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Chap

ter 3
:
OXIDATION
AND
REDUCTION
Redox Reaction :
Oxidation Reduction
1. Gain of oxygen 1. Loss of oxygen
2. Loss of hydrogen 2. Gain of hydrogen
3. Increase in oxidation 3. Decrease in oxidation
number number
4. Loss of electrons 4. Gain of electron
REDOX REACTIONS
Defined as reaction in which both Oxidation and
Reduction occur simultaneously.
Reducing agent:
Chemical substance that causes reduction
in another substance and itself is oxidised

oxidation

C + 2CuO CO2 + 2Cu

Reduction
Oxidising agent:
Chemical substance that causes oxidation in another
substance and itself is reduced
Reducing agent:
Causes reduction in another substance.
Itself oxidised

oxidation

Zn + CuO ZnO + Cu
Reduction
Oxidising agent:
Causes oxidation in another substance
Itself reduced
EXAMPLE :
Oxidation
Reducing
Agent Mg (s) + H2O (g) MgO (s) + H2 (g)

Reduction
Oxidising agent

Activity 1 :
Write a balance chemical equation for each equations given
below. Then identify the oxidation, reduction, oxidising agent
and reducing agent for each equations.
a. Iron(II) oxide + carbon monoxide iron + carbon dioxide
b. Ammonia + copper(II) oxide nitrogen + water +copper
3. OXIDATION NUMBER
An arbitrary charge assigned to the element according to a
set of rules. Oxidation no also known as the oxidation state

Example : MgO Ionic compound

Mg2+ +2 O2- -2

CO2 Covalent compound

(+4) + 2 (-2) = 0 Neutral molecule


RULES FOR ASSIGNING [O] NUMBERS
a. Atoms in elements, [O] number = 0
Contoh:
Elements FORMULA [O] Number
Hydrogen H2 0
Copper Cu 0
Sulphur S 0
b. For Simple ions, the charge is the [O] number
Simple Ion [O] number
Group 1: Li+, Na+, K+ +1
Mg2+,Cu2+,Ca2+,Zn2+ +2
Al3+,Fe3+,Cr3+ +3
Halide ion : F-, Cl-, Br- -1
c. Sum of [O] number of a compound is equal to zero
Example:

CaCO3

(+2) + (+4) + 3 (-2) = 0

Na2SO4

2(+1) + (+6) + 4 (-2) = 0


d. Sum of [O] number of polyatomic ion is equal to the
charge of polyatomic ion
Example :

Sulphate ion , SO4-2

(+6) + 4(-2) = -2

Dichromate (VI) ion, Cr2O7 -2

2(+6) + 7(-2) = -2
e. In compounds, the more electro negative elements are
given a negative [O] number.

I , Br , Cl , N , O , F
electro negativity increases
example:

F2O
BrF3

2(-1) (+2)
NaIO3 (+3) 3(-1)

(+1) (+5) 3(-2)


f. Hydrogen has the [O] number +1 in most of its compounds.
An exception is the metal hydrides

Non- metal hydrides:


HCl H2S

(+1) (-1) 2(+1) (-2)

Metal hydrides:

NaH AlH3

(+1) (-1) (+3) 3(-1)


g. Oxygen has the [O] number -2 for most its compounds,
an exception is hydrogen peroxide
Non peroxide:
H2O BaO

2(+1) (-2) (+2) (-2)

peroxide:
H2O2 BaO2

2(+1) 2(-1) (+2) 2(-1)


Test yourself :
Calculate the [O] number for the underlined elements

a.CrCl3

b.NaMnO4

c.NaClO3
d.Au(OH)4 -

e.CuCl4 3 -
Naming of Compound based on IUPAC
system
1. For the compound that consists a metal that have more
than one oxidation number it is mention in a bracket
after the elements name.

