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SECRECY IN BANK

DEPOSITS
Q: What is the purpose?

A:
To encourage deposit in banking institutions; and
To discourage private hoarding so that banks may lend
such funds and assist in the economic development of the
country.
Q: What are the prohibited acts under the law?
A:
Examination/inquiry/looking into all deposits of whatever
nature with banks or banking institutions in the
Philippines (including investment in bonds issued by the
government) by any person, government official or office
(Sec. 2)
Disclosure by any official or employee of any banking
institution to any authorized person of any information
concerning said deposit (Sec. 3)
Q: What are the kinds of deposits covered?

A:
All deposits of whatever nature with banks or banking
institutions found in the Philippines; or
Investments in bonds issued by the Philippine
government, its branches, and institutions. (Sec. 2, R.A.
1405
Q: Are trust funds covered by the term deposit?
A: Yes, the money deposited under the trust agreement is
intended not merely to remain with the bank but to be
invested by it elsewhere. To hold that this type of account
is not protected by R.A. 1405 would encourage private
hoarding of funds that could otherwise be invested by
banks in other ventures, contrary to the policy behind the
law. (Ejercito v. Sandiganbayan, G.R. No. 15729495,
Nov. 30, 2006)
Q: Are foreign currency deposits covered by the
Secrecy in Bank Deposits (R.A. 1405)?
A: No. Foreign currency deposits are covered by R.A.
6426 otherwise known as the Foreign Currency Act.
Under the same law, all authorized foreign currency
deposits are considered of an absolutely confidential
nature and, except upon the written permission of the
depositors, in no instance shall be examined, inquired or
looked into by any person, government official, bureau or
office whether judicial or administrative private.
Q: What are the instances where examination or disclosure of information about deposits can be
allowed?

A:
Upon written consent of the depositor. (Sec. 2)
In cases of impeachment. (Sec. 2)

Upon order of competent court in cases of bribery or dereliction of duty of public officials. (Sec. 2)

In cases where the money deposited or invested is the subject matter of the litigation. (Sec. 2)

Upon order of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue in respect of the bank deposits of a decedent for the
purpose of determining such decedents gross estate. (Sec. 6[F][1], NIRC)

Upon the order of the Commissioner of Internal Revenue in respect of bank deposits of a taxpayer who has
filed an application for compromise of his tax liability by reason of financial incapacity to pay his tax
liability. (Sec. 6[f][1],NIRC)
In case of dormant accounts/deposits for at least 10 years under the Unclaimed Balances Act. (Sec. 2, Act No. 3936).

When the examination is made by the BSP to insure compliance with the AML Law in the course of a periodic or special
examination

9. With court order:


In cases of unexplained wealth under Sec. 8 of the AntiGraft and Corrupt Practices Act (PNB v. Gancayco, L18343, Sept. 30,
1965)
n cases filed by the Ombudsman and upon the latters authority to examine and have access to bank accounts and records
(Marquez v. Desierto, GR 138569, Sept. 11, 2003)

10. Without court order: If the AMLC determines that a particular deposit or

investment with any banking institution is related to the following: HKMAD


a. Hijacking,
b. Kidnapping,
c. Murder,
d. Destructive Arson, and
e. Violation of the Dangerous Drugs Act. (2004, 2006 Bar Question)
Q: What are the requisites before the Ombudsman
may examine deposits?

