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Anda di halaman 1dari 118

Izkinal Athhar (5213416038)

Radiya arga Virgananda (5213416049)

Yulian Candra Purwana (5213416060)

Wengki Muhammad

Alfriansyah (5213416066)

Restu Kusumawardani (5213416071)

DIAMAGNETISM

DivYesh Patel

DIAMAGNETISM

Diamagnetic materials create an induced

magnetic field in a direction opposite to an

externally applied magnetic field.

They are repelled by the applied magnetic field.

Diamagnetic materials

GENERAL PROPERTIES OF DIAMAGNETIC

MATERIALS

Diamagnetic Materials experiences a repelling force

when brought near the pole of a strong magnet.

In a non-uniform magnetic field, The are repelled

away from stronger parts of the field.

The magnetic susceptibility of these materials is

always negative.

The relative permeability r is always less than one.

In the absence of external magnetic field ,The net

magnetic dipole moment over each atom or molecule

of a diamagnetic material is zero.This is due to

pairing of electrons.

Examples:-Bismuth,Copper,Lead,Zinc etc.

PARAMAGNETISM

PARAMAGNETIZATION

Paramagnetic materials exhibit magnetism when

the external magnetic field is applied.

Paramagnetic materials loose magnetization in

the absence of an externally applied magnetic

field. These materials are weakly attracted

towards magnetic field.

SHIELDING EFFECT

The shielding effect is

the reduction of

attractive force Nucleus

between the nucleus

(+) and its outer

electrons (-) due to the

blocking affect of the

inner electrons

Shielding electrons

SHIELDING EFFECT

Across stays the

3

same

Electrons are added

in the Valence shell 2

electrons remain the Levels

same 1

0

Na Mg Al Si P S Cl

SHIELDING EFFECT

Down increases 7

Another layer of 6

electrons is added 5

and the shielding 4

between the valence Energy

Levels

3

shell and the nucleus

increases 2

0

F Cl Br I At

PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE

Reference: pg. 203

The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that each

electron (waveform) has a unique set of

quantum numbers

No two electrons can have the same values for

all quantum numbers

HUNDS RULE

If two or more degenerate (same

energy) orbitals are available, one

electron goes in each till they are all

half full

Hund's rule states that:

Every orbital in a sublevel is singly occupied

before any orbital is doubly occupied.

All of the electrons in singly occupied orbitals

have the same spin (to maximize total spin).

ORDER OF FILLING: THE AUFBAU

PRINCIPLE

This principle states that in addition to adding

protons and neutrons to the nucleus, one simply

adds electrons to the hydrogen-like atomic

orbitals

THE AUFBAU SHORTCUT: FOLLOW THE

RED ARROWS

Write the orbitals in columns as shown

Draw red diagonal arrows

Follow the arrows as you fill the orbitals

Name Date Contribution

Various scientists 1649- - 63 more elements discovered.

1849

- Beginning to recognize patterns in properties.

1829 midway between the weights of calcium and

barium. All 3 elements possess similar

chemical properties.

chlorine, bromine, and iodine and the alkali

metal triad of lithium, sodium, and potassium.

elements, the middle element when ordered by

atomic weight has properties that were an

average of the other 2 elements.

Name Date Contribution

A.E.Beguyer de 1862 - Published first periodic table determining that the

Chancourtois properties of the elements are the properties of numbers.

7 elements.

on similar physical properties.

Octaves using the analogy of the 7 intervals on a musical

scale. The law states that any given element will exhibit

analogous behavior to the 8th element following it in the

table.

Name Date Contribution

Dmitri Ivanovich 1869 - Mendeleev noticed patterns in the properties and

Mendeleev atomic weights of halogens, alkali metals and

alkaline metals. He observed similarities between

the series Cl-K-Ca , Br-/Rb-Sr and I-Cs-Ba.

elements, he created a card for each of the 63

known elements. Each card contained the

element's symbol, atomic weight and its

characteristic chemical and physical properties.

When Mendeleev arranged the cards on a table in

order of ascending atomic weight grouping

elements of similar properties together in a

manner not unlike the card arrangement in his

favorite solitaire card game, patience, the periodic

Father of the Periodic Table table was formed. From this table, he developed

his statement of the periodic law and published

his work.

for his work in chemistry.