Chemical Oxidation IUPAC name


formulae number
FeCl2 +2 Iron (II) chloride
FeCl3 +3 Iron (III) chloride
Cu2O +1 Copper (I) oxide
CuO +2 Copper (II) oxide
Mn(NO3)2 +2 Manganese (II) nitrate
MnO2 +4 Manganese (IV) oxide
2. For the negative ions that consists of metal that has more
than one oxidation number, it is mention after the element
name in a bracket

Chemical Oxidation IUPAC name


formulae number
K2MnO4 +6 Potassium manganate (VI)
KMnO4 +7 Potassium manganate (VII)
K2CrO7 +6 Potassium chromate (VI)
K2Cr2O7 +6 Potassium dichromate (VI)
K4Fe(CN)6 +2 Potassium
hexsasionaferrate (II)
K3Fe(CN)6 +3 Potassium
hexsasionafferate (III)
2. For the compound consists of non metal element that has
more than one oxidation number, the oxidation number is
written in roman number in a bracket

Chemical Oxidation IUPAC name


formulae number
Na2SO3 +4 Sodium sulphite (IV)
Na2SO4 +6 Sodium sulphite (VI)
NaNO2 +3 Sodium nitrite (III)
NaNO3 +5 Sodium nitrite (V)
3. REDOX REACTIONS BASED ON CHANGES IN
OXIDATION NUMBER

Oxidation : Reduction :
Increase in oxidation number decrease in oxidation number

Example : Reducing agent

Increase in oxidation number


OXIDATION

O +3
2 Fe(s) + 3Cl2 (g) 2FeCl3 (s)
O -1
REDUCTION
Oxidising agent Decrease in oxidation number
Example

2Mg + O2 2MgO
Example :
+1 +1 +1 -2 +1 -2 +1

2NaOH(aq) +H2SO4 (aq) Na2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O(aq)

-2 +6 +6 -2

For non-redox reactions, the oxidation number of


all elements in the reactants and products remain
unchanged
Activity
Determine the oxidation and reduction process
based on changes of oxidation numbers for each
chemical equation given below :
a. Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2
b. H2 + Cl2 2HCl
c. 2Na + Br2 2NaBr
4. REDOX REACTIONS BASED ON TRANSFER
OF ELECTRONS

[O] : [R] :
Loss of electrons Gain of electrons

electron acceptor : oxidising agent


electron donor : reducing agent

example:
2Na + Cl2 2NaCl

Oxidation : Na Na+ + e- ..(1)


Reduction : Cl2 + 2e- 2Cl- ..(2)
Example 1 :Reaction Between Acid And Metals
Loss of e-
oxidation

Zn + 2HCl ZnCl2 + H2
reduction
Gain of e-

Half equations:
Zn Zn2+ + 2e- (oxidation)
2H+ + 2e- H2 (reduction)
Ionic equations: Zn + 2H+ Zn2+ + H2

Oxidation agent : H+
Reduction agent : Zn
Balancing Half Equations For
Oxidation and Reduction

Half - equations must be balanced in terms of


a. The no. of atoms, and
b. The no. of charges
Example :Write the half equation for the reduction of manganate (VII) ion ,
MnO4- to Mn2+ ion with the presence of acid

Step 1 : write the reactants and products involved in the reaction


MnO4- + H+ Mn2+ + H2O

Step 2 : balance the number of atoms on both sides of the equation


MnO4- + 8H+ Mn2+ + 4H2O

Step 3 : balance the no. of charges on both sides of the equation


MnO4- + 8H+ Mn2+ + 4H2O

(-1) + (+) total = +2


total = +7

MnO4- (ak) + 8H+ (ak) + 5e- Mn2+ + 4H2O


Displacement
reaction
More electropositive metal
will displace a less
electropositive metal from the
salt solutions of the less
electropositive metal
Displacement Of Metals From Their
Salt Solutions
The higher the position of the metal in electrochemical
series : 1. More electropositive the metal
2. Easier to donates electron
3. More easily undergo oxidation
K
Na
Electropositivity
Ca
Tendency to ionize Mg
(by donating electron) Al
increases Zn
Fe
Strength as Sn
reducing agent Pb
increases H
Cu
Ag
Transfer of electron occurs during displacement
reactions :
DISPLACE ME NT OF ZINC BY MAGNE SIUM FROM
ZINC SUPL HATE SOLUTION

