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ELECTRON ATOMIC STRUCTURE

Naufal Mudrik Mezaki (5213416029)


Izkinal Athhar (5213416038)
Radiya arga Virgananda (5213416049)
Yulian Candra Purwana (5213416060)
Wengki Muhammad
Alfriansyah (5213416066)
Restu Kusumawardani (5213416071)
DIAMAGNETISM

DivYesh Patel
DIAMAGNETISM
Diamagnetic materials create an induced
magnetic field in a direction opposite to an
externally applied magnetic field.
They are repelled by the applied magnetic field.

The permanent dipoles are absent in


Diamagnetic materials
GENERAL PROPERTIES OF DIAMAGNETIC
MATERIALS
Diamagnetic Materials experiences a repelling force
when brought near the pole of a strong magnet.
In a non-uniform magnetic field, The are repelled
away from stronger parts of the field.
The magnetic susceptibility of these materials is
always negative.
The relative permeability r is always less than one.
In the absence of external magnetic field ,The net
magnetic dipole moment over each atom or molecule
of a diamagnetic material is zero.This is due to
pairing of electrons.
Examples:-Bismuth,Copper,Lead,Zinc etc.
PARAMAGNETISM
PARAMAGNETIZATION
Paramagnetic materials exhibit magnetism when
the external magnetic field is applied.
Paramagnetic materials loose magnetization in
the absence of an externally applied magnetic
field. These materials are weakly attracted
towards magnetic field.
SHIELDING EFFECT
The shielding effect is
the reduction of
attractive force Nucleus
between the nucleus
(+) and its outer
electrons (-) due to the
blocking affect of the
inner electrons

Shielding electrons

Valence electrons shielded by inner electrons


SHIELDING EFFECT
Across stays the
3

same
Electrons are added
in the Valence shell 2

and the shielding Energy


electrons remain the Levels

same 1

0
Na Mg Al Si P S Cl
SHIELDING EFFECT
Down increases 7

Another layer of 6
electrons is added 5
and the shielding 4
between the valence Energy
Levels
3
shell and the nucleus
increases 2

0
F Cl Br I At
PAULI EXCLUSION PRINCIPLE
Reference: pg. 203
The Pauli Exclusion Principle states that each
electron (waveform) has a unique set of
quantum numbers
No two electrons can have the same values for
all quantum numbers
HUNDS RULE
If two or more degenerate (same
energy) orbitals are available, one
electron goes in each till they are all
half full
Hund's rule states that:
Every orbital in a sublevel is singly occupied
before any orbital is doubly occupied.
All of the electrons in singly occupied orbitals
have the same spin (to maximize total spin).
ORDER OF FILLING: THE AUFBAU
PRINCIPLE
This principle states that in addition to adding
protons and neutrons to the nucleus, one simply
adds electrons to the hydrogen-like atomic
orbitals
THE AUFBAU SHORTCUT: FOLLOW THE
RED ARROWS
Write the orbitals in columns as shown
Draw red diagonal arrows
Follow the arrows as you fill the orbitals
Name Date Contribution

Hennig Brand 1649 - Discovered phosphorous (P).


Various scientists 1649- - 63 more elements discovered.
1849
- Beginning to recognize patterns in properties.

Johann Dobereiner 1817 - Noticed the atomic weight of strontium fell


1829 midway between the weights of calcium and
barium. All 3 elements possess similar
chemical properties.

- Discovered halogen triad composed of


chlorine, bromine, and iodine and the alkali
metal triad of lithium, sodium, and potassium.

- Proposed Law of Triads: In a triad of


elements, the middle element when ordered by
atomic weight has properties that were an
average of the other 2 elements.
Name Date Contribution
A.E.Beguyer de 1862 - Published first periodic table determining that the
Chancourtois properties of the elements are the properties of numbers.

-First to recognize that elemental properties repeat every


7 elements.

John Newlands 1863 - Classified 56 established elements into 11 groups based


on similar physical properties.

