDA ATAU MINYAK


FLUIDA +
BAHAN KIMIA
ATAU GAS
Skema Sistem Pendorong Reservoir

PENGURASAN PRIMER PENGURASAN TAHAP KE 3


(PRIMARY RECOVERY) (TERTIARY RECOVERY)
atau PENGURASAN TAHAP KE 2 atau
PENGURASAN SECARA (SECONDARY RECOVERY) ENHANCED OIL RECOVERY(EOR)
ALAMIAH atau
TEKNIK PRODUKSI LANJUT

INJEKSI INJEKSI INJEKSI


INJEKSI AIR KIMIA TERCAMPUR PANAS
(WATER (CHEMICAL (MISCIBLE (THERMAL
FLOODING) FLOODING) FLOODING) FLOODING)

POLYMER
INJEKSI HYDRO STEAM
GAS CARBON FLOODING
IMMISCIBLE SURFACTANT MISCIBLE
GAS
INJECION) IN SITU
MICELLAR CARBON COMBUS-
POLYMER DIOXIDE TION
(CO2)

ALKALINE NITROGEN
CONVENTIONAL RECOVERY
Memproduksi
Minyak
Sumberdaya Migas Indonesia
@ JUNI 2006
Basin Tarakan (Kalimantan)
Basin Sumatra Utara
PA: 1 ( 13 MMBO + 16 BCFG)
PA : 5 ( 5 MMBO + 813 BCFG)
L: 3 ( 17 MMBO + 123 BCFG)
PB : 23 (86 MMBO + 2459 BCFG)
L : 14 (77 MMBO + 1546 BCFG) Basin Banggai (Sulawesi)
PA: 2 ( 0 MMBO + 161 BCFG)
Basin Sumatra-Tengah PB: 5 ( 0 MMBO + 1093 BCFG)
PA : 8 ( 27 MMBO + 1387 BCFG) L : 5 ( 0 MMBO + 787 BCFG)
PB : 12 ( 104 MMBO + 1872 BCFG)
Basin Kutai (Kalimantan)
L : 30 ( 260 MMBO + 929 BCFG) Basin Salawati (Papua)
L: 27 (288 MMBO + 355 BCFG)
PA: 1 ( 4 MMBO + - BCFG)
L: 4( 13 MMBO + 19 BCFG)

Basin Barito (Kalimantan)


L: 26 (227 MMBO + 0 BCFG)
5 E

Sumber PERTAMINA EP

6,6

5 S

U
Basin Sumatra Selatan
PA : 6 (180 MMBO + 244 BCFG)
PB : 18 ( 152 MMBO + 996 BCFG)
L : 82 ( 384 MMBO + 1210 BCFG)
Scale 1 : 21,360,000

100 E 110 E 130 E


Basin Jawa Barat Utara Basin Jawa-Tengah Utara Basin Jawa-Timur Utara
120 E
Basin Bintuni (Papua)
140 E

PA: 18 ( 292 MMBO + 733BCFG) PB : 11 ( 164 MMBO + 712 BCFG) PA : 10 ( 162 MMBO + 350 BCFG) L: 4( - MMBO + 5067 BCFG)
PB: 68 ( 546 MMBO + 2255 BCFG) L : 39 ( 295 MMBO + 1340 BCFG) PB : 17 ( 183 MMBO + 1278 BCFG)
L : 18 ( 31.50 MMBO + 174 BCFG) L : 30 ( 502 MMBO + 1809 BCFG)