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VIII SEPOPE

May - 19 st to 23th - 2002


BRASLIA (DF) - BRASIL

Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage


Stability Margins of Large Systems Rio
Area Analysis

Ricardo Mota Henriques


Nelson Martins
Jlio C. R. Ferraz
Antnio C. B. Martins
Hermnio J. C. P. Pinto
Sandoval Carneiro Jr.

CEPEL
EMPRESA DO SISTEMA ELETROBRS
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Presentation Summary

Introduction

Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies

Illustrative Example

Maximum Loadability Assessment Rio Area

Conclusions

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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Introduction
Blackouts are result of voltage instability/collapse

These events may occur due to exhaustion of the system


reactive power reserves

The analysis requires adequate methodologies and


efficient software

Continuation Power Flow, analysis of P-V and Q-V


curves

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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Motivation
Rio Area during hot summer days of 97

Air-conditioning systems highly used

Depressed voltage conditions despite active loading


below the expected critical values

Preliminary conclusions

Representing loads by constant-P and constant-I


models was not adequate

Inductions motors should be better modeled


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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies


Implementation of aggregate induction motor models into
a continuation power flow program

Motor models several types and typical parameters


embedded in the program code

User must specify the motor type and the content in each
load bus

Testing

Loadability studies of the Rio Area


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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies


Two-bus steady-state model for induction motors
V0 E' 0

R s + jX'
P= P mec
Q=0
j(X 0 - X')

The mechanical torque is assumed independent of rotor


speed

For each motor, the electrical network is augmented by


one bus with an additional shunt element and connected
6 to the terminal bus by an additional impedance
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies


Bus Data indicate which motor type will be used and the
percentage of load to be modeled as motors

Motor Type Motor Characteristics

1 Small Industrial I

2 Large Industrial

3 Mean values for 11 kVA motors

4 Small Industrial II

5 Commercial+Feeder

6 Aggregate residential

7 Single Phase
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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies


MVA Base for each motor is a function of percentage of
the load modeled as motor in that particular bus

The power flow program calculates

Active and reactive power consumption

Internal voltage E, angle , and rotor slip s


The original load P mot

which is not M
modeled as motor Q mot

is denoted as P P,Q
and Q P' ,Q'
P= P mot + P'
8 Q=Q mot + Q'
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies


Methodology for continuation power flow studies

Motor load is increased by increasing the MVA motor


base

This procedure is equivalent to increasing the


number of motors in the system

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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Illustrative Example
Test System
V =11 0 V2
jX L =j 0.2
P
Q=0
Bus #1 Bus #2
Continuation Power Flow

Used to obtain maximum loadability for different


models of the load at bus #2

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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Illustrative Example
PxV Curves for different load models at bus #2
1.

0.95 100%P
Small
IndustrialII
0.9 Comm.+
Feeder
0.85
100%M 100%M
0.8 90%M,10%P 90%M,10%P
80%M,20%P 80%M,20%P
0.75

0.7
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250
11 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Illustrative Example
Reactive Power Consumption at bus #2
68.9
Commercial+Feeder
57.4

46.

34.5
SmallIndustrialII
23.

11.5

0.
1 15 29 43 57 71 85 100 114 128 142
12 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Illustrative Example
Rotor Slip Curves: two set of induction motor parameters
23.4

19.5

15.6

11.7 SmallIndustrialII

7.8

3.9
Commercial+Feeder
0.
1 15 29 43 57 71 85 100 114 128 142
13 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


Rio Area 3 utilities: LIGHT, CERJ and ESCELSA

288 buses

200 load buses (7632 MW)

149 buses with load modeled as induction motor


(5733 MW)

Industrial: 2227 MW Comercial: 3506 MW

Operation point refers to a heavy load condition for the


Rio Area on a summer day
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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


Other assumptions made in continuation power flow
analysis:

Industrial motor load remains constant

Only commercial motor load is increased

Commercial and industrial load is initially modeled as


constant P and Q, with fixed power factor

The PxV curves

Most critical buses belong to ESCELSA


15 (distribution utility)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


Constant P and Q load model
1.039

1.015

0.990

0.966

0.942 V,1725SLOURENC69

0.918 V,2658N.VENECIA138

V,2664PINHEIROS138
0.894
7632 7866 8099 8332 8566 8799 9032
16 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


Two cases were investigated where the Commercial
induction motor load was modeled as:

Commercial+Feeder (Type 5)

Small Industrial (Type 4)

The Industrial induction motor load was modeled as


Large Industrial (Type 2)

This load remains fixed at the base case value

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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


Commercial induction motor modeled as Comm.+Feeder
1.010

0.997

0.984

0.971

0.958 V,1725SLOURENC69

0.945 V,1727S.GONCALO69
V,1798SGONCALO1
0.931
7632 7768 7903 8038 8174 8309 8444
18 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


Commercial induction motor modeled as Small Industrial
1.010

0.991

0.971

0.951

0.931
V,1725SLOURENC69
0.911 V,1727S.GONCALO69
V,1798SGONCALO1
0.892
7632 7810 7988 8166 8343 8521 8699
19 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


Maximum loadability for 3 different load models
1.039 PandQ
LoadModel

1.012

0.986 V,1725SLOURENC69

V,2658N.VENECIA138

0.959 V,2664PINHEIROS138

V,1725SLOURENC69

0.933 V,1727S.GONCALO69

V,1798SGONCALO1 Small
Comm.+ Industrial
V,1725SLOURENC69
0.906 Feeder
V,1727S.GONCALO69

V,1798SGONCALO1
0.880
7632 7866 8099 8332 8566 8799 9032
20 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


Maximum loadability for 3 different load models

Rio Area Active Load

Load Model Initial Induction Maximum


Load Motor Loadability
(MW) (MW) (MW)

Constant
7632 - 9032
P and Q

Induction
7632 5733 8699
Motor 4

Induction
7632 5733 8444
Motor 5

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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


PxV Curves of Pinheiros-138 kV for 3 scenarios
1.035 Bus#2664,PINHEIROS138

1.023

1.010

0.997

0.985 ConstantPandQ

0.972 Motor(Commercial+Feeder)

Motor(SmallIndustrial)
0.960
7632 7866 8099 8332 8566 8799 9032
22 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area


PxV Curves of S. Lourenco - 69 kV for 3 scenarios
1.01

0.985
Bus#1725,SLOURENC69
0.96

0.935
ConstantPandQ
0.91 Motor(Commercial+Feeder)
Motor(SmallIndustrial)
0.885
7632 7866 8099 8332 8566 8799 9032
23 ActiveLoad(MW)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Conclusions
Modeling the load as induction motors

Allows better analysis of system behavior

Ability to reveal voltage stability problems

Finding the cost-effective level of modeling for


subtransmission and distribution networks is not an
easy task

The results are coherant to observed system behavior in


Rio Area and would not be obtained if only constant-P
and constant-I load models were utilized
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