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SITE CLIMATE

PUJA KANSA BANIK .


Deviations within a zone

- macroclimate
- microclimate

SITE CLIMATE
Local factors
Topography

Ground surface

Three dimensional objects

SITE CLIMATE
Local factors
Topography
slope, orientation, exposure, elevation, hills or valleys

Ground surface
weather natural or man made, its reflectance, permeability and the
soil temp., as these affect the vegetation, and intern affects the climate.
Ex- woods, shrubs, grass, paving, water, etc.

Three dimensional objects


trees or tree belts, fences, walls and buildings. These may influence air
movement, cast shadow, and may subdivide the area into smaller units
with distinguishable climatic features.

SITE CLIMATE
Air temperature
At any point near ground the air temp. is dependent upon the amount of
heat gained or lost at the earths surface and any other surface the air has
recently been in contact.

DAY

NIGHT

TEMPERATURE INVERSION
upward eddies and Katabatic winds

SITE CLIMATE
HUMIDITY
At

DAY

NIGHT

SITE CLIMATE
PRECIPITATION
When ground changes level by
more than 300m 300 m.

Upward current may divert any


horizontal air movement in an
upward direction.

SITE CLIMATE
PRECIPITATION
If rainfall generally occurs with
high velocities, resulting in
driving rain , the effect will be
more pronounce on the
windward side than on the
leeward slope, as explained by
the parallelogram of forces.

SITE CLIMATE
SOLAR RADIATION
FACTORS EFFECTING SOLAR RADIATION

1. Transparency of the atmosphere


2. Orientation and slope of site (with exception of vertical buildings)
3. Presence of 3D structures

Thermal effect of such radiation are further regulated by surface cover.

SITE CLIMATE
AIR MOVEMENT

SITE CLIMATE
VEGITATION AND SPECIAL CHARACTERISTICS
URBAN CLIMATE

SITE CLIMATE
THERMAL COMFORT
What is Thermal Comfort?

- That condition of mind


which expresses satisfaction
with the thermal environment.
ISO 7730
BODYS HEAT PRODUCTION
Heat is continuously produced by body.
(most of the biochemical process involved in tissue-building,
energy conversion and muscular work are exothermic)
Metabolism - The processes involved in converting foodstuff into
living matter and useful form of energy.
Total metabolic heat production can be divided into
(i) Basal metabolism (ii) Muscular metabolism
Of all energy produced in the body

20%

utilized
remaining

THERMAL COMFORT
Metabolic Rate
0.8 Met

Energy released by metabolism


depends on muscular activity.
Metabolism is measured in Met (1
Met=58.15 W/m2 body surface).
8 Met
Body surface for normal adult is 1.7
1 Met
m2.
A sitting person in thermal comfort
will have a heat loss of 100 W.
Average activity level for the last
hour should be used when
evaluating metabolic rate, due to
4 Met bodys heat capacity.

THERMAL COMFORT
Met Value Table
Activity Metabolic rates [M]
Reclining 46 W/m2 0.8 Met
Seated relaxed 58 W/m2 1.0 Met
Clock and watch repairer 65 W/m2 1.1 Met
Standing relaxed 70 W/m2 1.2 Met
Car driving 80 W/m2 1.4 Met
Standing, light activity (shopping) 93 W/m2 1.6 Met
Walking on the level, 2 km/h 110 W/m2 1.9 Met
Standing, medium activity (domestic work) 116 W/m2 2.0 Met
Washing dishes standing 145 W/m2 2.5 Met
Walking on the level, 5 km/h 200 W/m2 3.4 Met
Building industry 275 W/m2 4.7 Met
Sports - running at 15 km/h 550 W/m2 9.5 Met

THERMAL COMFORT
Met Value Examples

THERMAL COMFORT
BODYS HEAT LOSS
The deep body temperature must remain balanced and constant
around 37C . In order to maintain body temp. at this steady level,
all surplus heat must be dissipated to the environment.
Body heat can be released into the environment by

-Convection
-Radiation
-Evaporation
-Conduction

THERMAL COMFORT
THERMAL BALANCE OF THE BODY

THERMAL COMFORT
REGULATORY MECHANISMS

VASOMOTOR REGULATIONS

THERMAL COMFORT
HEAT LOSS IN VARIOUS THERMAL
ENVIRONMENT
Influencing Factors
Environmental factors:
dry-bulb temp.
relative humidity (or water vapour pressure)
influences evap heat loss and skin wettedness
usually RH between 30% and 70% is comfortable

air velocity (increase convective heat loss)


mean radiation temp.
radiation has great effect on thermal sensation

THERMAL COMFORT
HEAT LOSS IN VARIOUS THERMAL
ENVIRONMENT
Influencing Factors
Other factors affecting comfort:
age
sensation of old people and younger people

adaptation
people in warm climates may adapt to hot environment

sex
women: lower skin temp., evap loss and lower met. rate
clothing and perferrence of temp.

THERMAL COMFORT
EFFECTIVE TEMPERATURE
A comfort index or scale that takes into account the temperature of air, its moisture
content, and movement.

PSYCHROMETER
an instrument for determining atmos
pheric humidity by the reading of two
thermometers, the bulb of one
being kept moist and ventilated.

THERMAL COMFORT INDICES


Bioclimatic chart

THERMAL COMFORT INDICES


Effective temp. nomogram

THERMAL COMFORT INDICES


Globe thermometer

WBT

THERMAL COMFORT INDICES


Anemometer

Kata thermometer

THERMAL COMFORT INDICES


The range of conditions within which at least 80% of the people would feel
comfortable can be termed comfort zone

THERMAL COMFORT INDICES