A:
There is a pending case before court of competent
jurisdiction
The account must be clearly identified
There is notice upon the account holder and bank
personnel of their presence during inspection.
Q: Can a bank be compelled to disclose the records of the
accounts of a depositor under the investigation for unexplained
wealth?
A: Since cases of unexplained wealth are similar to cases of bribery,
dereliction of duty, no reason is seen why it cannot be excepted from
the rule making bank deposits confidential. In this connection,
inquiry into illegally acquired property in antigraft cases extends to
cases where such property is concealed by being held or recorded in
the name of other persons. This is also because the AntiGraft and
Corrupt Practices Act, bank deposits shall be taken into consideration
in determining whether or not a public officer has acquired property
manifestly out of proportion with his lawful income. (PNB v.
Gancayco, G.R. No. L18343, Sept. 30, 1965)
Q: In an action filed by the bank to recover the money
transmitted by mistake, can the bank be allowed to present
the accounts which it believed were responsible for the
acquisition of the money?
A: Yes, R.A. 1405 allows the disclosure of bank deposits in
cases where the money deposited is the subject matter of
litigation. In an action filed by the bank to recover the money
transmitted by mistake, necessarily, an inquiry into the
whereabouts of the amount extends to whatever is concealed
by being held or recorded in the name of the persons other than
the one responsible for the illegal acquisition. (Mellon Bank,
N.A. v. Magsino, G.R. No. 71479, Oct. 18, 1990)
Q: The Law on Secrecy of Bank Deposits provides that all deposits of
whatever nature with banks or banking institutions are absolutely
confidential in nature and may not be examined, inquired or looked into by
any person, governmental official, bureau or office. However, the law
provides exceptions in certain instances. Which of the following may not be
among the exceptions?
in cases of impeachment
in cases involving bribery
in cases involving BIR inquiry
in cases of antigraft and corrupt practices
in cases where the money involved is the subject of litigation

A: Under Section 6(F) of the National Internal Revenue Code, the Commissioner
of Internal Revenue can inquire into the deposits of a decedent for the purpose of
determining the gross estate of such decedent. Apart from this case, a BIR inquiry
into bank deposits cannot be made.
Thus, exception 3 may not always be applicable. Turning to
exception 4, an inquiry into bank deposits is possible only in
prosecutions for unexplained wealth under the Antigraft and
Corrupt Practices Act. However, all other cases of antigraft
and corrupt practices will not warrant an inquiry into bank
deposits. Thus, exception 4 may not always be applicable. Like
any other exception, it must be interpreted strictly.
Exceptions 1, 2, and 5 on the other hand, are provided
expressly in the Law on Secrecy of Bank Deposits. They are
available to depositors at all times. (2004 Bar Question)
Q: Does garnishment of a bank deposit violate the
law?
A: No, the prohibition against examination does not
preclude its being garnished for satisfaction of judgment.
The disclosure is purely incidental to the execution
process and it was not the intention of the legislature to
place bank deposits beyond the reach of judgment
creditor. (PCIB v. CA, G.R. No. 84526, Jan. 28, 1991)
Q: How about foreign currency deposits, can they be subject to
garnishment?
A:
GR: Foreign currency deposits shall be exempt from attachment,
garnishment, or any other order or process of any court, legislative body,
government agency or any administrative body whatsoever. (Sec 8. R.A.
6426)
XPN: The application of Section 8 of R.A. 6426 depends on the extent
of its justice. The garnishment of a foreign currency deposit should be
allowed to prevent injustice and for equitable grounds, otherwise, it
would negate Article 10 of the New Civil Code which provides that in
case of doubt in the interpretation or application of laws, it is presumed
that the lawmaking body intended right and justice to prevail. (Salvacion
vs. Central Bank of the Philippines, G.R. 94723, August 21, 1997)
Q: Can the foreign currency deposit of a transient
foreigner who illegally detained and raped a minor
Filipina, be garnished to satisfy the award for damages to
the victim?
A: The exemption from garnishment of foreign currency
deposits under R.A. 6426 cannot be invoked to escape liability
for the damages to the victim. The garnishment of the transient
foreigners foreign currency deposit should be allowed to
prevent injustice and for equitable grounds. The law was
enacted to encourage foreign currency deposit and not to
benefit a wrongdoer. (Salvacion vs. Central Bank of the
Philippines, G.R. 94723, August 21, 1997)
Q: What are the penalties for violation of R.A. 1405?
A: The penalty of imprisonment of not more than 5 years
or a fine of not more than 20,000pesos or both, in the
discretion of the court shall be imposed upon any official
or employee of a banking institution who, upon
conviction, was found to have violated R.A. 1405
Q: What are banks?
A: Entities engaged in the lending of funds obtained through
deposits from public.
Q: What are the elements determinative of a bank?