- Published a periodic table using his proposed Law of


Octaves using the analogy of the 7 intervals on a musical
scale. The law states that any given element will exhibit
analogous behavior to the 8th element following it in the
table.
Name Date Contribution
Dmitri Ivanovich 1869 - Mendeleev noticed patterns in the properties and
Mendeleev atomic weights of halogens, alkali metals and
alkaline metals. He observed similarities between
the series Cl-K-Ca , Br-/Rb-Sr and I-Cs-Ba.

- In an effort to extend this pattern to other


elements, he created a card for each of the 63
known elements. Each card contained the
element's symbol, atomic weight and its
characteristic chemical and physical properties.
When Mendeleev arranged the cards on a table in
order of ascending atomic weight grouping
elements of similar properties together in a
manner not unlike the card arrangement in his
favorite solitaire card game, patience, the periodic
Father of the Periodic Table table was formed. From this table, he developed
his statement of the periodic law and published
his work.

1906 - One vote shy of being awarded the Noble Prize


for his work in chemistry.
Mendeleevs Table (in German)
Translation:
Name Date Contribution
Lord Rayleigh 1895 - Reported discovery of the new gaseous element
named argon (Ar) which proved to be chemically
inert.

- This element did not fit any of the known periodic


groups.
William 1898 -Suggested that argon be placed into the periodic
Ramsey table between chlorine (Cl) and potassium (K) in a
family with helium (He), despite the fact that
argon's atomic weight was greater than that of
potassium. This group was termed the "zero" group
due to the zero valance of the elements.

-Ramsey accurately predicted the future discovery


and properties of neon.
1904
-Rayleigh (physics) and Ramsey (chemistry)
awarded Noble prizes
Name Date Contribution
Ernest Rutherford 1911 - Discovered that the nuclear charge on a nucleus was
proportional to the atomic weight of the element.

A. van den Broek 1911 - Proposed that the atomic weight of an element was
approximately equal to the charge on an atom. This charge
could be used to number the elements with the periodic
table and later termed the atomic number.

Henry Moseley 1913 - Published the results of his measurements of the


wavelengths of the x-ray spectral lines of a number of
elements which showed that the ordering of the
wavelengths of the x-ray emissions of the elements
coincided with the ordering of the elements by atomic
number.

- With the discovery of isotopes of the elements, it became


apparent that atomic weight was not the significant player
in the periodic law as Mendeleev, Meyers and others had
proposed, but rather, the properties of the elements varied
periodically with atomic number.
Moseleys Periodic Table
Name Date Contribution
Glenn Seaborg 1940 -Discovered plutonium (Pu), and then all the
transuranic elements from 94-102.

- Reconfigured the periodic table by placing the


actinide series below the lanthanide series.

1951 - Awarded Noble Prize for his work in chemistry.


BASICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
- CLASSICAL POINT OF VIEW -
In Newtonian mechanics, the laws are written in terms of
PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES.
A PARTICLE is an indivisible mass point object that has a
variety of properties that can be measured, which we call
observables. The observables specify the state of the particle
(position and momentum).
A SYSTEM is a collection of particles, which interact among
themselves via internal forces, and can also interact with the
outside world via external forces. The STATE OF A SYSTEM is a
collection of the states of the particles that comprise the system.
All properties of a particle can be known to infinite precision.

Conclusions:
TRAJECTORY state descriptor of Newtonian physics,
EVOLUTION OF THE STATE Use Newton's second law
PRINCIPLE OF CAUSALITY Two identical systems with the
same initial conditions, subject to the same measurement will yield
the same result.
BASICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
- QUANTUM POINT OF VIEW -
Quantum particles can act as both particles and
waves WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY
Quantum state is a conglomeration of several
possible outcomes of measurement of physical
properties Quantum mechanics uses the
language of PROBABILITY theory (random
chance)
An observer cannot observe a microscopic system
without altering some of its properties. Neither
one can predict how the state of the system will
change.
QUANTIZATION of energy is yet another
property of "microscopic" particles.
Photoelectric Effect

When light shines on a metal


surface, the surface emits electrons.

For example, you can measure a current


in a circuit just by shining a light on a metal plate
The current flow varies with the wavelength of
light such that there was a sharp cutoff and no
current flow for long wavelengths.

