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Kadar

Tindak Balas
Tindak balas manakah yang lebih cepat?
Kadar Tindak Balas adalah berkadar songsang
dengan masa yang diambil untuk sesuatu tindak
balas itu lengkap

Kadar Tindak Balas 1/ masa yg diambil


Tindak balas adalah cepat masa
jika yang
diambil untuk tindak balas itu lengkap adalah
singkat .

Tindak balas adalah lambat jikamasa


yang diambil untuk tindak balas itu lengkap
adalah lama
Kadar tindak balas dapat ditakrifkan sebagai
kuantiti bahan tindak balas yang digunakan /
hasil tindak balas yang dihasilkan per unit masa

Kadar Tindak Balas = Kuantiti Bahan Tindak Balas


Masa yang Diambil

Kadar Tindak Balas = Kuantiti Hasil Tindak Balas


Masa yang Diambil
Tindak balas di antara kalsium karbonat dan asid
hidroklorik cair.

Bahan tindak balas Hasil tindak balas


Kadar tindak balas di antara kalsium karbonat dan
asid hidroklorik cair dapat dikenalpasti melalui :
(i) pengurangan jisim kalsium karbonat per unit
masa, atau
(ii) pertambahan isipadu karbon dioksida per unit
masa
Unit yang digunakan untuk mengukur kadar
tindak balas ialah :

(a) cm3 per unit masa (saat atau minit) bagi gas
yang terbebas

(b) g per unit masa atau mol per unit masa bagi
bahan tidak balas dalam bentuk pepejal

(c) mol dm-3 per unit masa untuk bahan tindak


balas dalam bentuk larutan akues
Cepat Perlahan
Combustion (pembakaran) Rusting (pengaratan)

Pemendakan argentum Photosynthesis


klorida

Tindak balas di antara logam Fermentation ( penapaian)


reaktif dengan air
Contoh 1
Gelungan Magnesium seberat 0.1 g ditindakbalaskan
dengan asid hidroklorik cair. Selepas 5 saat,
kesemua Magnesium telah larut ke dalam asid.
Apakah kadar tindak balas purata bagi tindak balas
ini?

0.1g
Kadar Tindak Balas Purata = 0.02 gs 1
5s
Contoh 2
Kalsium karbonat bertindak balas dengan asid
hidroklorik
CaCO3+ 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

Selepas 1.2 minit, isipadu gas yang terhasil adalah


100 cm3. Hitung kadar tindak balas purata dalam
unit
(a) cm3 min-1
(b) cm3 s-1.
Kadar tindak balas pada masa tertentu boleh diperoleh
dengan menghitung kecerunan tangen lengkung graf
jisim bahan tindak balas melawan masa (Rajah1.2)
Hitung kecerunan tangen pada masa t:

Kadar tindak balas pada masa t (gs-1)

= Kecerunan graf

a
b
Example 3:
Hydrogen peroxide decomposes according to the
equation:
2H 2O2 (aq) 2H2O(l) + O2(g)
The results of an experiment on the decomposition
of hydrogen peroxide are given below.
Time(s) 0 15 30 45 60 90
Volume of 0 16 30 40 48 56
O2(cm3)
Calculate the rate of reaction at 40 seconds in the
units of (a) cm3 s-1, (b) cm3 min -1.
Example 3:
Solution
(a) The rate of reaction at 40 s 49
= Gradient at 40 s

a 49 21
0.70cm 3 s 1
b 58 18
21

18 58
4 Analisis lengkung kadar tindak balas:
(a) Semakin tinggi kecerunan graf, semakin tinggi
kadar tindak balas

Steeper
Apparatus:
Conical flask, measuring cylinder, delivery
tube, burette, basin, retort stand, retort clamp
and stopwatch.
Materials:
Granulated zinc and 0.3 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid.
Procedure:
1 The burette is filled with water and inverted over a basin
of water.
Procedure:
2 Using a measuring cylinder, 20.0 cm3 of 0.3 mol dm-3
sulphuric acid is measured out and poured into a conical
flask.
Procedure:
3 5.0 g of granulated zinc are then added to the sulphuric
acid in the conical flask.
Procedure:
4 The conical flask is then closed and the hydrogen gas
produced is collected in the burette by the displacement of
water as shown in Figure 1.5.
Procedure:
5 The stopwatch is started immediately.
6 The volume of hydrogen gas collected in the burette is
recorded at 30-second intervals.
Results:
Calculation:
(a) The rate of reaction at 90 s
= slope at 90 s