A:
Must be authorized by law;
Accepts fund, in the form of a deposit, from the public; and
Lends money to the public.
Q: Give the classifications of banks and their definition.
Universal banks Primarily governed by the General Banking Law (GBL), can exercise the powers of
an investment house and invest in nonallied enterprises and have the highest capitalization
requirement.
Commercial banks Ordinary banks governed by the GBL which have a lower capitalization
requirement than universal banks and can neither exercise the powers of an investment house nor invest
in nonallied enterprises.
Thrift banks These are a) Savings and mortgage banks; b) Stock savings and loan associations; c)
Private development banks, which are primarily governed by the Thrift Banks Act (R.A. 7906).
Rural banks Mandated to make needed credit available and readily accessible in the rural areas on
reasonable terms and which are primarily governed by the Rural Banks Act of 1992 (RA 7353).

Cooperative banks Those banks organized whose majority shares are owned and controlled by
cooperatives primarily to provide financial and credit services to cooperatives. It shall include
cooperative rural banks. They are governed primarily by the Cooperative Code (RA 6938).
Islamic banks Banks whose business dealings and activities are subject to the basic principles and
rulings of Islamic Sharia, such as the Al Amanah Islamic Investment Bank of the Philippines which
was created by RA 6848.
Other classification of banks as determined by the Monetary Board of the Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas.
Q: What is a quasibank?
A: These are entities engaged in the borrowing of funds
through the issuance, endorsement or assignment with
recourse or acceptance of deposit substitutes for purposes
of relending or purchasing of receivables and other
obligations (Sec 4). Unlike banks, quasibanks do not
accept deposits.
Q: What are trust entities?
A: These are entities engaged in trust business that act as
a trustee or administer any trust or hold property in trust
or on deposit for the use, benefit, or behoof of others
(Sec. 79). A bank does not act as a trustee.
Q: What are financial intermediaries?
A: Persons or entities whose principal functions include the
lending, investing, or placement of funds on pieces of evidence
of indebtedness or equity deposited with them, acquired by
them or otherwise coursed through them, either for their own
account or for the account of others.
Q: What are deposit substitutes?
A: It is an alternative form of obtaining funds from the public,
other than deposits, through the issuance, endorsement, or
acceptance of debt instruments, for the borrower's own
account, for the purpose of relending or purchasing of
receivables and other obligations. These instruments may
include, but need not be limited to, bankers acceptances,
promissory notes, participations, certificates of assignment and
similar instruments with recourse, and repurchase agreements.
Q: What are the corporate powers of a bank?
A: All powers provided by the corporation code like
issuance of stocks and entering into merger or
consolidation with other corporation or banks.
Q: What are the rules regarding the issuance of stocks by a bank?

A:
The Monetary Board may prescribe rules and regulations on the types of stock a bank may issue.
Banks shall issue par value stocks only .(Sec. 9)
GR: No bank shall purchase or acquire shares of its own capital stock or accept its own shares as a
security for a loan
XPN: when authorized by the Monetary Board
Note: That in every case the stock so purchased or acquired shall, within six months from the
time of its purchase or acquisition, be sold or disposed of at a public or private sale. (Sec 10)
Foreign individuals and nonbank corporations may own or control up to 40% of the voting stock of a
domestic bank. This rule shall apply to Filipinos and domestic nonbank corporations.

Stockholdings of individuals related to each other within the fourth degree of consanguinity or
affinity, legitimate or commonlaw, shall be considered family groups or related interests and must be
fully disclosed in all transactions by such corporations or related groups of persons with the bank.
(Sec 12)
Two or more corporations owned or controlled by the same family group o
same group of persons (Corporate Stockholdings) shall be considered related interests and must be
fully disclosed in all transactions by such corporations or related group of persons with the bank. (Sec
13)

Q: What is the effect of merger or consolidation of


banks to the number of directors allowed?
A: The number of directors may be more than 15 but
should not exceed 21 (Sec. 17).
Q: How many independent directors are required?
A: 2 (Sec. 16)
Q: When may the Monetary Board limit the grant of
compensation to the directors?
A: Only in exceptional cases and when the circumstances
warrant, such as but not limited to the following:
When a bank is under comptrollership or conservatorship
When a bank is found by the Monetary Board to be
conducting business in an unsafe or unsound manner
When a bank is found by the Monetary Board to be in an
unsatisfactory financial condition
Q: What is required for a bank may register or amend
their articles of incorporation with SEC?
A: Certificate of Authority to Register issued by the Monetary
Board. (sec. 14)
Q: What should be proven by banks to satisfy the
Monetary Board and grant that certificate?