Mendeleevs Table (in German)

Translation:

Name Date Contribution

Lord Rayleigh 1895 - Reported discovery of the new gaseous element

named argon (Ar) which proved to be chemically

inert.

groups.

William 1898 -Suggested that argon be placed into the periodic

Ramsey table between chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K) in a

family with helium (He), despite the fact that

argon's atomic weight was greater than that of

potassium. This group was termed the "zero" group

due to the zero valance of the elements.

and properties of neon.

1904

-Rayleigh (physics) and Ramsey (chemistry)

awarded Noble prizes

Name Date Contribution

Ernest Rutherford 1911 - Discovered that the nuclear charge on a nucleus was

proportional to the atomic weight of the element.

A. van den Broek 1911 - Proposed that the atomic weight of an element was

approximately equal to the charge on an atom. This charge

could be used to number the elements with the periodic

table and later termed the atomic number.

wavelengths of the x-ray spectral lines of a number of

elements which showed that the ordering of the

wavelengths of the x-ray emissions of the elements

coincided with the ordering of the elements by atomic

number.

apparent that atomic weight was not the significant player

in the periodic law as Mendeleev, Meyers and others had

proposed, but rather, the properties of the elements varied

periodically with atomic number.

Moseleys Periodic Table

Name Date Contribution

Glenn Seaborg 1940 -Discovered plutonium (Pu), and then all the

transuranic elements from 94-102.

actinide series below the lanthanide series.

BASICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

- CLASSICAL POINT OF VIEW -

In Newtonian mechanics, the laws are written in terms of

PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES.

A PARTICLE is an indivisible mass point object that has a

variety of properties that can be measured, which we call

observables. The observables specify the state of the particle

(position and momentum).

A SYSTEM is a collection of particles, which interact among

themselves via internal forces, and can also interact with the

outside world via external forces. The STATE OF A SYSTEM is a

collection of the states of the particles that comprise the system.

All properties of a particle can be known to infinite precision.

Conclusions:

TRAJECTORY state descriptor of Newtonian physics,

EVOLUTION OF THE STATE Use Newton's second law

PRINCIPLE OF CAUSALITY Two identical systems with the

same initial conditions, subject to the same measurement will yield

the same result.

BASICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

- QUANTUM POINT OF VIEW -

Quantum particles can act as both particles and

waves WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY

Quantum state is a conglomeration of several

possible outcomes of measurement of physical

properties Quantum mechanics uses the

language of PROBABILITY theory (random

chance)

An observer cannot observe a microscopic system

without altering some of its properties. Neither

one can predict how the state of the system will

change.

QUANTIZATION of energy is yet another

property of "microscopic" particles.

Photoelectric Effect

surface, the surface emits electrons.

in a circuit just by shining a light on a metal plate

The current flow varies with the wavelength of

light such that there was a sharp cutoff and no

current flow for long wavelengths.

intensity increases but the wavelength is held

constant.

Einstein successful explained the photoelectric effect

within the context of quantum physics.

Einstein proposed that light delivers its energy in chunks; light consists of

little particles, or quanta, called photons, each with an energy of Planck's

constant times its frequency.

E=hf

h: Plancks constant

F: Frequency of Radiation h = 6.6 x 10-34 J.s.

E: Energy

ATOMIC SPECTRA

Objectives

1. Determine the emission spectrum of Hydrogen and other elements.

2. Calculate the expected wavelengths of H using the Rydberg equation.

3. Determine the composition of unknown solutions using flame tests.

4. Determine the absorption spectrum of colored solutions and solids.

Animation of the

dispersion of white

light as it travels

through a triangular

prism.

Original Studies Of Light Used Only One Prism

sent through a prism, a continuous spectrum containing all

wavelengths of visible light is formed.

Newtons Contribution to Spectroscopy

Newton contributed more to spectroscopy than scientifically

proving that sunlight traveling through a prism was always

broken down into the components of the rainbow.

In fact, his main contribution was to show that after the sunlight

had been broken down into its components by one prism, if a

narrow ray of the light from the first prism was passed through

another prism there would be no further breakdown.

Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation

range of light. The visible range of light (400-700 nm) is

merely a small portion of the entire electromagnetic spectrum.

Emission Spectra Complement Absorption Spectra

dark lines (Fraunhofer lines) in the sun's spectrum. This meant that it was

now possible to identify the chemical composition of distant objects like the

sun and other stars. They concluded that the Fraunhofer lines in the solar

spectrum were due to the absorption of light by the atoms of various

elements in the sun's atmosphere.

Atomic Spectra Experiment

PART A: Hydrogen emission spectrum.

and solids.

PART A: Record Hydrogen line spectrum

with a Scanning Spectrophotometer.

In the visible region, there are only four wavelengths.

PART B: Emission spectrum of other compounds using

The STAR Spectrophotometer.

1. View the line spectrum through the STAR Spectrophotometer

- point arrow towards the light and view to the left.

2. Verify that the scale is lined-up accurately by looking at the

fluorescent light. In addition to other lines, you should see a

green doublet for mercury at ~570 nm (the scale on the bottom).

3. Measure the line spectrum of the gas tubes set up in Room 201.

4. Compare your results with literature values.

PART C: Flame Test (Organic Compounds)

Beilstein Test

If a clean copper wire is coated with a halogen-containing

compound and placed in a flame, the presence of the halogen

is revealed by a green to blue color.

and iodine based on the color of the flame.

PART C: Flame tests and identification

of an unknown metal.

Observe and record the color of the flame for each known sample.

Then determine the unknown compound based on the comparison

between its flame color and those of the known samples.

PART D: Absorption spectrum of colored solutions and solids.

Sample Solution

Which color

is being transmitted

by this sample?

Which color

is being absorbed

by this sample?

QUANTUM MECHANICS

levels but did not thoroughly explain the wave-like

behavior of the electron.

the principles of quantum mechanics, a theory that

applies to subatomic particles such as electrons.

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

theory came with the discovery of the de

Broglie relation.

exhibits particle aspects, perhaps particles of

matter show characteristics of waves.

He postulated that a particle with mass m and a

velocity v has an associated wavelength.

The equation l = h/mv is called the de Broglie

relation.

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DE BROGLIE RELATION

characteristics:

E = h = hc/l (recall c= l)

E = mc2

mc2 = hc/l or l = h/mc

Since mc is the momentum of a photon, can we

replace this with the momentum of a particle?

l = h/mv

This suggests that particles have wave-like

characteristics!

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

commonly observed?

(0.145 kg) moving at about 60 mph (27 m/s) has

a wavelength of about 1.7 x 10-34 m.

34 kgm2

6.63

l 1.7 10 34

10

(0.145 kg )(27 m / s )

s

m

This value is so incredibly small that such

waves cannot be detected.

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

commonly observed?

picometers (1 pm = 10-12 m).

Under the proper circumstances, the wave

character of electrons should be observable.

Molecules are of the dimension of a few pm, so the

wave character of electrons is very important in

molecules

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

commonly observed?

rights reserved.

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In 1927, Davisson

and Germer was

demonstrated that a

beam of electrons,

just like X rays,

could be diffracted byPres

a crystal. entat

ion

of

Lect

ure

Outli

nes,

QUANTUM MECHANICS

that mathematically describes the wave properties

of submicroscopic particles.

having a precise orbit in an atom.

To describe such an orbit would require

knowing its exact position and velocity.

In 1927, Werner Heisenberg showed (from

quantum mechanics) that it is impossible to

know both simultaneously.

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

that states that the product of the uncertainty in

position (Dx) and the uncertainty in momentum

(mDvx) of a particle can be no larger than h/4p.

h

(Dx)(mDvx )

4p

When m is large (for example, a baseball) the

uncertainties are small, but for electrons, high

uncertainties disallow defining an exact orbit.

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

Although we cannot precisely define an electrons

orbit, we can obtain the probability of finding an

electron at a given point around the nucleus.

mathematical expression called a wave function,

denoted y (psi).

The probability of finding a particle in a region of

space is defined by y2.

