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PLTPB

(Panas Bumi/ Geothermal)

Panas Bumi merupakan sumber tenaga listrik


untuk pembangkit Pusat Listrik Tenaga Panas
(PLTP). Sesungguhnya, prinsip kerja PLTP sama
saja dengan PLTU. Hanya saja uap yang
digunakan adalah uap panas bumi yang berasal
langsung dari perut bumi. Karena itu, PLTP
biasanya dibangun di daerah pegunungan dekat
gunung berapi.
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Biaya operasional PLTP juga lebih
murah daripada PLTU, karena
tidak perlu membeli bahan bakar,
namun memerlukan biaya
investasi yang besar terutama
untuk biaya eksplorasi dan
pengeboran perut bumi.
Uap panas bumi didapatkan dari suatu
kantong uap di perut bumi. Tepatnya di
atas lapisan batuan yang keras di atas
magma yang mendapat air dari lapisan
humus di bawah hutan penahan air
hujan. Pengeboran dilakukan di atas
permukaan bumi menuju kantong uap
tersebut, hingga uap dalam kantong
akan menyembur keluar. Semburan
uap dialirkan ke turbin uap sebagai
penggerak generator.
Setelah menggerakkan turbin, uap akan
diembunkan dalam kondensor menjadi air
dan disuntikkan kembali ke dalam perut
bumi menuju kantong uap. Jumlah
kandungan uap dalam kantong uap ini
terbatas, karenanya daya PLTP yang sudah
maupun yang akan dibangun harus
disesuaikan dengan perkiraan jumlah
kandungan tersebut. Melihat siklus dari
PLTP ini maka PLTP termasuk pada pusat
pembangkit yang menggunakan energi
terbarukan.
INDONESIA
Geothermal Power
Plants
in the 2nd Phase 10,000
MW Project
OUTLINE
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POWER DEVELOPMENT PLAN 2008 - 2018

1. Average electricity demand growth is estimated 9.7%/year. Based


on assumption of GDP 6.2%/year, with elasticity = 1.56. Electricity
demand by 2018 will be 325 TWh.

2. Targeted Electricity Ratio by 2018 will be 95.5%.

3. Total New Power Plant Built will be 57,442 MW, while PLN will
contributes 35,274 MW (61 %) and IPP will be 22,168 MW (39 %).

4. Requires Additional Investment at USD 55.63 billion; consists of


USD 37.56 billion for Generation; USD 9.52 billion for
Transmission and USD 8.55 billion for Distribution

5. New Built for Geothermal will be 5,006 MW. PLN is planned to


contribute 1,015 MW (20 %) while IPP = 3,991 MW (80 %).

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Projection of Electricity Demand Growth

Unit 2008 2009 2010 2012 2014 2018


Energy Demand
- Indonesia 128.9 138.7 153.1 186.2 225.4 325.2
- Jawa-Bali TWh 100.9 107.8 119.0 144.6 174.9 250.9
- Outside Jawa-Bali 28.0 30.9 34.1 41.6 50.5 74.3

Growth
- Indonesia 6.5 7,6 10.4 10.2 9.8 9.4
- Jawa-Bali % 5,6 6,8 10.3 10.2 9.7 9.2
- OutsideJawa-Bali 9.9 10.4 10.6 10,2 10.2 10.0

Electrification Ratio
- Indonesia % 63.1 65.1 67.6 72.6 77.9 88.7
- Jawa-Bali 67.1 69.2 71.9 77.7 83.8 96.0
- OutsideJawa-Bali 56.1 58.1 60.2 64.2 68.2 77.1

- Outside J & B grows higher than in J & B


- Growth in J & B is required to support the GDP Growth
in the area (most industries located in J & B)
- Targeted electrification ratio in outside J & B is at 77 %
by year 2018
Projection Fuel Mix
Contribution of Renewable energy will gradually increased
to replace Oil.
Contribution of coal PP is targeted to maintain capacity
requirement

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Source: Draft RUPTL 2009-2018
Fuel Mix
Adjustment
Goal

1,600
Interest
1,400 1,347
Depreciation
1,200
Cost of Goods Sold (Rp/kWh)

1,076 General Affairs &


1,069
1,038
1,000 952 998
Administration.
906 931 Maintenance
800
IPP Purchase

600
Fuel

400

200

2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015

Decrease COGS

Besides to meet the targeted electrification ratio and demand growth,


new pp built is also targeted to improve a better Fuel Mix to gain a
lower COGS
Indonesias Geothermal Status January 2009
Ready for Exploitation
SEULAWAH AGAM SIBAYAK SARULA
160 MW 12 MW 330 MW Production Stage
Planned to be Tendered
Capacity is initial indication

JAILOLO
LUMUTBALAI
LUMUT BALAI 75 MW
(UNOCAL)
110 MW

DIENG
KARAHA
60 MW
400 MW

LAHENDONG I, II,III,IV
TAMPOMAS KAMOJANG
80 MW
50 MW 150 MW

UNGARAN BEDUGUL ULUMBU


ULUBELU
50 MW 175 MW 10 MW
110 MW

NGEBEL
CISOLOK 120 MW
45 MW

SALAK PATUHA WAY. WINDU I DARAJAT MATALOKO


375 MW 400 MW 110 MW 255 MW 2.5 MW
WAY. WINDU II
117 MW
Tangkuban Total Installed Capacity January 2009 : 1,196 MW
Perahu
55 MW

