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Seminar

On
WITRICITY- A Novel Approach To
Wireless Power Transfer
Submitted by:-
Rahul sikka
1141850
OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION
HISTORY
WITRICITY DEFINATION
WITRICITY
WITRICITY NOW
WHY WITRICITY USED ?
PRINCIPLE
WORKING
TYPES OF WIRELESS POWER TRANSFER TECHNIQUES
MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION
LASER TRANSMISSION
LASER VS MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION (MPT)
RESONANCE
IS WITRICITY SECURE
EFFICIENCY OF WITRICITY
ADVANTAGES OF WITRICITY
DISADVANTAGES OF WITRICITY
LIMITATIONS
APPLICATIONS
CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
One of the major issue in power system is the losses
occurring during the transmission and distribution of
electrical power.
The percentage of loss of power during transmission and
distribution is 26% to 30%.
The main reason for power loss during transmission and
distribution is the resistance of wire used in the grid.
According to the World Resource institute (WRI) , Indias
electricity grid has the highest transmission and distribution in
the world- A whopping 27-40%.
Tesla has proposed methods of transmission of electricity
without wires using electromagnetic induction.
HISTORY
Sir NIKOLA TESLA was the first one to
propose and research the idea of wireless
transmission in 1899, since then many
scholars and scientists have been working
to make his dream to reality.

1. 1899: Tesla was able to transfer the


energy from one coil to another coil.
He make 187 feet tall tower to
broadcast the energy. He managed to
lights 200 lamps for a distance of 40
Km.
2. 1961: William C. brown publish an
article exploring possibilities of
microwave power transmission.

3. 2009: Sony shows a wireless


electrodynamics induction
powered TV set, 60W over 50cm.
WITIRICITY DEFINITION
As the word wireless means without wire.

Wireless energy transfer or wireless power is the


transmission of electrical energy from a power
source to an electrical load without interconnecting
the man made conductors.

Wireless transmission is useful in case where


interconnecting wires are inconvenient, hazardous
and impossible.
WITRICITY
It is based on Resonance Inductive Coupling (RIC).

Energy transfer wirelessly for a distance just


more than 2m.

Coils were in helical shape.

No capacitor was used.

Efficiency achieved was around 40%.


WITRICITY NOW
No more helical coils.

Companies like Intel are also working on


devices that make use of RIC.

Researches for decreasing the field strength.

Researches to increases the range.


WHY WITRICITY USED ?
Reliable
Efficient
Fast
Low maintenance cost
It can be used for short range or long range
PRINCIPLE
Block diagram Circuit diagram
WORKING
Magnetic coil (Antenna A) is housed
in a box and can be set in a wall or
celling.

Antenna A, Powered by main supply,


resonator with specific frequency.

Electromagnetic waves transmitted


through the air.

Second magnetic coil (Antenna B )


fitted in laptop/ TV etc. resonator as
same frequency as same first coil and
absorbs energy.

Energy charges the device


TYPES OF WIRELESS POWER
TRANSFER TECHNIQUES
. Short Range- inductive
coupling.
Inductive coupling works on the
principle of electromagnetism:

when a current (electricity) passes


through a wire, it generate magnetic
field perpendicular to the wire.

Example:- Wireless charging pad


WCD, the device are to be kept,
battery will automatically charged.
ADVANTAGES OF NEAR- FIELD
TECHNIQUES
No wires
No E- Waste
Need for battery is eliminated
Efficient energy transfer using RIC
Harmless, if field strength is under safety level
Maintenance cost is less
DISADVANTAGES OF NEAR FIELD
TECHNIQUES
Distance constraint

Field strength have to be under safety levels

Initial cost is high

In RIC, tuning is difficult


LONG RANGE- FAR FIELD POWER
TRANSFER

Far field method achieves longer ranges which


is much greater than diameter of device.

These far-field type techniques include radio


and microwave power transmission
techniques and LASER techniques.
MICROWAVE POWER TRANSMISSION
Transfer high power from one place to
another. Two places being in line of sight
usually.
STEPS:
1. Electrical energy to microwave energy
2. Capturing microwave using rectenna
3. Microwave energy to electrical energy
MPT CONT
A.C. cannot be directly converted into microwave
energy.

A.C. is converted into D.C. first.

D.C. is converted to microwave using magnetron.

Transmitted waves are receives at rectenna which


rectifies , D.C. as the output.

D.C. is converted back to the A.C.


LASER TRANSMISSION
LASER is highly directional and coherent.