A:
That all requirements of existing laws and regulations to
engage in the business for which the applicant is proposed to
be incorporated have been complied with
That the public interest and economic conditions, both general
and local, justify the authorization
That the amount of capital, the financing, organization,
direction and administration, as well as the integrity and
responsibility of the organizers and
administrators reasonably assure the safety of deposits and the
public interest.
Q: When are the banks prohibited on declaring of
dividends?
A:
Its clearing account with the Bangko Sentral is overdrawn; or
It is deficient in the required liquidity floor for government
deposits for five or more consecutive days, or
It does not comply with the liquidity standards/ratios
prescribed by the Bangko Sentral for purposes of determining
funds available for dividend declaration; or
It has committed a major violation as may be determined by
the Bangko Sentral
Q: What are the powers which may be necessary in carrying on
the business of commercial banking?

A:
Accepting drafts and issuing letters of credit
Discounting and negotiating promissory notes, drafts, bills of
exchange and other instrument evidencing debt
Accepting or creating demand deposits, receiving other types of
deposit and deposit substitutes
Buying and selling FOREX and gold or silver bullion
Acquiring marketable bonds and other debt securities
Extending credit
Determination of bonds and other debt securities eligible for
investment including maturities and aggregate amount of such
investment, subject to such rules as the Monetary Board may
promulgate. (Sec. 29)
Q: What are the additional powers given to a
universal bank aside from those mentioned in section
29?

A:
Act as investment house
Ability invest in nonallied enterprises. (Sec 24)
Q: What is the degree of diligence required of banks
in handling deposits?
A: Extraordinary diligence. The appropriate standard of
diligence must be very high, if not the highest, degree of
diligence; highest degree of care (PCI Bank vs. CA, 350
SCRA 446, PBCom vs. CA, G.R. No. 121413, 29 Jan.
2001) This applies only to cases where banks are acting
in their fiduciary capacity, that is, as depository of the
deposits of their depositors. (Reyes v. CA, G.R. No.
118492, Aug. 15, 2001)
Q: Does the bank need to exercise extraordinary
diligence in all commercial transactions?
A: No, the degree of diligence required of banks, is more
than that of a good father of the family where the
fiduciary nature of their relationship with their depositors
is concerned, that is, depositary of deposits. But the same
higher degree of diligence is not expected to be exerted
by banks in commercial transactions that do not involve
their fiduciary relationship with their depositors, such as
sale and issuance of foreign exchange demand draft.
(Reyes v. CA, G.R. No. 118492, Aug. 15, 2001)
Q: What is the effect when the teller gave the passbook to a
wrong person?
A: If the teller gives the passbook to the wrong person, they would
be clothing that person presumptive ownership of the passbook,
facilitating unauthorized withdrawals by that person. For failing to
return the passbook to authorized representative of the depositor, the
bank presumptively failed to observe such high degree of diligence in
safeguarding the passbook and insuring its return to the party
authorized to receive the same. The banks liability, however, is
mitigated by the depositors contributory negligence in allowing a
withdrawal slip signed by authorized signatories to fall into the hands
of an impostor. (Consolidated Bank and Trust Corporation vs. CA,
GR No, 138569, September 11, 2003).
Q: Did a bank exercise the diligence required when the
pretermination of the account is allowed despite discrepancies
in the signature and photograph of the person claiming to be
the depositor and failure to surrender the original certificate
of time deposit?
A: No. The bank is negligent because the depositor did not present
the certificate of deposit (Citybank, N.A., vs. Sps. Cabamongan,
G.R. No. 146918, May 2, 2006).
Q: Is the bank liable when an employee encashed a check
without the requisite of endorsement?
A: Yes. The fiduciary nature of the relationship between the bank
and the depositors must always be of paramount concern.
(Philippine Savings Bank vs. Chowking, G.R. No. 177526, July 04,
2008).
Q: What is the deposit function of banks?
A: The function of the bank to receive a thing, primarily
money, from depositors with the obligation of safely
keeping it and returning the same.
Q: What are the kinds of deposits between a bank and its
depositors?

