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{ VX

Awan Rahmadewi
Maria Maghdalena
M. Andrew Raymizard
Wellson Andreas Kurniawan
Willy Kristianto
{ Sifat Fisik dan Kimia
dari VX
Cairan tidak berbau
dengan warna
kekuningan
Sumber : http://zidbits.com/2011/04/whats-
the-most-lethal-poison/ (diakses pada Jumat, 01
September 2017 pukul 20.46)

Titik 568oF (298oC)


Didih [@760mmHg]
Titik - 58 oF (-50 oC) Konstanta
Leleh Disosiasi
Tekanan 0.00063 mmHg pKa = 9,12
Uap @25oC
Massa 1.0083 g/mL at 25oC Volatility
jenis
Viskositas 9.958 @ 25 oC 8.9 mg/m3 @ 25 oC

Kelarutan Dalam air, 30 g/L pada 25oC. Larut dengan baik


dalam pelarut organik.
Sumber : https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/39793#section=Top (akses Jumat, 01 Sept 17 18.05)
{ Prekursor VX
Diethyl
methylphosphoni
te

Diisopropylamine

O-Ethyl
methylphosphono
thioic acid

Ethyl hydrogen
methylphosphoni
te

Sumber : https://www.google.co.id/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj01NnB-
4PWAhXFP48KHWogDrQQFghAMAI&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwikileaks.org%2Fgifiles%2Fattach%2F8%2F8488_Chemical%25
20Weapons%2520Precursors.doc&usg=AFQjCNH2npfH9qSv3kwfUvzEiTPe7IyPY
(diakses pada Jumat, 01 September 2017 pukul 19.17)
Methylphosphono
us dichloride

Methylphosphonous
difluoride

Methylphosphono
thioic dichloride

Phosphorus
trichloride

Sumber : https://www.google.co.id/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwj01NnB-
4PWAhXFP48KHWogDrQQFghAMAI&url=https%3A%2F%2Fwikileaks.org%2Fgifiles%2Fattach%2F8%2F8488_Chemical%25
20Weapons%2520Precursors.doc&usg=AFQjCNH2npfH9qSv3kwfUvzEiTPe7IyPY
(diakses pada Jumat, 01 September 2017 pukul 19.17)
Picture source:

Synthesis of VX http://static.newworldencyclopedia.org/thumb/e/ee/V
X_TransesterProcess.png/400px-
VX_TransesterProcess.png on 01/09/2017 at 16.32
Binary Chemical Weapon
Binary Chemical Weapon combines two reactants to form a
toxic agent
Binary Chemical Weapon that commonly used to create VX
nerve agent is 1320-D542 Projectile 155mm, which contains O-
(2-diisopropylaminoethyl)O-ethyl methylphosphonite (Agent
QL) and sulfur (agent NE)

Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7uJoi8DXiA on
01/09/2017 at 16.45
Picture source:
http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/munitions/im
ages/m121a1_155.gif on 01/09/2017 at 17.00
Weak bond

Sumber : www.compoundchem.com
https://www.opcw.org/about-chemical-weapons/types-of-chemical-agent/nerve-agents/
Nicotinic Skeletal muscles

Acethylcoline
receptors
Glands

Muscarinic
Central Nervous
Systems

Sumber : https://www.opcw.org/about-chemical-weapons/types-of-chemical-agent/nerve-agents/#c4115 . Diakses 02/09/2017.


Antidote

Atropine

OR

Diazepam

Atropine blocks a subset of acetylcholine


receptors known as muscarinic acetylcholine
receptors (mAchRs), so that the buildup of
acetylcholine produced by loss of the
acetylcholinesterase function has a reduced
effect on their target receptor. 2-PAM
Pralidoxime reactivates the acetylcholinesterase enzyme
(AChE), thus reversing the effects of VX.
Water :
25oC and pH 7 =
400 1000 hours
Acidic conditions
(pH 2-3) = 100 days
Soil : 17-52 days
depending on what
Air : 0.24 days
kind of soil and the
density of soil

Half-
life

Sumber : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK208324/
Organophosporous VX agent O- theory (DFT) using periodic
ethyl S-(2- boundary conditions.
diisopropylethylamino)ethyl
methylphosphonothioate is one of
the main nerve agents. For this
reason, the search for ways to
deactivate it is very important.
In this work, hydrolysis and
adsorption reactions of a VX-like
compound (O,S-dimethyl
methylphosphonothioate, DMPT)
on the MgO(001) surface were
studied by density-functional

Hydrolysis of a VX-like Organophosphorus


Compound through Dissociative Chemisorption on
the MgO(001) Surface

J. Phys. Chem. C, 2013, 117 (40), pp 2079120801


DOI: 10.1021/jp4075477
Publication Date (Web): September 16, 2013
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society
A degradation reaction mechanism intermediate is catalytically
was proposed and theoretically favored from a temperature of
investigated on two types of about 335 K for the Al-doped
MgO(001) surfaces: the terrace and surface, a value considerable
the Al-doped smaller than the 500 K value for
Conformations, free-energy the same process on the terrace
differences, transition states, At 335 K, the dissociation
reaction barriers, and minimum- fragments on the Al-doped surface
energy paths were computed are less stable in comparison to the
found that the PS bond, related to hydrolysis products. The possible
the agent toxicity, breaks via reconstitution of the PS bond on
hydrolysis occurring both surfaces does not occur
spontaneously throughout the according to kinetic analysis.
analyzed temperature range, 100 However, the electronic energy
600 K. In the dissociative barrier for the direct dissociation
chemisorption of the DMPT reaction on the Al-doped sites is
molecule, the formation of the about 49.0 kJ lower than the value
MgO:[PO(CH3)(OCH3)] [SCH3] for the terrace.