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DISTRIBUTION OF GEOTHERMAL IN INDONESIA
Non Volcanic
Location : 53 Schemes
Potential :1. 15 GWe
Maluku

Sulawesi

Kalimantan

Irian Jaya

Jawa Alor
Bali Flores

Total Location : 256 Schemes


Timor
Total Potential : 27 GWe
Targets of Long Term Geothermal
Development
1. Development of geothermal must able to achieve
Governments target in the Road Map of Geothermal
Development (6000 MW by 2020 and 9500 MW by
2025)
2. Both Investor and off taker shall gain benefit (win-win
Solution)
3. Both Investor and off taker must together bear the
risk of geothermal development according to their
respective share and role.
4. All risks of geothermal development will then be
accounted in the price of electricity produced.
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Phase II of 10.000 MW Acceleration Program

Total kapasitas 9.963 MW

Phase II Acceleration program is dominated by renewable energy


power plants (60%): geothermal with 48% and hydro at 12%.

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Locations of Phase II Acceleration Project

SUMATERA
Core Project:
HEPP : 174 MW
GeoPP : 1.770 MW
SCPP : 724 MW KALIMANTAN SULAWESI
CCPP : 66 MW Core Project: Core Project:
SCPP GeoPP : 125 MW
: 676 MW
CCPP SCPP : 298 MW
: 120 MW

PAPUA
Core Project:
SCPP : 114 MW

MALUKU
Core Project:
GeoPP : 37 MW
SCPP : 32 MW
TOTAL
JAMALI NTT Core Project:
Core Project: Core Project: HEPP : 1.174 MW
GeoPP : 1.525 MW GeoPP : 41 GeoPP : 3.528 MW
SCPP : 2.000 MW MW SCPP : 3.944 MW
CCPP : 1.200 MW SCPP : 30 CCPP : 1.386 MW
HEPP : 1.000 MW MW TOTAL : 10.032 MW
NTB
Core Project:
GeoPP :40 MW
SCPP :70 MW
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PLN and IPP Project in Phase II Acceleration Program

Power PLN + PLN IPP


Plant IPP Capacity Investment Capacity Investment
Capacity (MW) (MM USD) (MW) (MM USD)
(MW)

Steam 3,944 3,000 3,911 944 1,730


CCGT 1,386 1,200 1,020 186 158
Geothermal 3,528 977 1,529 2,551 5,925
Hydro 1,174 1,174 1,010 -
Total 10,032 6,351 7,470 3,681 7,813
Total Investment Required for PLN & IPP : USD 15,823 million

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PLN & IPP Project Schedule in Phase II Acceleration Program

Owner Type 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Total


(MW)
Java-Bali
PLN Hydro 1,000 1,000
CCGT 150 1,050 1,200
Geothermal 60 220 260 540
Steam 1,000 1,000 2,000
IPP Geothermal 175 310 445 55 985
Outer Java-Bali

PLN Hydro 174 174


Geothermal 65 75 139 119 40 437
Steam 200 500 300 1,000
IPP CCGT 66 120 186
Geothermal 220 515 386 446 1,566
Steam 12 227 397 196 112 944
TOTAL 293 2,067 3,095 3,665 913 10,032
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The largest geothermal potential
Number of Volcanoes : 150
Potential : 40% of the World potential
Promising fields : 250 fields, Potential : more than 27,000
MW
Current Installed Capacity : 1,196 MW

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Short Term Pipe Line for GPP
Development
1. Development of Fields under the Old Law
2. Cooperation of Existing Developers and PLN
3. Entry : Can be a Direct Appointment
4. Existing Developer already had experience in
assessing the risks
5. Potential to have new PP built 1,300 MW in
short term
6. Extension of Existing Site
7. New wells had already been drilled
8. Scheme : Selling Steam or Selling Electricity
Mid Term for GPP Development

1. Development of Green Fields as result


New Law
2. New Developers need adaptation in
assessing the risks
3. Scheme: Mostly through Selling
Electricity
100 Days Program
1. PLN plan to propose to the Government
to review the regulation related to GPP
development
2. Focus of Restructuring :
a. Mechanism of Tender
b. Improve Quality of Tender Document
c. Standardization ESC
d. Risks distribution and Guarantee
e. Pricing
PT PLN (PERSERO)

Conclusion
1. Following-up the government policy, maximizing of
renewable energy/geothermal role has been
anticipated in the fast-track program of generating
development Phase-II by PLN and Directorate
General of Mineral, Coal and Geothermal, MEMR.

2. The total target of geothermal power plant


development of year 2008 to 2018 is 3080 MW of the
Java Bali System and 1926 MW of the outer island,
which cover green-field and brown-field that will be
funded by the soft-loan of bilateral and multilateral
funding agencies, and also through IPP participation.
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THANK YOU

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