A:
1. As debtorcreditor:
a. Demand deposits all those liabilities of banks which are
denominated in the Philippine currency and are subject to payment in
legal tender upon demand by representation of checks.
b. Savings deposits the most common type of deposit and is usually
evidenced by a passbook.
Note: The requirement of presentation of passbooks is usually
included in the terms and conditions printed in the passbooks. A bank
is negligent if it allows the withdrawal without requiring the
presentation of passbook (BPI v. CA, GR No. 112392, Feb. 29, 2000).
c. Negotiable order of withdrawal account (NOWA) Interestbearing
deposit accounts that combine he payable on demand feature of checks
and investment feature of saving accounts.
d. Time deposit an account with fixed term; payment of
which cannot be legally required within such a specified
number of days.
2. As trusteetrustor: Trust account a savings account,
established under a trust agreement containing funds
administered by the bank for the benefit of the trustor or
another person or persons.
3. As agentprincipal:
a. Deposit of checks for collection
b. Deposit for specific purpose
c. Deposit for safekeeping
Q: What are the types of deposit accounts?

A:
1. Individual; or
2. Joint:
a. And account the signature of both codepositors
are required for withdrawals.
b. And/or account either one of the codepositors
may deposit and withdraw from the account without the
knowledge consent and signature of the other.
Q: Is an anonymous account prohibited?
A:
GR: Anonymous accounts or those under fictitious
names are prohibited. (R.A. 9160 as amended by by R.A.
9194; BSP Circular No. 251, July 21, 2000)
XPN: In case where numbered accounts is allowed such
as in foreign currency deposits. However,
banks/nonbank financial institutions should ensure that
the client is identified in an official or other identifying
documents. (Sec. 8, R.A. 6426 as amended, FCDA)
Q: What is the nature of a bank deposit?
A: All kinds of bank deposits are loan. The bank can
make use as its own the money deposited. Said amount is
not being held in trust for the depositor nor is it being
kept for safekeeping. (Tang Tiong Tick v. American
Apothecaries, G.R. No. 43682, Mar. 31, 1938)
Q: In the enforcement of obligations concerning deposit,
will the remedy of mandamus lie?
A: No, because all kinds of deposit are loans. Thus, the
relationship being contractual in nature, mandamus cannot be
availed of because mandamus will not lie to enforce the
performance of contractual obligations. (Lucman v. Alimatar
Malawi, G.R. No. 159794, Dec. 19, 2006)
Q: Does the fiduciary nature of the bankdepositor
relationship convert the contract between banks and
depositors to a trust agreement?
A: No, thus, failure by the bank to pay the depositor is failure
to pay simple loan, and not a breach of trust. (Consolidated
Bank and Trust Corp. v. CA, G.R. No. 138569, Sept. 11, 2003)
Q: After procuring a checking account, the depositor issued
several checks. He was surprised to learn later that they had been
dishonored for insufficient funds. Investigation disclosed that
deposits made by the depositor were not credited to its account.
Is the bank liable for damages?
A: Yes, the depositor expects the bank to treat his account with
utmost fidelity, whether such account consist only of a few hundred
pesos or of millions. The bank must record every single transaction
accurately, down to the last centavo, and as promptly as possible.
This has to be done if the account is to reflect at any given time the
amount of money the depositor can dispose of as he sees fit,
confident that the bank will deliver it as and to whomever he directs.
A blunder on the part of the bank, such as the dishonor of the check
without good reason, can cause the depositor not a little
embarrassment if not also financial loss and perhaps even civil and
criminal litigation. (Simex Intl. v. CA, G.R. No. 88013, Mar. 19, 1990)
Q: Is a safety deposit box a form of deposit or lease?
A: The contract for the use of a safe deposit box should
be governed by the law on lease.
Under the old banking law, a safety deposit box is a
special deposit. However, the new General Banking Law,
while retaining the renting of safe deposit box as one of
the services that the bank may render, deleted reference to
depository function. (Divina, Handbook on Philippine
Commercial Law)
Q: What are the rules on stipulation of interests?
A:
1. Central Bank Circular 416 12% per annum in cases of:
a. Loans
b. Forbearance of money, goods and credits
c. Judgement involving such loan or forbearance, in the
absence of express agreement as to such rate of interest