. Not dispersed for very long.

But, gets attenuated when it propagated


through atmosphere.

Simple receiver- Photovoltaic cell


LASER VS MPT
When LASER is used, antenna size much
smaller.

Microwave can face interference(Two


frequencies can be used for WPT 2.42 GHz
and 5.4 GHz.

LASER has high attenuation loss and also it


gets diffracted by atmospheric particle easily.
ADVANTAGES OF FAR FIELD ENERGY
TRANSFER
Efficient
Easy
Need for grid, substation etc. are eliminated
Low maintenance cost
More effective when the transmitting and
receiving point are along a line of sight
Can reach the places which are remote
DISADVANTAGES OF FAR FIELD
ENERGY TRANSFER
Radiative
Need line of sight
Initial cost is high
When LASER are used
1. Conversion is inefficient
2. Absorption loss is high
. When microwave are used
1. Interference may arise
RESONANCE
Resonance:- It is tendency of a
system to oscillate with larger
amplitude at some frequencies
than at others. These are known
as system resonant frequencies.

Resonant magnetic coupling:-


When two objects exchange
energy through their varying or
oscillating magnetic fields.
Resonant coupling occurs when
the natural frequencies of the
two objects are approximately
the same.
WITRICITY BASED ON RIC
IS WITRICITY SECURE ?
Yes it is secure !

Principle of WITRICITY is
based on oscillating
magnetic field

We to live in a globe
that is already
surrounded by a
magnetic waves.
EFFICIENCY OF WITRICITY
WITRICITY have only about 40-45% efficiency.

The efficiency of WITRICITY is based on


distance between the source coil and the load
coil.
ADVANTAGES OF WITRICITY
Eliminates the existing transmission line cables,
tower and substations.
More freedom of choice of both receiver and
transmitters
Cost of transmission and distribution become less
Power could be transmitted to the places where the
transmission is not possible
Loss of transmission is negligible level
Safer eliminating the sparking hazard
DISADVANTAGES OF WITRICITY
Starting costs
Capital cost even given cheap launchers
Would require a network of hundreds of
satellites
The size of antenna and rectennas
Interference in source coil and load coil.
LIMITATIONS OF WITRICITY
A tesla coil produces high voltage electric arcs.
These arcs cause permanent damage to
electrical devices on contact.

It is not capable of working in direct current, It


works only in alternating Current.
FUNCTIONAL BENEFITS OF WIRELESS
ENERGY TRANSFER
Make devices more convenient and thus
more desirable to purchasers, by eliminating
the need for a power cord or battery
replacement.

Make device more reliable by eliminating the


most failure prone component in most
electronics system- cords and connectors.

Make device more environmentally sound by


eliminating the need for disposable batteries.

Make device safety eliminating the sparking


hazards associated with the conductive
interconnection.

Reduced system cost by leveraging the ability


of power multiple device from a single
source resonator.
APPLICATIONS
Consumer Electronics:- The laptop PC shown in the left photo in is being
powered directly by a wireless power source deployed behind the cork
board, delivering over 20 watts of power over a 40 cm distance. The
source and device resonators are oriented perpendicular to each other. In
the photo on the right in Figure shows the D cell form factory battery
shown charging is enabled for wireless energy capture, and can charge at
a distance of over 10 cm from the wireless charging source.
ELECTRIC VEHICLE APPLICATION
Wireless charging systems are being developed for rechargeable hybrid
and battery electric vehicles. These systems already deliver 3.3 kW at high
efficiency over a distance of 10 cm -20 cm (typical vehicle ground
clearances). Figure shows the Audi Urban Concept Vehicle, demonstrated
by Audi in April, 2012. It is expected that wireless charging will vastly
improve the charging experience for EV owners, making such vehicles
even more attractive to consumer.
LED APPLICATION
LED (light emitting diode) lights can be directly powered with wireless
electricity, eliminating the need for batteries in under-cabinet task
lighting, and enabling architectural lighting designers to create products
that seemingly float in mid-air, with no power cord. The LED fixture shown
in the left photo is powered by a 10 W source mounted above the ceiling,
and using two resonant repeaters (the white disks) to improve the
efficiency of the energy transfer.
CONCLUSION
The transmission of power without wires is not
theory or a mere possibility, It is now a reality.
The electrical energy can be economically
transmitted without wires to any terrestrial
distance. The system would reduce the cost of
electrical energy used by the consumer and get
rid of the landscape of wires, cables, and
transmission towers. It has negligible demerits
like reactive power.
THANK YOU