Mg
More ZnSO4
electropositive
metal Zn2+ ion in the salt
solution
(less electropositive)
OXIDATION
oxidized to its metal ions
REDUCTION
Donates electron reduced to its metal
(act as reducing agent) receives electron
(act as oxidizing
agent)
DISPLACEMENT OF ZINC BY MAGNESIUM
FROM ZINC SUPLHATE SOLUTION
Mg is more electropositive than zinc. Mg displaces
zinc from its salt.
oxidition Loss of e-

Mg + ZnSO4 MgSO4 + Zn
reduced Gain of e-
Half equations :
Mg Mg2+ + 2e- (oxidation)
Zn2+ + 2e- Zn (reduction)
1. Mg is more electropositive than Zn.
2. Mg atom undergoes oxidation by donate 2
electrons to Zn2+ ion.
3. Half equation : Mg Mg2+ + 2e-
4. Mg act as reducing agent.
5. Zn2+ ion undergoes reduction by receive 2
electron from Mg atom.
6. Half equation : Zn2+ + 2e Zn
7. ZnSO4 / Zn2+ act as oxidising agent.
8. Oxidation and reduction occurs in same reaction,
so it is a redox reaction.
Try .
Copper metal and Silver nitrate solution

1. Write the half equation for oxidation and


reduction process.
2. Explain the redox reaction based on
transfer of electron.
Dis placement of Fe by Cu from
Iron(II) nitrate s olution
K
Na
Ca
Mg
Al
Zn
Fe No reaction !!!!
Sn
Pb
H
Cu
Ag
Types of Redox reactions
4 examples of redox reactions are as
follows :
Displacement of metal from its salt
solution
Displacement of halogen from its halide
solution
Changing of iron (II) ions to iron (III) ions
and vice versa
Transfer of electrons at a distance
Dis placement of Halogen From Their Halide
S olution
R eactivity of F2 + 2e- 2F-
halogen Cl2 + 2e- 2Cl-
Br2 + 2e- 2Br-
I2 + 2e- 2I-

Example : 2 cm3 of
chlorine

2 cm3 of potassium Bromide

Cl2 + 2KBr 2KCl + Br2


Br2 + KCl
No
I2 + KCl reactions!!!!!

I2 + KBr
The colour of Halogens in Water
Halogen aqueous solution

Chlorine Greenish-yellow
Bromine Reddish Brown
Iodine Brown

The colours of Halogens in 1,1,1-


trichloroethane
Halogen Colour
Chlorine Colourless
Bromine Orange
Iodine Purple
Conversion of Fe2+ions to Fe3+and Fe3+ ion to Fe2+

a) Oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+


Fe2+salt + oxidising agent decolourisation occurs

Example :
Oxidizing Agent : acidified potassium manganate (VII)
solution

Oxidising
agent

Iron (II) ion


salt
Loss of e- Oxidation

MnO4- + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ Mn2+ + 4H2O + 5Fe3+

Reduction Gain of e-

Confirmed by : NaOH brown precipitate insoluble


in excess NaOH is obtained

Other oxidizing agents : refer to textbook pg 125


b) Reduction of Fe3+ to Fe2+
Reducing agent : Zinc, Zn
Added to Fe3+ salt the colour of solution
changes from brown to green

Iron (III) ion


salt Reducing
agent
Reduction Gain of e-

Zn+ 2Fe3+ 2Fe 2+ + Zn2+

Oxidation Loss of e-

Confirmed by : NaOH Dirty Green Precipitate


Insoluble In Excess NaOH

Other Reducing Agents : Refer To Textbook Pg 125


Transfer of electron at
a distance
Redox Reactions By The Transfer of
Electrons At a Distance

NEGATIVE POSITIVE
terminal terminal

Reducing agent Oxidizing agent


[OXIDATION] [REDUCTION]

Salt bridge:
Dilute Sulphuric acid
U-tube
Sodium @ potassium chloride
Sodium @ potassium nitrate
Example : Reaction of iron(II) Sulphate and
Acidified potassium manganate(VII) solution

Observation :
NEGATIVE terminal POSITIVE terminal

-ve
FeSO4 Solution: green brown
Oxidation
acidiedKMnO4 : purple colourless
Reduction