2. Interest accruing from unpaid interest interest due shall


earn interest from the time it is judicially demanded although
the obligation may be silent upon this point.
Q: If the bank was forbidden by Central Bank to do
business, does it still have the obligation to pay interest
on deposit?
A: No, because a bank lends money, engages in
international transactions, acquires foreclosed mortgaged
properties or their proceeds and generally engages in other
banking and financing activities in order that it can derive
income therefrom. Therefore, unless a bank can engage in
those activities from which it can derive income, it is
inconceivable how it can carry on as a depository obligated
to pay interest on money deposited with it. (Fidelity &
Savings and Mortgage Bank v. Cenzon, G.R. No. L46208,
Apr. 5, 1990)
Q: What is net worth?
A: The total of the unimpaired paidin surplus, retained
earnings and undivided profit, net of valuation reserves
and other adjustments as may be required by the BSP.
(Sec. 24.2)
Q: What is risked based capital?
A: The minimum ratio prescribed by the Monetary Board
which the net worth of a bank must bear to its total risk
assets which may include contingent accounts.
Q: What is the effect of noncompliance with the
ratio?

A:
Distribution of net profits may be limited or prohibited
and MB may require that part or all of the net profits be
used to increase the capital accounts of the bank until the
minimum requirement has been met; or
GR: Acquisition of major assets and making of new
investments may be restricted.
XPN: purchases of evidence of indebtedness
guaranteed by the Government (Sec. 34).
Q: What are the limitations imposed upon banks with
respect to its loan function?

A:
GR: Single borrowers limit The total amount of loans, credit
accommodations and guarantees that
the bank could grant should at no time exceed 25% of the
banks net worth. (Sec 35.1, GBL)
XPN:
a. As the Monetary Board may otherwise prescribe for reasons
of national interest
b. Deposits of rural banks with governmentowned or
controlled financial institutions like LBP, DBP, and PNB.
The total amount of loans, credit accommodations and
guarantees prescribed in (a) may be increased by an additional
10% of the net worth of such bank provided that additional
liabilities are adequately secured by trust receipt, shipping
documents, warehouse receipts and other similar documents
which must be fully covered by an insurance. (Sec. 35.2, GBL)
Loans and other credit accommodations secured by REM shall
not exceed 75% of the appraised value of the real estate
security plus 60% of the appraised value of the insured
improvements (Sec. 37, GBL)
CM/intangible property such as patents, trademarks, etc. shall
not exceed 75% of the appraised value of the security (Sec. 38,
GBL)
4. Loans being contractual, the period of payment may be subject to stipulation
by the parties. In the case of amortization, the amortization schedule has no fixed
period as it depends on the project to be financed such that if it was capable of
raising revenues, it should be at least once a year with a grace period of 3 years if
the project to be financed is not that profitable which could be deferred up to 5
years if the project was not capable of raising revenues. (Sec. 44, GBL)
5. Loans granted to DOSRI:
a. Director
b. Officer
c. Stockholder, which should at least 1% (if below 1% not anymore covered)
d. Related Interests, such as DOSs spouses, their relatives within the
first degree whether by consanguinity or affinity, partnership whereby DOS is a
partner or a corporation where DOS owns at least 20%.
Q: What are excluded from such loan limitations?
A: Nonrisk loans, such as:
Loans secured by obligations of the Bangko Sentral ng
Pilipinas or the Philippine Government
Loans fully guaranteed by the Government
Loans covered by assignment of deposits maintained in the
lending bank and held in the Philippines
Loans, credit accommodations and acceptances under letters of
credit to the extent covered by margin deposits
Other loans or credit accommodations which the MB may
specify as nonrisk items.
Q: What is joint and solidary signature (JSS)
practice?
A: A common banking practice requiring as an additional
security for a loan granted to a corporation the joint and
solidary signature of a major stockholder or corporate
officer of the borrowing corporation. (Security Bank v.
Cuenca, G.R. No. 138544, Oct. 3, 2000)
Q: In case of DOSRI accounts, what are the requirements
that must be complied with?

