Anda di halaman 1dari 54

1

EL-490

DYE SENSITIZED TiO2 BASED


SOLAR CELL

Presented By:
Laxman Prasad Goswami Siddhant Mittal
A4LE 29 A4LE 36
10 LEB 141 10 LEB 168
GD7100 GD 7110
2

PRESENTATION SCHEDULE

1. Problem statement
2. Description of Principles involved
3. Work done
4. Results & Conclusion
3

PROBLEM STATEMENT
Fabrication and testing of a doped TiO2 based
DSSC for enhanced photovoltaic efficiency.
4

OUTLINE
Introduction
Photovoltaic effect
Solar cells & its types
Structure of DSSC
DSSC principle

Literature review
Work done
Results & Conclusion
References
5

INTRODUCTION
Fossil fuels being consumed at a high rate cause
Global warming
Limited amount
Need to think of renewable resources
Solar energy a good option
If all radiant energy reaching the surface of the
earth could be effectively harnessed, the worlds
energy problems would be solved.
Solar cells:
Opto-electronic device
Convert solar energy directly into electrical energy
using photovoltaic cell
6

PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT
Basic principle on which solar cells work
Solar light falls on the device surface
Photovoltaic device converts solar energy into
electrical power known as photovoltaic effect
Photovoltaic device include PN junction solar
cells, DSSC, photo-galvanic cells, organic(plastic)
solar cells.
7

TYPES OF SOLAR CELL


.

Efficiency 10-25%
High processing temperature,
Non-flexible

Solution process
Efficiency 3-6%
Inorganic
Polymer Stable
Based Vacuum process;
SOLAR Efficiency ~1%
CELLS Organic Small
Molecule
Based
Efficiency ~12%
Dye Liquid leakage;
Hybrid
Sensitized Limited temperature
range
8

DSSC
DSSC: Dye Sensitized Solar Cells
Consists of thin film of nano- crystalline titanium
dioxide (TiO2) particles
Natural Pomegranate juice can be used as dye
molecules
Dye molecules excited by a light source
Electrons transferred from the dye to the TiO2
Produce a photovoltaic effect.
Efficiency depends on
State of the TiO2
Type of dye
Electrolyte solution used
9

TYPES OF DSSC
Liquid electrolyte
Highest power conversion efficiency(12-13%)
Solid hole conductors
Small power conversion efficiency(~4%)
Similar to organic solar cell
Examples of Redox Mediators (Electrolyte)
/3
/3
/()3
/()3
10

STRUCTURE OF DSSC WITH LIQUID ELECTROLYTE

Has a sandwich structure


11

STRUCTURE OF DSSC
Light enters from left side .
Through a conducting glass
collecting electrons
Reach to nano-porous working
electrode of TiO2
Compact TiO2 layer prevents short
circuit current
Monolayer of dye molecule attached
with TiO2 nano-porous working
electrode
Responsible for solar energy to
electricity conversion
12

STRUCTURE OF DSSC
Right side DSSC consists
Counter electrode with thin layer of
catalyst
Another piece of conducting glass
Electrolyte lies between two
electrodes
Shuttles the electrons between
these electrodes
Completes the circuit
Working electrodes materials
Metal oxides with wide band gap
TiO2
13

OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF DSSC


Light to electricity conversion includes five steps :
1) + *
Light enters at the TiO2 nano-porous working electrode
Dye molecules absorb photons
Jump from ground sate to exited state *

2) + +
Excited dye molecules inject electrons
To Conduction Band of TiO2 working electrode
Get oxidised to +
Electrons transported through compact layer &
conducting electrode to reach the external circuit
Contributing electricity output
14

OPERATING PRINCIPLE OF DSSC


3) + + +
To complete internal circuit
Receiving electrons from
iodide( ) in the electrolyte
Oxidised dye molecule reduced
to ground state
4) oxidised to & diffuse to counter electrode
Caused by concentration gradient
5) Receiving electrons from external circuit
reduced to with carbon on counter electrode as
catalyst
diffuse back to solid-liquid interface
Forming loop between working and counter electrode
15

I-V CHARACTERISTICS
16

IMPORTANT PARAMETERS
Power Conversion Efficiency()

= =

=Short Circuit Current Density
=Open Circuit Voltage
=Input Power
FF is fill factor given by

=

=Maximum Current Density
=Maximum Voltage
=
17

WORK DONE
18

Why DSSC ?
ORegan & Gratzel (1991) were the pioneers for the use of
TiO2 in cells based on DSSC.
Achieved overall light to electricity conversion efficiency of
12.3%(2012) [5] for a liquid electrolyte.

Dye sensitized TiO2 based solar cell

Why it is better than silicon solar cells


-- DSSC moderate efficiency(12-13%),
- easy to fabricate,
- low cost alternative to conventional
inorganic Si cells
19

WORK DONE
Choice of Components

Why TiO2:
Suitable for wide spread industrial applications
Biologically and chemically inert
Stable to photo and chemical corrosion, acid-base
effects and excessive illumination
Inexpensive.