FeSO4 acidied
KMnO4

H2SO4 - Ve electrode : Fe2+ Fe3+ + e- [O]


+Ve electrode : MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- Mn 2++ 4H2O [R]
Overall reaction: MnO4- + 8H+ + 5Fe2+ 5Fe3 Mn 2++ 4H2O
Example : Reaction of acidified KMnO4 and KI
observation :
- Ve electrod : KI solution:
Colourless Brown
+ve e- -ve e-
+ve electrod : KMnO4 solution:
purple colourless

acidied
KI
KMnO4
[o] : 2I- I2 + 2e-
[r] : MnO4- + 8H+ + 5e- Mn 2++ 4H2O

H2SO4 Overall ionic equation:


2MnO4- + 10I-+ 16H+ 2Mn2++ 5I2 + 8H2O
Redox Reactions By The Transfer of
Electrons At a Distance

NEGATIVE POSITIVE terminal


terminal REDUCTION
OXIDATION

Potassium Iodide Acidified


Solution Potassium
Manganate(VII)
solution

Salt bridge:
Dilute Sulphuric acid
U-tube
RUSTING AS A REDOX REACTION
Rusting is the corrosion of iron
2 condition for rusting to occur :
The presence of air (oxygen)
The presence of water

Rusting is a redox reaction :


Oxygen oxidising agent
Iron - reducing agent
RUSTING OF IRON
Fe2+ + 2OH- Fe(OH)2

O2 O2 O2
O2

Fe2 O3.x H2O


Fe2+ Fe2+ Fe2 O3.x H2O

+ve terminal
+ve terminal e- e-
(cathode)
O2 + 2H2O+4e- 4OH-
O2 + 2H2 O+4e- 4OH-

Terminal -ve
Fe Fe2+ + 2e-
Anode : Fe Fe2+ + 2e- [oxidation]

O
Cathode : 2 + 2H2O +4e - 4OH- [reduction]

2Fe + O2 + 2H2O 2Fe(OH)2

Fe(OH)2 undergoes oxidation and formed Fe(OH)3


4Fe(OH)2 + O2 + 2H2O 4Fe(OH)3

Fe(OH)3 then becomes rust, hydrated iron(III)


oxide Fe2 O3.x H2O
Preventing of Rusting of Iron
2 metals contact with each other a voltaic cell
automatically formed :
More electropositive metal : lose its electron
undergoes oxidation

When iron in contact with more electropositive


metal : Rusting of iron is prevented
If IRON is in contact with less electropositive
metal, rusting of IRON is speeded up

The further apart the metals are in the


electrochemical series, the faster electropositive
metal corrode
Very
electropositive
K
Na
Corrodes easily Ca
Mg Iron does not corrode if it is
Al in contact with Zn, Al or Mg
Zn
Fe
Fe
Sn
Pb Iron corrodes rapidly if it is
Less
electropositive Cu in contact with Sn, Pb or Cu
Ag
Not corrode Au
easily
CONTROLLING RUSTING
Speed up corrode : Areas near the sea (NaCl, MgCl2)
In industrial areas : acidic gas (SO2 ,NO2)

Iron in contact with a metal less electropositive


than iron

Prevention : Using more electropositive metals


(Galvanising)
Using a protective layer (paint, oil, grease
or plastic coating)

Using sacrificial metal


Using alloys
To Investigate The Effect On Iron, Fe
When It Is Contact With Other Metal
Practical book
pg 79
To detect Fe2+ ion

To detect OH- ion


Result :
Test Pair of Metals Intensity of Pink inference
tube dark Blue colouration
Colouration