A:
Procedural requirement Loan must be approved by the
majority of all the directors not including the director
concerned. CB approval is not necessary; however, there is a
need to inform them prior to the transaction. Loan must be
entered in the books of the corporation. (Sec. 36)
Substantive requirement Loan must not exceed the paid in
contribution and unencumbered deposits. (Not to exceed 15%
of the portfolio or 100% of the net worth, whichever is lower.)
(Sec. 36 [4])
Q: What is the effect of noncompliance
with the foregoing requirements?
A: Violation of DOSRI is a crime and
carries with it penal sanction.
Q: What are the transactions covered by
the DOSRI regulation?
A: The transaction covered are loan and
credit accommodation. Not being a loan,
the ceiling will not apply to lease and sale.
However, it should still comply with the
procedural requirement.
Q: What is the armslength rule?
A: It provides that any dealings of a bank with any of its DOSRI
shall be upon terms not less favorable to the bank than those
offered to others. [Sec. 36 (2)]
Q: Can the bank terminate the loan and demand immediate
payment if the borrower used the funds for purposes other
than that agreed upon?
A: If the bank finds that the borrower has not employed the
funds borrowed for the purpose agreed upon between the bank
and the borrower, the bank may terminate the loan and demand
immediate payment. (Banco de Oro v. Bayuga, G.R. No.
L49568, Oct. 17, 1979)
Q: What are the acts that may be penalized of fine and
imprisonment as provided in the New Central Bank Act
(NCBA)?
A:
Refusal to Make Reports or Permit Examination (Sec. 34 NCBA)
False Statement (Sec. 35. NCBA)
Other acts that violates any banking laws (Sec. 36, NCBA)
Q: What are the administrative sanctions that the Monetary Board may
impose notwithstanding with Sections 3436 of NCBA?

A:
Fines in amounts as may be determined by the Monetary Board to be appropriate,
but in no case to exceed P30,000 a day for each violation, taking into
consideration the attendant circumstances, such as the nature and gravity of the
violation or irregularity and the size of the bank or quasibank
Suspension of rediscounting privileges or access to Bangko Sentral credit
facilities
Suspension of lending or foreign exchange operations or authority to accept new
deposits or make new investments
Suspension of interbank clearing privileges; and/or
Revocation of quasibanking license. (Sec 37, NCBA)
Note: Resignation or termination from office shall not exempt such director or
officer from administrative or criminal sanctions.
Q: Who may file a criminal case for violations of banking laws?
A: It does not appear from the law that only the Central Bank or its
respondent officials can cause the prosecution of alleged violations of
banking laws. Said violations constitute a public offense, the prosecution
of which is a matter of public interest and hence, anyone even private
individuals can denounce such violations before the prosecuting
authorities. (Perez v. Monetary Board, G.R. No. L23307, June 30, 1967)
Q: May the Monetary Board issue sanctions on unfit directors?
A: Yes. After due notice to the board of directors of the bank, the
Monetary Board may disqualify, suspend or remove any bank director or
officer who commits or omits an act which render him unfit for the
position. In determining whether an individual is fit and proper to hold
the position of a director or officer of a bank, regard shall be given to his
integrity, experience, education, training, and competence. (Sec. 16,
GBL)
Q: How could a bank be dissolved?

A:
Voluntary Liquidation (Sec. 68 GBL) 2. Receive
Liquidation (Sec. 69 GBL)

Q: What is the penalty for transactions after the bank becomes insolvent?

A:
insolvent or placed under receivership by the Monetary Board who refuses to
turn over the bank's records and assets to the designated receivers, or who
tampers with banks records, or who appropriates for himself for another party
or destroys or causes the misappropriation and destruction of the bank's assets,
or who receives or permits or causes to be received in said bank any deposit,
collection of loans and/or receiables, or who pays outor prmits or causes to be
transferred any securities or property of said bank shall be subject to the penal
provisions of the New Central Bank Act (Sec. 70 GBL).