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is a depressed condition of many

body functions due to the failure
of enough blood to circulate
throughout the body following
serious injury.
Basic Causes
1. Pump failure - The heart does not generate
enough energy to move the blood through the
Causes: Heart attack, trauma to heart.
2. Hypovolemia a decreased volume of circulating
blood in the body.
Causes: Trauma to vessels or tissues, fluid loss
from GI tract; vomiting /diarrhea can also
lower the fluid component of blood.
3. Blood Vessels Dilate widening of blood vessels
Causes: Infection, drug overdose (narcotic), and
spinal cord injury.
4. Other Causes:
a. Severe Bleeding
b. Infection
c. Heart Attack
d. Anaphylaxis
e. Perforation (hole in any body part caused by
accident or disease)
f. Shell Bomb and Bullet Wounds
g. Rupture of Tubal Pregnancies
h. Crushing Injury
i. Starvation and diseases may also
cause shock
Factors which contributes to shock
Rough Handling
Improper Handling
Continuous Bleeding
Exposure to extreme cold of
excessive heat
Dangers of Shock
1. Lead to Death
2. Predisposes body to infection
3. Lead to loss of Body part
Signs and Symptoms of Shock
Early Stage:
Face pale or cyanotic in color
Skin Cold and clammy
Breathing irregular
Pulse rapid and weak
Nausea and vomiting
Weakness and
Late Stage:
If the condition deteriorates, victims may become apathetic
or relatively unresponsive.

Eyes will be sunken with vacant expression.

Pupils area dilated.

Blood vessels may be congested, producing mottled

Blood pressure becomes very low level.

Unconsciousness may occur, body temperature

Types of Shock
Name Causes Signs/symptoms Treatment
Anaphylactic Allergic reaction Can develop within Supply
(most severe seconds. respiratory
form). Mild itching. support.
Burning skin.
Vascular dilation. Assist
Generalized edema. ventilation.
Profound coma. Determine
Rapid death. cause.

Name Causes Signs/symptoms Treatment

Cardiogenic Inadequate heart Chest pains. Position

function. Irregular pulse. comfortably.
Disease of muscle Weak pulse. Assist
tissue. Low blood pressure. ventilation.
Impaired electrical Cyanosis lips, under Transport
system. nails). promptly.
Disease or injury. Anxiety.
Name Causes Signs/symptoms Treatment

Metabolic Excessive loss of Rapid, weak pulse. Secure airway.

fluid and Low blood pressure. Assist ventilation.
electrolytes due Change in mental Determine illness.
to vomiting, status. Transport
urination, or Cyanosis (lips, under promptly.
diarrhea. nails).
Cool, clammy skin.
Name Causes Signs/symptoms Treatment

Rapid, weak pulse. Secure airway.

Hypovolemic Loss of blood or Assist ventilation.
fluid. Low blood pressure. Control external
Change in mental bleeding.
status. Elevate legs.
Cyanosis (lips, under Prevent
nails). aspiration.
Cool, clammy skin. Transport
Name Causes Signs/symptoms Treatment

Neurogenic Damaged Bradycardia (slow Secure airway.

cervical spine, pulse).Low blood Assist ventilation.
which causes pressure. Conserve body
blood vessels to Signs of neck injury. heat.Maximize
dilate widely. circulation.
Name Causes Signs/symptoms Treatment

Temporary, Rapid pulse. Determine duration

generalized Normal or low blood of
Vascular dilation. pressure. unconsciousness.
Anxiety, bad news, Record initial vital
sight of signs and mental
injury/blood, status.
prospect of Suspect head injury
medical. if patient is
confused or slow to
Transport promptly.
Name Causes Signs/symptoms Treatment

Septic Severe bacterial Warm skin. Transport promptly.

infection. Tachycardia. Provide full
Low blood pressure ventilatory support.
Elevate legs.
Keep patient warm.
Objectives of First Aid

1. To improve circulation of blood

2.To ensure an adequate supply of oxygen
3.To maintain normal body temperature
First Aid and Preventive Management
1. Proper Position
2. Proper body heat
3. Proper Transfer