The photocurrent increases when the light


intensity increases but the wavelength is held
constant.
Einstein successful explained the photoelectric effect
within the context of quantum physics.

Einstein proposed that light delivers its energy in chunks; light consists of
little particles, or quanta, called photons, each with an energy of Planck's
constant times its frequency.

E=hf

h: Plancks constant
F: Frequency of Radiation h = 6.6 x 10-34 J.s.
E: Energy
ATOMIC SPECTRA
Objectives
1. Determine the emission spectrum of Hydrogen and other elements.
2. Calculate the expected wavelengths of H using the Rydberg equation.
3. Determine the composition of unknown solutions using flame tests.
4. Determine the absorption spectrum of colored solutions and solids.

Animation of the
dispersion of white
light as it travels
through a triangular
prism.
Original Studies Of Light Used Only One Prism

When a narrow band of light from a white light source is


sent through a prism, a continuous spectrum containing all
wavelengths of visible light is formed.
Newtons Contribution to Spectroscopy
Newton contributed more to spectroscopy than scientifically
proving that sunlight traveling through a prism was always
broken down into the components of the rainbow.

In fact, his main contribution was to show that after the sunlight
had been broken down into its components by one prism, if a
narrow ray of the light from the first prism was passed through
another prism there would be no further breakdown.
Classification of Electromagnetic Radiation

The color components of light are separated along the visible


range of light. The visible range of light (400-700 nm) is
merely a small portion of the entire electromagnetic spectrum.
Emission Spectra Complement Absorption Spectra

The emission spectrum seemed to be the complement to the mysterious


dark lines (Fraunhofer lines) in the sun's spectrum. This meant that it was
now possible to identify the chemical composition of distant objects like the
sun and other stars. They concluded that the Fraunhofer lines in the solar
spectrum were due to the absorption of light by the atoms of various
elements in the sun's atmosphere.
Atomic Spectra Experiment
PART A: Hydrogen emission spectrum.

PART B: Emission spectrum of other elements.

PART C: Flame Tests (organic & inorganic).

PART D: Absorption spectrum of colored solutions


and solids.
PART A: Record Hydrogen line spectrum
with a Scanning Spectrophotometer.

The hydrogen line spectrum contains only a few discrete wavelengths.


In the visible region, there are only four wavelengths.
PART B: Emission spectrum of other compounds using
The STAR Spectrophotometer.
1. View the line spectrum through the STAR Spectrophotometer
- point arrow towards the light and view to the left.
2. Verify that the scale is lined-up accurately by looking at the
fluorescent light. In addition to other lines, you should see a
green doublet for mercury at ~570 nm (the scale on the bottom).

3. Measure the line spectrum of the gas tubes set up in Room 201.
4. Compare your results with literature values.
PART C: Flame Test (Organic Compounds)

Beilstein Test
If a clean copper wire is coated with a halogen-containing
compound and placed in a flame, the presence of the halogen
is revealed by a green to blue color.

It is often possible to distinguish between chlorine, bromine


and iodine based on the color of the flame.
PART C: Flame tests and identification
of an unknown metal.

Observe and record the color of the flame for each known sample.
Then determine the unknown compound based on the comparison
between its flame color and those of the known samples.
PART D: Absorption spectrum of colored solutions and solids.

Sample Solution

Which color
is being transmitted
by this sample?

Which color
is being absorbed
by this sample?
QUANTUM MECHANICS

Bohrs theory established the concept of atomic energy


levels but did not thoroughly explain the wave-like
behavior of the electron.

Current ideas about atomic structure depend on


the principles of quantum mechanics, a theory that
applies to subatomic particles such as electrons.

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

The first clue in the development of quantum


theory came with the discovery of the de
Broglie relation.

In 1923, Louis de Broglie reasoned that if light


exhibits particle aspects, perhaps particles of
matter show characteristics of waves.
He postulated that a particle with mass m and a
velocity v has an associated wavelength.
The equation l = h/mv is called the de Broglie
relation.