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CLASSICAL WAVE EQUATION

1 u u 2 2

2 u ( x, t ) cos(2p t )y ( x)

v t

2 2

x

y 4p

2 2 2

y ( x) 0

x 2

v 2

y 4p

2 2

since v=l 2 y ( x) 0

x 2

l

y ( x) A cos(2p x / l )

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SCHRODINGER EQUATION

mv 2

E V ( x), rearrange to give mv={2m[E-V ( x)]}1/ 2

2

h h

de Broglie relation l

mv {2m[E-V ( x)]}1/ 2

2y 4p 2 2y 2m[E-V ( x)]

classical wave eqn. 2 y ( x) 2 y ( x) 0

x 2

l x (h / 2p ) 2

(h / 2p ) 2 2y

Schrodinger eqn. - V ( x)y ( x) Ey ( x)

2m x 2

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POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

specified by its wavefunction, Y(x,t)

For every classical observable there is a linear,

Hermitian operator in quantum mechanics

In any measurement associated with an operator, the

only values observed are eigenvalues of the operator,

A Y(x,t) = a Y(x,t)

The average values of an observable is given by its

expectation value,

A Y AYd *

The wavefunction obeys the time dependent Schrodinger

equation,

h Y ( x, t )

i H Y ( x, t )

2p t

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THE WAVEFUNCTION

The square of the wavefunction |Y|2 is the probability

density for finding the particle at that location

The wavefunction must be

Single valued

Continuous

Continuous first derivative

Quadratically integrable

Y Yd must be finite

*

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THE VARIATIONAL ENERGY

always greater than or

equal to the exact energy of the

lowest energy state Y H Yd

*

Evar

Eexact

Y*Yd

it so as to minimize the energy, we obtain a better

wavefunction and energy

With enough flexibility in the wavefunction, we can get

very close to the exact energy .Copyright

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PARTICLE IN A 1-DIMENSIONAL BOX

Schrodinger equation

Hy Ey ,

(h / 2p ) 2 2

H V ( x)

2m x 2

y ( x) 0

inside the box V ( x) 0,

np x

1/ 2

2

y ( x) sin( )

l l

n2h2

E 2

, n 1, 2,...

8ml .Copyright

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1-DIMENSIONAL HARMONIC OSCILLATOR

Schrodinger equation

(h / 2p ) 2 2 1 2

Hy Ey , H kx

2m x 2 2

1/ 2

1 k km

v , 2

2p m ( h / 2p )

1/ 4

y 0 ( x) exp( x 2 / 2),

p

1/ 4

y 1 ( x) (2 1/ 2 x) exp( x 2 / 2)

4p

1/ 4

y 2 ( x) (2 x 2 1) exp( x 2 / 2)

4ofpLecture

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HYDROGEN-LIKE ATOM

Nucleus with charge Ze at origin,

Electron with charge -e at (x,y,z) or (r, , )

Schrodinger equation for hydrogen-like atom

Hy Ey ,

(h / 2p ) 2 2 2 2 Ze 2

H x 2 y 2 z 2 4p r

2m 0

(h / 2p ) 2 2 2 1 Ze 2

H L2

2m r 2

r r 2mr 2

4p 0 r

2

1 2

L (h / 2p ) 2 cot

2 2

2 2

sin

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WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN-LIKE

ATOMS

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WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN-LIKE

ATOMS

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Lecture Outlines, 760

The wave function for

the lowest level of the

hydrogen atom is shown

to the left.

greatest nearest the

nucleus, but rapidly

decreases thereafter.

Note also that it never

goes to zero, only to a

very small value.

Two additional views are shown on the next slide.

electron in hydrogen. The concentric circles

represent successive shells.

electron at various distances from the nucleus. The

highest probability (most likely) distance is at 50

pm.

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63

7|

According to quantum mechanics, each electron is

described by four quantum numbers:

2. Angular momentum quantum number (l)

3. Magnetic quantum number (ml)

4. Spin quantum number (ms)

electron. The fourth quantum number refers to the

magnetic property of electrons.

A wave function for an electron in an atom is

called an atomic orbital (described by three

quantum numbersn, l, ml). It describes a region

of space with a definite shape where there is a high

probability of finding the electron.

then look at atomic orbitals.