Nano particles of TiO2 provide large surface area for dye


molecules, to be absorbed.

TiO2 possesses High transmittance & good refractive index

Dye used: natural pomegranate juice


20

Advantages of Doping
Doping enhances the efficiency of TiO2 based solar cell

Reduces crystal size & increases the range of wavelength


of the activation light

Band gap (3.2ev : TiO2) works for ultraviolet


light(~350nm) but if we reduce band gap by adding
dopant, working with visible light (~700nm)is also
achieved.

Doping reduce recombination of charge carriers


21

*OPERATIONS PERFORMED

Comparative study of optical properties of doped


& un-doped TiO2 (SEM, XRD, FTIR analysis)

Comparative study of electrical properties of


doped & un-doped TiO2 (LCR meter analysis)

Fabrication of the DSSC

Testing for enhanced Photo Voltaic efficiencies


22

*STEPS BEFORE FABRICATION

Zr- doped TiO2 synthesized using sol-gel


method is used as a sample

Prior to fabrication the viability of the sample


has been tested using various analysis.

Various equipments and chemicals were


collected from various sources.
23

DOPING PROCESS
The method for preparation of doped TiO2 powder is the sol gel
method.
24

OPTICAL PROPERTIES

of Doped TiO2
25

ANALYSIS FOR THE SAMPLE USED


DONE AT UNIVERSITY SOPHISTICATED INSTRUMENTS FACILITY (USIF)

SEM ANALYSIS
Scanning electron microscope

Microstructural
characterization of TiO2 and
Zr-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

To see the changes in structure


of TiO2 after doping
26

SEM ANALYSIS CONTINUED..

Magnified View for the Doped


TiO2

Partially crystalline nature

Result: Crystal structure TiO2


has not changed with doping
27

XRD ANALYSIS
INTENSITY

X-ray diffraction measurement


Structural characteristics of the pure and Doped TiO2.

= where D = crystallite size, K = shape factor,
cos
= wavelength,
= diffraction angle, and = full width at half maximum
We see a decrease in crystallite size in the doped TiO2.
The addition of dopant hinders the growth of TiO2 particle.
28

FTIR ANALYSIS
FOURIER
TRANSFORM
INFRARED
TRANSMITTANCE

ANALYSIS

Transmittance
increases with
doping.
29

WHY THIS ANALYSIS IS REQUIRED

Study the crystal shape & characteristics of


doped & undoped TiO2 (SEM)

Comparison of size of pure and doped TiO2


(XRD)

Capability for Photo-Voltaic characteristics


enhancement with doping (FTIR)
30

ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES

Pallet used for measuring electrical properties


31

LCR METER ( In Applied Physics Department)

Agilent Precision
LCR Meter
4285A
75KHz-300MHz
32

LCR Meter Readings (Software Used: ORIGIN)


33

Impedance (Z) Analysis:

Separate the resistive (real) and


reactive (imaginary) components of
the electrical parameters

and decreases with increase in


frequency
Because ac conductivity increase
with rise in frequency
34

Dielectric studies ()

* = permittivity

Z* = impedance and

tan = dielectric loss or


dissipation factor

These are related to one another


as follows:
35

Dielectric studies ()
The dielectric constant is represented
by:

= real part of dielectric constant &


indicates stored energy

= imaginary part of dielectric


constant, indicating dissipated energy.
36

AC conductivity
Results due to migration of
electric charge carriers between
the metal ions.

Gradually increases with the


increase in frequency of applied
ac field

Because increase in frequency


enhances migration of electrons
37

FABRICATION
Chemicals Used :
Doped and Undoped TiO2 powder, Chemicals used for Fabrication
Dilute acetic acid (0.035 M),
Triton X-100 surfactant

Materials Used :
Tape
Candle
Clips
Conducting Glass Slides

Software & Instruments Used :


Multimeter (simple & Keithley 2000)
Origin
Materials used for Fabrication
LCR Meter
38

FABRICATION
Grind 2 grams of TiO2 in a mortar & pestle with a few drops of very dilute acetic
acid.

Add a few drops of Triton X-100 surfactant

Identify the conducting side of a tin oxide-coated piece of glass by using a


multimeter to measure resistance (20 30 )

With the conducting side up, tape the glass on three sides using one thickness of
tape

Wipe off any fingerprints or oils using tissue wet with ethanol.

Add some of the TiO2 paste and spread using a glass rod.

The tape serves as a 40-50 micrometer spacer to control the thickness of the
paste layer.

Carefully remove the tape without scratching the TiO2 coating.


39

FABRICATION
Heat the glass on a hotplate in a hood for 10-20 minutes.

The surface turns brown as the organic solvent and surfactant dries and
burns off to produce a white or green titanium dioxide coating.

Allow the glass to cool.

Immerse the coating in pomegranate juice

The white TiO2 will change colour as the dye


is absorbed and complexed to the Ti(IV).
Conducting Glass slide
with TiO2 layer
Rinse gently with water and then with
ethanol. (The ethanol serves to remove
water from the porous TiO2).
40

FABRICATION
Pass a second piece of tin oxide glass, conducting side down, through a
candle flame to coat the conducting side with carbon (soot).