YZ

XY
(52 20)cm3

(180 30) s
32cm3 3 1
0 .213cm s
150s
Calculation:
(b) The rate of reaction at 180 s = slope at 180 s

YZ

XY
(48 30)cm3

(240 18) s
18cm 3
0.081cm3 s 1
222s
Calculation:
(c) The average rate of reaction

total volume of H 2 produced


total time taken

47
0.157cm 3 s 1
300
Conclusion:

The rate of reaction decreases as the


reaction proceeds.
Activity: To measure the rate of reaction between
calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and excess hydrochloric
acid
Apparatus:
Conical flask, electronic balance, measuring
cylinder and stopwatch.
Material:
Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) pieces, 2.0 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid and cotton wool.
Procedure
1 Using a measuring cylinder, 50 cm3 of 2 mol dm-3
hydrochloric acid are measured out and poured in a dry conical
flask. The mouth of the conical flask covered with some of
cotton wool. The cotton wool is inserted into the mouth of the
conical flak is prevent liquid from splashing out during the
reaction.
Procedure
2 The conical flask is placed on the electronic balance as
shown in Figure 1.6.
Procedure
3 The mass of conical flask and its contents (calcium
carbonate, hydrochloric acid and cotton wool) is recorded.
Procedure
4 The calcium carbonate is then transferred to the
hydrochloric acid in the conical flask and the stopwatch is
started immediately.
Procedure
5 The mass of the conical flask (and its contents) is recorded
at one-minute intervals.
Results:

Time(s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Mass of 60.0 59.1 58.3 57.9 57.4 57.0 56.8 56.5 56.3
conical
flask +
content(g)
Based on the experimental results, a graph of the mass of conical
flask and its contents against time is plotted (Figure 1.7)
Calculation
The average rate of reaction for the first minute.
Decrease in mass = mass of carbon dioxide produced
= (60.0-59.1) g = 0.9g
Average rate of reaction for the first minute
mass of CO 2 produced 0.9 g
0.9 g min 1
time taken 1.0 min
Time(s) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Mass of 60.0 59.1 58.3 57.9 57.4 57.0 56.8 56.5 56.3
conical
flask +
content(g)
Calculation
the average rate of reaction between 1.4 minutes and 2.2
minutes
Rate of decrease in mass
58.8 58.3
0.625 g min 1
2.2 1.4
Calculation
(c) The reaction rate at the 5th minute
=Gradient of the graph at 5.0 minutes = a
b
a 57.5 56.4 1.1g
b 7.0 3.4 3.6minutes
1.1
Gradient 0.306 g min 1
3.6
Conclusion:
The rate of reaction decreases as the reaction
proceeds. Finally, the reaction will stop when all the
calcium carbonate added have reacted.
Example 4:
3.0 g of excess marble (CaCO3) are added to 100 cm3 of
dilute hydrochloric acid. Figure 1.8 shows the graph of
volume of carbon dioxide produced against time.
Example 4:
Calculate
(a) the average rate of reaction
(b) the concentration of hydrochloric acid in mol dm-3.
(1 mole of any gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions).
Example 4:
Solution
(a) Total volume of carbon dioxide evolved = 360 cm 3
Time taken = 8.0 minutes
Average rate of reaction

= 360
45cm 3 min 1
8
Example 4:
Solution
(b) Number of moles of CO2 evolved

360
0.015mol
24 1000
CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

Mole ratio of HCl : CO2 =2: 1


Example 4:
Solution
(b) According to the equation, number of moles of
hydrochloric acid used

= 2 x 0.015 CaCO3 + 2HCl CaCl2 + H2O + CO2


= 0.03 mole 2 moles HCl produces 1 mol CO2
? moles HCl produces 0.015 mol CO2
Example 4:
Solution
(b) According to the equation, number of moles of
hydrochloric acid used
= 2 x 0.015
= 0.03 mole n MV M
n
V
Concentration of hydrochloric acid, M

number of moles V = 100 cm3 =0.1 dm3



volume( in dm 3 )

0.03
0.3moldm 3
0.1