Principal Quantum Number, n

This quantum number is the one on which the

energy of an electron in an atom primarily

depends. The smaller the value of n, the lower the

energy and the smaller the orbital.

positive value: 1, 2, 3, . . .

in the same shell.

Shells are sometimes designated by uppercase letters:

Letter K L M N ...

n 1 2 3 4

Angular Momentum Quantum Number, l

This quantum number distinguishes orbitals of a

given n (shell) having different shapes.

It

can have values from 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . to a

maximum of (n 1).

or n types of subshells.

to be in the same shell and subshell.

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Subshells are sometimes designated by lowercase

letters:

l 0 1 2 3 ...

Lette s p d f

r

n 1 2 3 4

The minimum value of n for each type of

subshell is shown above.

Magnetic Quantum Number, ml

This quantum number distinguishes orbitals of a

given n and lthat is, of a given energy and shape

but having different orientations.

value of l and can have any integer value from l to

0 to +l. Each different value represents a different

orbital. For a given subshell, there will be (2l + 1)

values and therefore (2l + 1) orbitals.

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71

7|

The figure

shows relative

energies for

the hydrogen

atom shells

and subshells;

each orbital is

indicated by a

dashed-line.

Spin Quantum Number, ms

This quantum number refers to the two possible

orientations of the spin axis of an electron.

Which of the following are permissible sets of

quantum numbers?

n = 4, l = 4, ml = 0, ms =

n = 3, l = 2, ml = 1, ms = -

n = 2, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = /

n = 5, l = 3, ml = -3, ms =

value of l is 3.

(b) Permitted.

(c) Not permitted; ms can only be + or .

(b) Permitted.

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Atomic Orbital Shapes

An s orbital is spherical.

through the nucleus, with one lobe on either side.

http://www.orbitals.com/orb/index.html

The cross-sectional view

of a 1s orbital and a

2s orbital highlights the

difference in the two

orbitals sizes.

The cutaway diagrams of

the 1s and 2s orbitals give a

better sense of them in

three dimensions.

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78

7|

of the three p orbitals

Shape

Shape of the five d orbitals

PERIODIC CLASSIFI CATION OF THE

ELEMENTS

main group elements) are the elements in Groups 1A through

7A, all of which have incompletely fi lled s or p subshells of the

highest principal quantum number

A clear pattern emerges when we examine

the electron confi gurations of the elements

in a particular group. The electron confi

gurations for Groups 1A and 2A elements are

shown in Table 8.1. We see that all members

of the Group 1A alkali metals have similar

outer electron confi gurations; each has a

noble gas core and an ns1 confi guration of

the outer electron. Similarly, the Group 2A

alkaline earth metals have a noble gas core

and an ns2 confi guration of the outer

electrons.

VALENCE ELECTRONS.

involved in chemical bonding.

(b) Because the 3p subshell is not completely fi

lled, this is a representative element. Based on

the information given, we cannot say whether it

is a metal, a nonmetal, or a metalloid.

(c) According to Hunds rule, the two electrons

in the 3p orbitals have parallel spins (two

unpaired electrons). Therefore, the atoms of the

element are paramagnetic.

Check For

(b), note that a transition metal possesses an

incompletely fi lled d subshell and a noble gas

has a completely fi lled outer shell.

For (c), recall that if the atoms of an element

contain an even number of electrons, then they

may or may not be paramagnetic.

ELECTRON CONFI GURATIONS OF CATIONS

AND ANIONS

Cations Derived from Transition Metals

PERIODIC VARIATION IN PHYSICAL

PROPERTIES

Effective Nuclear Charge

The effective nuclear charge (Zeff) is the nuclear

charge felt by an electron when both the actual

nuclear charge (Z) and the repulsive effects

(shielding) of the other electrons are taken into

account. In general, Zeff is given by where s

(sigma) is called the shielding constant (also

called the screening constant). The shielding

constant is greater than zero but smaller than Z.

Atomic Radius

which is one-half the distance between the two

nuclei in two adjacent metal atoms.

Ionic Radius

Ionic radius is the radius of a cation or an anion.

