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# VIII SEPOPE

## May - 19 st to 23th - 2002

BRASLIA (DF) - BRASIL

## Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage

Stability Margins of Large Systems Rio
Area Analysis

## Ricardo Mota Henriques

Nelson Martins
Jlio C. R. Ferraz
Antnio C. B. Martins
Hermnio J. C. P. Pinto
Sandoval Carneiro Jr.

CEPEL
EMPRESA DO SISTEMA ELETROBRS
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Presentation Summary

Introduction

## Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies

Illustrative Example

## Maximum Loadability Assessment Rio Area

Conclusions

2
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Introduction
Blackouts are result of voltage instability/collapse

## These events may occur due to exhaustion of the system

reactive power reserves

## The analysis requires adequate methodologies and

efficient software

## Continuation Power Flow, analysis of P-V and Q-V

curves

3
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Motivation
Rio Area during hot summer days of 97

## Air-conditioning systems highly used

below the expected critical values

Preliminary conclusions

## Inductions motors should be better modeled

4
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies

Implementation of aggregate induction motor models into
a continuation power flow program

## Motor models several types and typical parameters

embedded in the program code

User must specify the motor type and the content in each

Testing

## Loadability studies of the Rio Area

5
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies

Two-bus steady-state model for induction motors
V0 E' 0

R s + jX'
P= P mec
Q=0
j(X 0 - X')

speed

## For each motor, the electrical network is augmented by

one bus with an additional shunt element and connected
6 to the terminal bus by an additional impedance
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies

Bus Data indicate which motor type will be used and the
percentage of load to be modeled as motors

## Motor Type Motor Characteristics

1 Small Industrial I

2 Large Industrial

## 3 Mean values for 11 kVA motors

4 Small Industrial II

5 Commercial+Feeder

6 Aggregate residential

7 Single Phase
7
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies

MVA Base for each motor is a function of percentage of
the load modeled as motor in that particular bus

## Internal voltage E, angle , and rotor slip s

which is not M
modeled as motor Q mot

is denoted as P P,Q
and Q P' ,Q'
P= P mot + P'
8 Q=Q mot + Q'
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Motor Modeling in Power Flow Studies

Methodology for continuation power flow studies

base

## This procedure is equivalent to increasing the

number of motors in the system

9
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Illustrative Example
Test System
V =11 0 V2
jX L =j 0.2
P
Q=0
Bus #1 Bus #2
Continuation Power Flow

## Used to obtain maximum loadability for different

models of the load at bus #2

10
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Illustrative Example
PxV Curves for different load models at bus #2
1.

0.95 100%P
Small
IndustrialII
0.9 Comm.+
Feeder
0.85
100%M 100%M
0.8 90%M,10%P 90%M,10%P
80%M,20%P 80%M,20%P
0.75

0.7
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175 200 225 250
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Illustrative Example
Reactive Power Consumption at bus #2
68.9
Commercial+Feeder
57.4

46.

34.5
SmallIndustrialII
23.

11.5

0.
1 15 29 43 57 71 85 100 114 128 142
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Illustrative Example
Rotor Slip Curves: two set of induction motor parameters
23.4

19.5

15.6

11.7 SmallIndustrialII

7.8

3.9
Commercial+Feeder
0.
1 15 29 43 57 71 85 100 114 128 142
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

Rio Area 3 utilities: LIGHT, CERJ and ESCELSA

288 buses

(5733 MW)

## Operation point refers to a heavy load condition for the

Rio Area on a summer day
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Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

Other assumptions made in continuation power flow
analysis:

## Commercial and industrial load is initially modeled as

constant P and Q, with fixed power factor

## Most critical buses belong to ESCELSA

15 (distribution utility)
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

Constant P and Q load model
1.039

1.015

0.990

0.966

0.942 V,1725SLOURENC69

0.918 V,2658N.VENECIA138

V,2664PINHEIROS138
0.894
7632 7866 8099 8332 8566 8799 9032
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

Two cases were investigated where the Commercial
induction motor load was modeled as:

Commercial+Feeder (Type 5)

## The Industrial induction motor load was modeled as

Large Industrial (Type 2)

## This load remains fixed at the base case value

17
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

Commercial induction motor modeled as Comm.+Feeder
1.010

0.997

0.984

0.971

0.958 V,1725SLOURENC69

0.945 V,1727S.GONCALO69
V,1798SGONCALO1
0.931
7632 7768 7903 8038 8174 8309 8444
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

Commercial induction motor modeled as Small Industrial
1.010

0.991

0.971

0.951

0.931
V,1725SLOURENC69
0.911 V,1727S.GONCALO69
V,1798SGONCALO1
0.892
7632 7810 7988 8166 8343 8521 8699
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

1.039 PandQ

1.012

0.986 V,1725SLOURENC69

V,2658N.VENECIA138

0.959 V,2664PINHEIROS138

V,1725SLOURENC69

0.933 V,1727S.GONCALO69

V,1798SGONCALO1 Small
Comm.+ Industrial
V,1725SLOURENC69
0.906 Feeder
V,1727S.GONCALO69

V,1798SGONCALO1
0.880
7632 7866 8099 8332 8566 8799 9032
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Load Model Initial Induction Maximum

(MW) (MW) (MW)

Constant
7632 - 9032
P and Q

Induction
7632 5733 8699
Motor 4

Induction
7632 5733 8444
Motor 5

21
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

PxV Curves of Pinheiros-138 kV for 3 scenarios
1.035 Bus#2664,PINHEIROS138

1.023

1.010

0.997

0.985 ConstantPandQ

0.972 Motor(Commercial+Feeder)

Motor(SmallIndustrial)
0.960
7632 7866 8099 8332 8566 8799 9032
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

## Maximum Loadability Assessment - Rio Area

PxV Curves of S. Lourenco - 69 kV for 3 scenarios
1.01

0.985
Bus#1725,SLOURENC69
0.96

0.935
ConstantPandQ
0.91 Motor(Commercial+Feeder)
Motor(SmallIndustrial)
0.885
7632 7866 8099 8332 8566 8799 9032
Impact of Induction Motor Loads into Voltage Stabilty
Margins of Large Systems Rio Area Analysis

Conclusions
Modeling the load as induction motors

## Finding the cost-effective level of modeling for

subtransmission and distribution networks is not an