J. Phys. Chem. C, 2013, 117 (40), pp 2079120801


DOI: 10.1021/jp4075477
Publication Date (Web): September 16, 2013
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society
After recombination with the OH coming from the Al-doped surface
and H ions, the but there is still a shortage when
HOPO(CH3)(OCH3) and HSCH3 we see from the electronic barrier
products do not accumulate on energ for the direct dissociation
either surface because these reaction on the Al-doped sites is
molecules desorb below the DMPT about 49.0 kJ lower than the value
dissociation temperatures. The Al- for the terrace.
doped sites of MgO(001) are thus
more active in the catalytic
hydrolysis process of the VX-like
organophosphorus compound
than is the nondoped surface.
So, with this experiment we can
conclude that the VX-like (not the
VX itself) compound investigated
on two types of MgO(001) surfaces:
the terrace and the Al-doped.
Overall, the good result still

J. Phys. Chem. C, 2013, 117 (40), pp 2079120801


DOI: 10.1021/jp4075477
Publication Date (Web): September 16, 2013
Copyright 2013 American Chemical Society
The nerve agent VX is among the buffered solution of N-
most toxic chemicals known to ethylmorpholine, selective
mankind, and robust solutions are hydrolysis of the PS bond in VX
needed to rapidly and selectively was observed.
deactivate it. Herein, we
demonstrate that three Zr6-based
metalorganic frameworks
(MOFs), namely, UiO-67, UiO-67-
NH2, and UiO-67-N(Me)2, are
selective and highly active
catalysts for the hydrolysis of VX.
Utilizing UiO-67, UiO-67-NH2,
and UiO-67-N(Me)2 in a pH 10

Effective, Facile, and Selective Hydrolysis of the Chemical


Warfare Agent VX Using Zr6-Based MetalOrganic Frameworks
Inorg. Chem., 2015, 54 (22), pp 1082910833
DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b01813
Publication Date (Web): October 27, 2015
Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society
In addition, UiO-67-N(Me)2 was found
to catalyze VX hydrolysis with an
initial half-life of 1.8 min. This half-life
is nearly 3 orders of magnitude shorter
than that of the only other MOF tested
to date for hydrolysis of VX and rivals
the activity of the best nonenzymatic
materials. Hydrolysis utilizing Zr-
based MOFs is also selective and facile
in the absence of pH 10 buffer (just
water) and for the destruction of the
toxic byproduct EA-2192.
Although the hydrolysis is selectively
good, we still have a lack of half-time
during the hydrolysis.

Inorg. Chem., 2015, 54 (22), pp 1082910833


DOI: 10.1021/acs.inorgchem.5b01813
Publication Date (Web): October 27, 2015
Copyright 2015 American Chemical Society
A rapid and sensitive method for the 2-propanol in hexane.
determination of the chemical warfare Currently, methods that could be used
agent VX in plasma taken from to assist in assessing the degree of
Gttingen minipigs has been exposure to VX in affected individuals
developed using isotope-dilution gas include the identification and
chromatography-tandem mass quantitation of the VX metabolite O-
spectrometry (GC-MS-MS). ethylmethylphosphonic acid in serum
Chromatographic separation was or urine
achieved on a 5% diphenyl/95%
dimethyl polysiloxane capillary column
with a total run time of about 11 min.
The analyte was detected using
ammonia chemical ionization in the
multiple reaction monitoring mode,
following a simple extraction with 10%

Identification: A Rapid and Sensitive Technique for


Assessing Exposure to VX via GC-MS-MS Analysis
Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 32, January/February 2008
Jeffrey M. McGuire*, Christopher E. Byers, Stanley W. Hulet, Edward M. Jakubowski, and Sandra A. Thomson
U.S. Army Edgewood CB Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5424
A good linear relationship was
obtained in the quantitative
concentration range of 10 ng/mL to
1000 ng/mL (r2 = 0.9998) with an
average slope of 1.275 0.037 (n =
7), and an absolute detection limit
of 0.4 pg on column. The average
recovery for VX was 95% in saline
in the concentration range of 50
100 ng/mL. The method was
successfully applied to the analysis
of VX in minipig plasma in a
preliminary toxicokinetic study.

Identification: A Rapid and Sensitive Technique for


Assessing Exposure to VX via GC-MS-MS Analysis
Journal of Analytical Toxicology, Vol. 32, January/February 2008
Jeffrey M. McGuire*, Christopher E. Byers, Stanley W. Hulet, Edward M. Jakubowski, and
Sandra A. Thomson
U.S. Army Edgewood CB Center, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland 21010-5424
Vx reaction reversible or not
There are many ways to produce VX, one of them is through the American
method called "Transester Process". This involves a series of steps,
whereby the phosphorus trichloride is methylated to produce methylphosphonic
dichloride. The resulting material is reacted with ethanol to form a diester.
This is then transesterified with 2-diisopropylaminoethanol to produce the mixed
phosphonite.
Finally, this immediate precursor3 is reacted with sulfur to form VX. So it can be
said that vx is an irreversible reaction.

Sumber: https://www.ecured.cu/Gas_VX
How people can be exposed to VX
Following release of VX into the air

Inhalation

Nerve Agent

Eye Enzyme &


VX Nerves
Contact

Skin
Contact
DEAD

Sumber: https://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/vx/basics/facts.asp