Ionic radius affects the physical and chemical

properties of an ionic compound. For example,

the three-dimensional structure of an ionic

compound depends on the relative sizes of its

cations and anions.

94

released when an atom in the gas

phase accepts an electron

Representation:

Cl(g) + e Cl(g)

kJ/mol energy released

(DH = negative)

EA (kJ/mol) Values for Main Group Elements

95

Periodic Trends in EA

96

3. IONIZATION

ENERGIES

energy required to remove an electron

a gas phase atom in its electronic ground

M(g) M+(g) + e-

I1 > 0

first ionization energy

(photon)

M+(g) M2+(g) + eI- 2 >0

second ionization energy

M2+(g) 3+ -

M (g) + eI3 > 0

I1 > I2 > I3

d shell

insertion

IONIZATION ENERGY

IONIZATION ENERGY

Why?

decrease

electrons closer to nucleus more tightly

IONIZATION ENERGY

2

Z

I . E. A

eff

2

n

2500

n=1

IONIZATION ENERGY(kJ/mol)

n=2

2000

n=3

1500

n=4

1000

500

0 0

11 2 133 144 155 166 177

2

18

8 9

GROUP NUMBER

1. closed shells are energetically most st

energetically very stable

DERIVATION OF

IONIZATION

ENERGIES

noble gases have the highest ionization e

BASICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

- PARTICLE-WAVE DUALITY -

The behavior of a "microscopic" particle is very

different from that of a classical particle:

in some experiments it resembles the behavior of a

classical wave (not localized in space)

in other experiments it behaves as a classical particle

(localized in space)

Corpuscular theories of light treat light as

though it were composed of particles, but can not

explain DIFRACTION and INTERFERENCE.

Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic radiation can

explain these two phenomena, which was the

reason why the corpuscular theory of light was

abandoned.

BASICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

- PARTICLE-WAVE DUALITY -

Waves as particles:

molecules of the cavity walls, described using a simple oscillator model, can

only exchange energy in quantized units.

spread out over a spherical wavefront, but instead is localized in individual

clumbs - quanta. Each quantum of frequency n travels through space with

speed of light, carrying a discrete amount of energy and momentum =photon

=> used to explain the photoelectric effect, later to be confirmed by the x-ray

experiments of Compton.

Particles as waves

Double-slit experiment, in which instead of using a light source, one uses the

electron gun. The electrons are diffracted by the slit and then interfere in the

region between the diaphragm and the detector.

Aharonov-Bohm effect

VARIATION INCHEMICAL PROPERTIES

OF THE REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS

IE and EA enable us to understand types of

reactions that elements undergo and the types of

compounds formed.

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Hydrogen (1s1)

Grouped by itself

gas and a base.

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Group 1A elements

(ns1, n 2)

Low IE

Never found in nature

in pure elemental state

React with oxygen to

form metal oxides

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Group 2A elements

(ns2, n 2)

Less reactive than

1A

Some react with

H2O to produce H2

Some react with

acid to produce H2

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Group 3A elements

(ns2np1, n 2)

metals (all others)

Al forms Al2O3 with

oxygen

Al forms +3 ions in acid

Others form +1 and +3

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Group 4A elements (ns2np2, n 2)

metals

Form +2 and +4 oxidation states

Sn, Pb react with acid to produce H2

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

(Bi)

Phosphorus, P4

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Group 6A elements (ns2np4, n 2)

Metalloids (Te, Po)

Oxygen, O2

Sulfur, S8

Selenium, Se8

Te, Po (crystalline)

SO2, SO3, H2S, H2SO4

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Group 7A elements (ns2np5, n 2)

All diatomic

Do not exist in elemental form in nature

Form ionic salts

Form molecular compounds with each other

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Group 8A elements (ns2np6, n

2)

All monatomic

Filled valence shells

Considered inert until 1963

when Xe and Kr were used to

form compounds

No major commercial use

GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Comparison of Group 1A and Group 1B

Elements

Have single valence electron

Properties differ

Group 1B much less reactive than 1A

High IE of 1B - incomplete shielding of nucleus by

inner d - outer s electron of 1B strongly

attracted to nucleus

1B metals often found elemental in nature

(coinage metals)

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