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DE BROGLIE RELATION

For a photon that has both wave and particle


characteristics:
E = h = hc/l (recall c= l)
E = mc2
mc2 = hc/l or l = h/mc
Since mc is the momentum of a photon, can we
replace this with the momentum of a particle?
l = h/mv
This suggests that particles have wave-like
characteristics!

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

If matter has wave properties, why are they not


commonly observed?

The de Broglie relation shows that a baseball


(0.145 kg) moving at about 60 mph (27 m/s) has
a wavelength of about 1.7 x 10-34 m.
34 kgm2
6.63
l 1.7 10 34
10
(0.145 kg )(27 m / s )
s
m
This value is so incredibly small that such
waves cannot be detected.

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

If matter has wave properties, why are they not


commonly observed?

Electrons have wavelengths on the order of a few


picometers (1 pm = 10-12 m).
Under the proper circumstances, the wave
character of electrons should be observable.
Molecules are of the dimension of a few pm, so the
wave character of electrons is very important in
molecules

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QUANTUM MECHANICS

Ifmatter has wave properties, why are they not


commonly observed?

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In 1927, Davisson
and Germer was
demonstrated that a
beam of electrons,
just like X rays,
could be diffracted byPres
a crystal. entat
ion
of
Lect
ure
Outli
nes,
QUANTUM MECHANICS

Quantum mechanics is the branch of physics


that mathematically describes the wave properties
of submicroscopic particles.

We can no longer think of an electron as


having a precise orbit in an atom.
To describe such an orbit would require
knowing its exact position and velocity.
In 1927, Werner Heisenberg showed (from
quantum mechanics) that it is impossible to
know both simultaneously.
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QUANTUM MECHANICS

Heisenbergs uncertainty principle is a relation


that states that the product of the uncertainty in
position (Dx) and the uncertainty in momentum
(mDvx) of a particle can be no larger than h/4p.

h
(Dx)(mDvx )
4p
When m is large (for example, a baseball) the
uncertainties are small, but for electrons, high
uncertainties disallow defining an exact orbit.
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QUANTUM MECHANICS
Although we cannot precisely define an electrons
orbit, we can obtain the probability of finding an
electron at a given point around the nucleus.

Erwin Schrodinger defined this probability in a


mathematical expression called a wave function,
denoted y (psi).
The probability of finding a particle in a region of
space is defined by y2.

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CLASSICAL WAVE EQUATION

1 u u 2 2
2 u ( x, t ) cos(2p t )y ( x)
v t
2 2
x
y 4p
2 2 2
y ( x) 0
x 2
v 2

y 4p
2 2
since v=l 2 y ( x) 0
x 2
l
y ( x) A cos(2p x / l )
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SCHRODINGER EQUATION

mv 2
E V ( x), rearrange to give mv={2m[E-V ( x)]}1/ 2
2
h h
de Broglie relation l
mv {2m[E-V ( x)]}1/ 2
2y 4p 2 2y 2m[E-V ( x)]
classical wave eqn. 2 y ( x) 2 y ( x) 0
x 2
l x (h / 2p ) 2

(h / 2p ) 2 2y
Schrodinger eqn. - V ( x)y ( x) Ey ( x)
2m x 2

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POSTULATES OF QUANTUM MECHANICS

The state of a quantum mechanical system is completely


specified by its wavefunction, Y(x,t)
For every classical observable there is a linear,
Hermitian operator in quantum mechanics
In any measurement associated with an operator, the
only values observed are eigenvalues of the operator,
A Y(x,t) = a Y(x,t)
The average values of an observable is given by its
expectation value,
A Y AYd *

The wavefunction obeys the time dependent Schrodinger
equation,
h Y ( x, t )
i H Y ( x, t )
2p t
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THE WAVEFUNCTION
The square of the wavefunction |Y|2 is the probability
density for finding the particle at that location
The wavefunction must be

Single valued
Continuous
Continuous first derivative
Quadratically integrable


Y Yd must be finite
*

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THE VARIATIONAL ENERGY

Itcan be easily proven that the variational energy is


always greater than or

equal to the exact energy of the
lowest energy state Y H Yd
*

Evar

Eexact


Y*Yd

If we start with an approximate wavefunction and vary


it so as to minimize the energy, we obtain a better
wavefunction and energy
With enough flexibility in the wavefunction, we can get
very close to the exact energy .Copyright
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PARTICLE IN A 1-DIMENSIONAL BOX
Schrodinger equation
Hy Ey ,
(h / 2p ) 2 2
H V ( x)
2m x 2

outside the box V ( x) ,


y ( x) 0
inside the box V ( x) 0,
np x
1/ 2
2
y ( x) sin( )
l l
n2h2
E 2
, n 1, 2,...
8ml .Copyright
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1-DIMENSIONAL HARMONIC OSCILLATOR

Schrodinger equation
(h / 2p ) 2 2 1 2
Hy Ey , H kx
2m x 2 2

E h (n 1/ 2), n 0,1, 2,...


1/ 2
1 k km
v , 2
2p m ( h / 2p )

1/ 4

y 0 ( x) exp( x 2 / 2),
p

1/ 4

y 1 ( x) (2 1/ 2 x) exp( x 2 / 2)
4p

1/ 4

y 2 ( x) (2 x 2 1) exp( x 2 / 2)
4ofpLecture
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HYDROGEN-LIKE ATOM
Nucleus with charge Ze at origin,
Electron with charge -e at (x,y,z) or (r, , )
Schrodinger equation for hydrogen-like atom
Hy Ey ,
(h / 2p ) 2 2 2 2 Ze 2
H x 2 y 2 z 2 4p r
2m 0

(h / 2p ) 2 2 2 1 Ze 2
H L2

2m r 2
r r 2mr 2
4p 0 r
2
1 2

L (h / 2p ) 2 cot
2 2
2 2
sin
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WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN-LIKE
ATOMS

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WAVEFUNCTIONS FOR HYDROGEN-LIKE
ATOMS

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The wave function for
the lowest level of the
hydrogen atom is shown
to the left.

Note that its value is


greatest nearest the
nucleus, but rapidly
decreases thereafter.
Note also that it never
goes to zero, only to a
very small value.

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Two additional views are shown on the next slide.

Figure A illustrates the probability density for an


electron in hydrogen. The concentric circles
represent successive shells.

Figure B shows the probability of finding the


electron at various distances from the nucleus. The
highest probability (most likely) distance is at 50
pm.

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63
7|
According to quantum mechanics, each electron is
described by four quantum numbers:

1. Principal quantum number (n)


2. Angular momentum quantum number (l)
3. Magnetic quantum number (ml)
4. Spin quantum number (ms)

The first three define the wave function for a particular


electron. The fourth quantum number refers to the
magnetic property of electrons.

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A wave function for an electron in an atom is
called an atomic orbital (described by three
quantum numbersn, l, ml). It describes a region
of space with a definite shape where there is a high
probability of finding the electron.

We will study the quantum numbers first, and


then look at atomic orbitals.

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Principal Quantum Number, n
This quantum number is the one on which the
energy of an electron in an atom primarily
depends. The smaller the value of n, the lower the
energy and the smaller the orbital.

The principal quantum number can have any


positive value: 1, 2, 3, . . .

Orbitals with the same value for n are said to be


in the same shell.

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Shells are sometimes designated by uppercase letters:

Letter K L M N ...
n 1 2 3 4

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Angular Momentum Quantum Number, l
This quantum number distinguishes orbitals of a
given n (shell) having different shapes.

It
can have values from 0, 1, 2, 3, . . . to a
maximum of (n 1).

For a given n, there will be n different values of l,


or n types of subshells.

Orbitals with the same values for n and l are said


to be in the same shell and subshell.
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Subshells are sometimes designated by lowercase
letters:

l 0 1 2 3 ...
Lette s p d f
r
n 1 2 3 4

Not every subshell type exists in every shell.


The minimum value of n for each type of
subshell is shown above.

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Magnetic Quantum Number, ml
This quantum number distinguishes orbitals of a
given n and lthat is, of a given energy and shape
but having different orientations.

The magnetic quantum number depends on the


value of l and can have any integer value from l to
0 to +l. Each different value represents a different
orbital. For a given subshell, there will be (2l + 1)
values and therefore (2l + 1) orbitals.

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7|
The figure
shows relative
energies for
the hydrogen
atom shells
and subshells;
each orbital is
indicated by a
dashed-line.

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Spin Quantum Number, ms
This quantum number refers to the two possible
orientations of the spin axis of an electron.

It may have a value of either +1/2 or -1/2.

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Which of the following are permissible sets of
quantum numbers?
n = 4, l = 4, ml = 0, ms =
n = 3, l = 2, ml = 1, ms = -
n = 2, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = /
n = 5, l = 3, ml = -3, ms =

(a) Not permitted. When n = 4, the maximum


value of l is 3.
(b) Permitted.
(c) Not permitted; ms can only be + or .
(b) Permitted.
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Atomic Orbital Shapes
An s orbital is spherical.

A p orbital has two lobes along a straight line


through the nucleus, with one lobe on either side.

A d orbital has a more complicated shape.

Free orbital viewer available at


http://www.orbitals.com/orb/index.html

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The cross-sectional view
of a 1s orbital and a
2s orbital highlights the
difference in the two
orbitals sizes.

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The cutaway diagrams of
the 1s and 2s orbitals give a
better sense of them in
three dimensions.

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of the three p orbitals
Shape
Shape of the five d orbitals

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PERIODIC CLASSIFI CATION OF THE
ELEMENTS

Referring to Figure 8.1, the representative elements (also called


main group elements) are the elements in Groups 1A through
7A, all of which have incompletely fi lled s or p subshells of the
highest principal quantum number
A clear pattern emerges when we examine
the electron confi gurations of the elements
in a particular group. The electron confi
gurations for Groups 1A and 2A elements are
shown in Table 8.1. We see that all members
of the Group 1A alkali metals have similar
outer electron confi gurations; each has a
noble gas core and an ns1 confi guration of
the outer electron. Similarly, the Group 2A
alkaline earth metals have a noble gas core
and an ns2 confi guration of the outer
electrons.
VALENCE ELECTRONS.

The outer electrons of an atom, which are those


involved in chemical bonding.
(b) Because the 3p subshell is not completely fi
lled, this is a representative element. Based on
the information given, we cannot say whether it
is a metal, a nonmetal, or a metalloid.
(c) According to Hunds rule, the two electrons
in the 3p orbitals have parallel spins (two
unpaired electrons). Therefore, the atoms of the
element are paramagnetic.
Check For
(b), note that a transition metal possesses an
incompletely fi lled d subshell and a noble gas
has a completely fi lled outer shell.
For (c), recall that if the atoms of an element
contain an even number of electrons, then they
may or may not be paramagnetic.
ELECTRON CONFI GURATIONS OF CATIONS
AND ANIONS

Ions Derived from Representative Elements


Cations Derived from Transition Metals
PERIODIC VARIATION IN PHYSICAL
PROPERTIES
Effective Nuclear Charge
The effective nuclear charge (Zeff) is the nuclear
charge felt by an electron when both the actual
nuclear charge (Z) and the repulsive effects
(shielding) of the other electrons are taken into
account. In general, Zeff is given by where s
(sigma) is called the shielding constant (also
called the screening constant). The shielding
constant is greater than zero but smaller than Z.
Atomic Radius
which is one-half the distance between the two
nuclei in two adjacent metal atoms.
Ionic Radius
Ionic radius is the radius of a cation or an anion.
Ionic radius affects the physical and chemical
properties of an ionic compound. For example,
the three-dimensional structure of an ionic
compound depends on the relative sizes of its
cations and anions.
94

Electron Affinity (EA): energy


released when an atom in the gas
phase accepts an electron
Representation:
Cl(g) + e Cl(g)

EA for this equation 349.0


kJ/mol energy released
(DH = negative)
EA (kJ/mol) Values for Main Group Elements

