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Calibration of Pressure

Switches & Transducers


Pressure

1.1 Pressure is a physical quantity. Physical quantities describe measurable features of bodies
or process related to them.

Pressure describes the ratio of force per unit area.


[P] = F/A = N/m2 = Pa

1.2 The SI unit (international system of units) of pressure P is the Pascal (Pa)
1Pa = 1N/m2

A further authorized unit is Bar (bar).


1 bar = 100 000 Pa = 100 Kpa = 0.1 Mpa
We still frequently come across old units such as:

Technical atmosphere at 1 at = 98.067 Pa

Physical atmosphere atm 1 atm = 101.330 Pa

Millimeter water column mmWS 1 mmWS = 9.8067 Pa

Torr (millimeter mercury column) Torr (mmHg) 1 Torr =133.32 Pa

The Anglo-Saxon unit is Psi 1 Psi = 6894.8 Pa


Pound per square inch
1.3 Pressure as a process variable in gas turbine operation

a. Compressor inlet air differential pressure, 96CS


b. Compressor discharge air pressure, 96CD
c. Inlet gas pressure, FPG1 96FG-1, 63FG
d. Inter-valve pressure, P2, 96FG-2
e. Atmospheric air pressure, 96AP
f. Hydraulic oil pressure, 63HG, 63HQ,
g. Lube oil pressure, 63QA, 63QL, 63QT
h. Exhaust frame blower discharge pressure, 63TK
1.4 Pressure calibration

1.4.1 Calibration

Calibration means to check, adjust, or standardize systematically the graduations/scale of a


quantitative instrument.

These instruments include; gauges, transmitter/transducer or a switches.

The purpose of a measurement system is to accurately measure the state of the unit under test.
Measurements are accomplished by using a transducer to convert energy from some given form
(such as force, displacement, or acceleration measurements) to an electrical signal that is
conditioned for input to a data collection device.

The transducer usually comes with a transfer (function) characteristic or sensitivity. The signal
conditioner can be set up to receive a signal with a known input type and range and to convert that
signal to a standard required by the data collection unit.
1.4.2 Practical Lab Using Druck DPI 615 pressure calibration

Basic steps:

1. Switch on the calibrator


2. Set the pressure unit to desired unit
3. Connect the tube connector as required
4. Open fully pressure regulating knob & the relief knob
5. Insert the capillary tube in the necessary port with the other end dipped inside oil.
6. Exert initial pressure through pressure priming pump
7. Close the relief knob fully and use the pressure regulating knobs to adjust pressure to required
value.

Hint:
*For switches use dead test with the multimeter connected across the device to check when it opens for NC switches or closes for
NO switches.
**For transducers use live test with the meter set to current and connected in parallel through the draining leg of the device to the
meter.