A Fe + Mg None Present Iron doest not rust


B Fe + Zn None Present Iron doest not rust
C Fe + Cu Very High Present Iron rust
D Fe only Low Present
Iron rust
Reactivity Series Of
Metals And Its
Arranged Application
based on reactivity of metal towards oxygen
Most Metal + Oxygen Metal oxide
K
reactive
Na
Ca
Mg
Al
Zn
Fe
Sn Example :
Pb
Cu
2Zn + O2 2ZnO
Less Ag 4Al + 3O2 2Al2O3
reactive Au
The vigourness of the reaction shows how
H and C
reactive the metal is towards oxygen, O2
not included
Reactivity Series Of Metals And Its Application
K
Most Na A more reactive metal is able to remove oxygen
reactive Ca from less reactive metal oxide.
Example :
Mg
Al ZnO + Mg Zn + MgO
Zn
Fe 2Al + 3CuO Al2O3 + 3Cu
Sn
Pb
Cu
Less Ag
reactive
Au
H and C
not included
Carbon, C and Hydrogen, H in the
reactivity series of metals
K
Carbon + metal oxide Most Na
reactive Ca
Mg
Al
C
Zn metal oxide
H
Dry H2 gas
Fe
Sn
Pb
Less reactive Cu
Ag
Au
Extraction of iron, Fe and tin, Sn
K
Na
Ca Very reactive metals
Mg Extraction of metal using electrolysis
Al methods
C
Reactivity
of metal Zn
increases Fe Less reactive metals
Sn
Pb Extraction of metal by using carbon as
Cu reducing agent

Ag Non-reactive metals
Au
Exists in element form in earth crusts
In extraction of metal carbon in form of coke
is used because
1. Carbon more reactive than zinc, iron ,
tin and lead. Carbon easily reduce
the oxide of these metals

2. Carbon is cheap and easily available

3. Carbon dioxide produced is not


poisonous can directly into air
Extraction Of Iron, Fe And Tin, Sn
Common Ore Main Mineral In Metal Extracted
Ore From Ore
Bauxite Aluminium Aluminium
oxide,Al2O3
Zinc blend Zinc sulphide, ZnS Zinc
Hematite Iron (III) oxide, Iron
Fe2O3
Magnetite Triiron tetraoxide Iron
Fe3O4
Cassiterite Tin(IV) oxide, SnO2 Tin
Galena Lead(II) sulphide Lead
PbS
Extraction of iron, Fe
Waste gases
Metal ore + limestone + coke

Put in blast furnace

Hot air pumped into blast furnace


CO2 to burn C and produce CO
2C (s) + O2 (g) 2CO (g)
400oC Both C and CO reduce the metal ore
Fe2O3 (s) + 3CO (g) 2Fe(l) + 3CO2 (g)
800oC
2Fe2O3 (s) + 3C (g) 4Fe(l) + 3CO2 (g)
1400oC
Limestone reacts with impurities and slag is
2000oC
formed
Hot air Hot air
CaCO3 + SiO2 CaSiO3 + CO2
Slag floats on the top molten metal
Slag and is removed. Molten metal is
Molten collected at bottom part of blast
iron furnace
Extraction of Tin, Sn
Cassiterite Crushed, grounded and washed

Roasted in the air : Flotation method: Ore + oil + water.

Converts the sulphide of tin Tin mineral : less dense- trapped


to oxide in floating foam

Impurities : burnt off Impurities : denser sink to the


bottom

Heated with coke and limestone in blast Molten tin is drained off
furnace into moulds to become tin
block
SnO2 (s) + 2CO (s) Sn (s) + 2CO2 (g)
SnO2 (s) + 2C (s) Sn (s) + 2CO2 (g)
SnO2 (s) + C (s) Sn (s) + CO2 (g) Calcium oxide from the
limestone eliminates the
Reduction of tin(IV) oxide by carbon
monoxide and coke remaining impurities to slag
Redox Reactions in Electrolytic And
Chemical Cells

[O] anode cathode [R] [R] + ve -ve [O]

copper zinc

Cell A Cell B
Electrolysis Voltaic cell
Oxidation and Reduction in Electrolytic Cells
Electrolytic cell Half equation Observation
Electolysis of sulphuric acid with Anode [O]: Anode :
carbon electrode Cathode :
Ions present :__________ Solution :
Cathode [R]:
Electrolysis of copper (II) sulphate Anode [O] : Anode :
with carbon electrode Cathode :
Ions present :__________ Solution :
Cathode [R]:

Electrolysis of copper (II) nitrate Anode [O]: Anode :


with copper electrode Cathode :
Ions present :__________ Solution :
Cathode [R]: