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FIGURE 17.1 (a) Examples of typical parts made by powder metallurgy processes.

(b) Upper trip lever for a


commercial irrigation sprinkler made by PM; this part is made of an unleaded brass alloy; it replaces a die-cast
part with a 60% cost savings. (c) Main-bearing metal powder caps for 3.8- and 3.1-liter General Motors
automotive engines.
Source: (a) and (b) Reproduced with permission from Success Stories on PM Parts, Metal Powder Industries
Federation, Princeton, New Jersey, 1998. (c) Courtesy of Zenith Sintered Products, Inc., Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.2 Outline of processes and operations involved in producing powder metallurgy parts.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.3 Particle shapes in metal powders, and the processes by which they are produced; iron powders
are produced by many of these processes (see also Fig. 17.4).

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.4 (a) Scanning-electron microscope image of iron-powder particles made by atomization. (b)
Nickel-based superalloy (Udimet 700) powder particles made by the rotating electrode process; see Fig. 17.5d.
Source: Courtesy of P.G. Nash, Illinois Institute of Technology, Chicago.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.5 Methods of metal powder production by atomization: (a) gas atomization; (b) water atomization;
(c) centrifugal atomization with a spinning disk or cup; and (d) atomization with a rotating consumable electrode.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.6 Methods of mechanical comminution to obtain fine particles: (a) roll crushing; (b) ball mill; and
(c) hammer milling.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.7 Sequence of mechanical alloying of nickel particles with dispersed smaller particles. As nickel
particles are flattened between two balls, the second, smaller phase is impressed into the nickel surface and
eventually is dispersed throughout the particle due to successive flattening, fracture, and welding.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.8 (a)(d) Some common bowl geometries for mixing or blending powders. (e) A mixer suitable for
blending metal powders. Since metal powders are abrasive, mixers rely on the rotation or tumbling of enclosed
geometries, as opposed to using aggressive agitators. Source: Courtesy of Kemutec Group, Inc.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.9 (a) Compaction of metal powder to form a bushing; the pressed powder part is called green
compact. (b) A typical tool and die set for compacting a spur gear.
Source: Reprinted with permission from Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.10 Compaction of metal powders; at low compaction pressures, the powder rearranges without
deforming, leading to a high rate of density increase. Once the powders are more closely packed, plastic
deformation occurs at their interfaces, leading to further density increases but at lower rates. At very high
densities, the powder behaves like a bulk solid.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.11 (a) Density of copper- and iron-powder compacts as a function of compacting pressure; density
greatly influences the mechanical and physical properties of PM parts. (b) Effect of density on tensile strength,
elongation, and electrical conductivity of copper powder.
Source: (a) After F.V. Lenel. (b) After the International Annealed Copper Standard (IACS) for electrical
conductivity.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.12 Density variation in compacting metal powders in various dies.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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TABLE 17.1 Compacting Pressures for Various
Powders

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.13 A 7.3-MN (825-ton) mechanical press for compacting metal powder.
Source: Courtesy of Cincinnati Incorporated.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.14 Schematic diagrams of cold isostatic pressing; pressure is applied isostatically inside a high-
pressure chamber. (a) The wet bag process to form a cup-shaped part; the powder is enclosed in a flexible
container around a solid-core rod. (b) The dry bag process used to form a PM cylinder.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.15 Capabilities, with respect to part size and shape complexity, available from various PM
operations. PF = powder forging.
Source: Reprinted with permission from Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.16 Schematic illustration of hot isostatic pressing; the pressure and temperature variations versus
time are shown in the diagram (not to scale).

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.17 A valve lifter for heavy-duty diesel engines produced from a hot-isostatic-pressed carbide cap on
a steel shaft. Source: Courtesy of the Metal Powder Industries Federation.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.18 A single shot of four metal injection molded components, with sprue, runners, and gates (see
also Fig. 19.10). Source: Courtesy HARBEC, Inc.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.19 Powder metal components for mobile phones to achieve a flip-open feature.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.20 An illustration of metal powder rolling.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.21 Spray deposition (Osprey process) in which molten metal is sprayed over a rotating mandrel to
produce seamless tubing and pipe.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.22 Schematic illustration of explosive compaction. (a) A tube filled with powder is surrounded by
explosive media inside a container, typically cardboard or wood. (b) After detonation, a compression wave follows
the detonation wave, resulting in a compacted metal powder part.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
TABLE 17.2 Sintering Temperature and Time for
Various Metals

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.23 Schematic illustration of two mechanisms for sintering metal powders: (a) solid-state material
transport and (b) vapor-phase material transport. R = particle radius, r = neck radius, and = neck-profile
radius.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
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FIGURE 17.24 Schematic illustration of liquid phase sintering using a mixture of two powders. (a) Green
compact of a higher melting point base metal and lower temperature additive; (b) liquid melting, wetting and
reprecipitation on surfaces; and (c) fully sintered solid material.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
TABLE 17.3 Mechanical Properties of Selected PM
Materials

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TABLE 17.3 (continued) Mechanical Properties of
Selected PM Materials

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
TABLE 17.4 Comparison of Mechanical Properties of
Selected Wrought and Equivalent PM Metals (as
Sintered)

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
TABLE 17.5 Mechanical Property Comparisons for Ti-
6AL-4V Titanium Alloy

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.25 Micrograph of a PM material surface after roll densification; note the low porosity near the
surface, increasing the materials ability to support contact stresses and resist fatigue.
Source: Courtesy of Capstan Atlantic Corp.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.26 Die geometry and design features for powder metal compaction.
Source: Reprinted with permission from Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.27 Examples of PM parts showing poor and good designs; note that sharp radii and reentry corners
should be avoided and that threads and transverse holes have to be produced separately by additional machining
operations.
Source: Reprinted with permission from Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.28 (a) Design features for use with unsupported flanges. (b) Design features for use with grooves.
Source: Reprinted with permission from Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, NJ, USA.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
TABLE 17.6 Forged and PM Titanium Parts and Cost
Savings

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE 17.29 Powder metallurgy parts in a commercial snow-blower.

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE P17.41

Manufacturing Engineering and Technology, Seventh Edition in SI Copyright 2014 by Pearson Education
Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.
FIGURE P17.54

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Serope Kalpakjian | Steven R. Schmid South Asia Pte Ltd. All rights reserved.