Wipe off the carbon along the perimeter of the three sides of the carbon-
coated glass plate using a carbon swab.

Assemble the two glass plates with coated sides together, but offset so that
uncoated glass extends beyond the sandwich.

Do not rub or slide the plates.


41

FABRICATION

Clamp the plates together.

Add a few drops of tri-iodide


solution to the edge of the plate.
Capillary action will cause the KI3
solution to travel between the two
plates.
42

FABRICATION
Connect the multimeter using an
alligator clip to each plate (the
negative electrode is the TiO2 coated
glass and the positive electrode is the
carbon coated glass).

Measure the current and voltage


produced by the solar cell under
illumination.
43

RESULTS
The Photovoltaic performance of doped & un-doped TiO2
was investigated.

The readings for voltage, current & other performance


parameters are tabulated.

The I-V characteristic curve obtained is in accordance


with the desired results.

It was established that the addition of a dopant in TiO2


influences & enhances the performance of the DSSC.
44

RESULTS
45

RESULTS
46

RESULTS
UNDOPED TiO2 DOPED TiO2
V (Volts) I (mA) V (Volts) I (mA)
0.4 25.21 0.4 27.71
0.39 28.11 0.39 28.01
0.38 34.66 0.38 34.67
0.36 38.62 0.37 38.63
0.33 39.21 0.36 39.22
0.32 41.89 0.34 44.1
0.31 45.85 0.33 48.27
0.29 46.55 0.31 49.01
0.27 47.6 0.29 50.11
0.23 49.5 0.25 52.11
0.20 50.6 0.22 53.27
0.14 51.3 0.15 54
0.11 51.4 0.12 54.11
0.09 51.44 0.10 54.15
47

RESULTS (I-V Characteristic Curve)


48

CALCULATION OF PARAMETERS
Power Conversion Efficiency()

= =

=Short Circuit Current Density
=Open Circuit Voltage
=Input Power
FF is fill factor given by

=

=Maximum Current Density
=Maximum Voltage
=
49

TABULATED RESULTS

S. No DSSC Fill Efficiency


(mA/2 ) (Volts) Factor (%)

1 Un- Doped

2 Zr- Doped
50

RESULT (Analysis)
The efficiency of the DSSC increases with doping of TiO2,
due to high specific area which enhances the absorption
of dye to the surface

Zr atoms doped in TiO2 reduce the loss of electrons by


supressing their recombination, resulting in an increase
in & hence, the efficiency.

The values of different parameters increase with doping,


thus resulting in increased efficiency
51

RESULT (Analysis)
The efficiency could be further enhanced to
compete with industry grade solar cells by use of:

Better Conductive glasses

High quality dye (for absorption)

Modern Equipment
52

CONCLUSION
The essence of the project lies in appreciating
the use of Doped DSSC as a viable device for
solar electricity conversion at reduced costs &
manageable efficiencies.

More research into alternate dopant materials &


available resources can help improve the results
for bright futuristic prospects.
53

REFERENCES
[1] A. Malik, S. Hameed, J. Siddiqui, M. M. Haque, M. Muneer, Study of
photoconductivity of nanocrystalline TiO2 used in DSSC, 2013.

[2] Kyung Hyun Ko, Young Cheol Lee, Young Jing Jung, Enhanced efficiency of Dye
sensitized TiO2 solar cells DSSC by doping of metal ions, Journal of Colloid and
Interface Science , Elsevier, 482-487, 2005.

[3] A. R. Zainun, U. M. Noor, M. Ruso, Electrical and optical properties of


nanostructured CuI incorporated with ligand agent for DSSC Application,
International Journal of the Physical sciences, Vol.6(16), pp. 3993-3998, August 2011.

[4]M. K. Ahmad, N. A. Rasheid, A. Zain Ahmed, S.Abdullah, M. Rusop, Study of Co


doping on the electrical and optical properties of TiO2 thin film prepared by sol-gel
method, ICSE 2008 Proc. 2008, Johor Bahru, Malaysia.

[5]L. L. Deng, Master Thesis , McMaster University Material science and Engineering,
2012

[6] D. E. Camilla, Dye Sensitized Solar Cells : materials and processes, Ph.D Thesis,
Universita Degli Studi Di Milano Bicocca, 2012
54

REFERNCES
[7] A. Malik, S. Hameed, M. J. Siddiqui, M. M. Haque, M.Muneer, Influence
of Ce Doping on the Electrical and Optical Properties of TiO2 and Its
Photocatalytic Activity for the Degradation of Remazol Brilliant Blue R,
International Journal of Photoenergy,Volume 2013, Article ID 768348.

[8] A. Zaleska, Doped-TiO2: A Review, Recent Patents on Engineering 2008,


2, pg- 157-164.

[9] S. Chang, R. Doong, Characterization of Zr-Doped TiO2 Nanocrystals


Prepared by a Nonhydrolytic Sol-Gel Method at High Temperatures,
J. Phys. Chem. B 2006, 110, pg .20808-20814