95
Periodic Trends in EA

96
3. IONIZATION
ENERGIES
energy required to remove an electron
a gas phase atom in its electronic ground

M(g) M+(g) + e-

I1 > 0
first ionization energy
(photon)
M+(g) M2+(g) + eI- 2 >0
second ionization energy

M2+(g) 3+ -
M (g) + eI3 > 0

third ionization energy

I1 > I2 > I3
d shell
insertion

IONIZATION ENERGY

IONIZATION ENERGY
Why?

first ionization energies


decrease
electrons closer to nucleus more tightly
IONIZATION ENERGY

2
Z
I . E. A
eff
2
n
2500
n=1

IONIZATION ENERGY(kJ/mol)
n=2
2000

n=3
1500
n=4

1000

500

0 0
11 2 133 144 155 166 177
2
18
8 9

GROUP NUMBER
1. closed shells are energetically most st

2. half-filled shells are


energetically very stable

DERIVATION OF
IONIZATION
ENERGIES
noble gases have the highest ionization e
BASICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
- PARTICLE-WAVE DUALITY -
The behavior of a "microscopic" particle is very
different from that of a classical particle:
in some experiments it resembles the behavior of a
classical wave (not localized in space)
in other experiments it behaves as a classical particle
(localized in space)
Corpuscular theories of light treat light as
though it were composed of particles, but can not
explain DIFRACTION and INTERFERENCE.
Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic radiation can
explain these two phenomena, which was the
reason why the corpuscular theory of light was
abandoned.
BASICS OF QUANTUM MECHANICS
- PARTICLE-WAVE DUALITY -
Waves as particles:

Max Plank work on black-body radiation, in which he assumed that the


molecules of the cavity walls, described using a simple oscillator model, can
only exchange energy in quantized units.

1905 Einstein proposed that the energy in an electromagnetic field is not


spread out over a spherical wavefront, but instead is localized in individual
clumbs - quanta. Each quantum of frequency n travels through space with
speed of light, carrying a discrete amount of energy and momentum =photon
=> used to explain the photoelectric effect, later to be confirmed by the x-ray
experiments of Compton.

Particles as waves

Double-slit experiment, in which instead of using a light source, one uses the
electron gun. The electrons are diffracted by the slit and then interfere in the
region between the diaphragm and the detector.

Aharonov-Bohm effect
VARIATION INCHEMICAL PROPERTIES
OF THE REPRESENTATIVE ELEMENTS
IE and EA enable us to understand types of
reactions that elements undergo and the types of
compounds formed.
GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Hydrogen (1s1)

Grouped by itself

Forms a cation with a +1 charge (H+)

Forms an anion with a 1 charge (H)

Hydrides react with water to produce hydrogen


gas and a base.

CaH2(s) + H2O(l) Ca(OH)2(aq) + H2(g)


GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Group 1A elements
(ns1, n 2)
Low IE
Never found in nature
in pure elemental state
React with oxygen to
form metal oxides
GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Group 2A elements
(ns2, n 2)
Less reactive than
1A
Some react with
H2O to produce H2
Some react with
acid to produce H2
GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Group 3A elements
(ns2np1, n 2)

Metalloid (B) and


metals (all others)
Al forms Al2O3 with
oxygen
Al forms +3 ions in acid
Others form +1 and +3
GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Group 4A elements (ns2np2, n 2)

Nonmetal (C); metalloids (Si, Ge) and others


metals
Form +2 and +4 oxidation states
Sn, Pb react with acid to produce H2
GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES

Group 5A elements (ns2np3, n 2)

Nonmetal (N2, P) metalloid (As, Sb) and metal


(Bi)

Nitrogen, N2 forms variety of oxides

Phosphorus, P4

As, Sb, Bi (crystalline)

HNO3 and H3PO4 important industrially


GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Group 6A elements (ns2np4, n 2)

Nonmetals (O, S, Se)


Metalloids (Te, Po)
Oxygen, O2
Sulfur, S8
Selenium, Se8
Te, Po (crystalline)
SO2, SO3, H2S, H2SO4
GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Group 7A elements (ns2np5, n 2)

All diatomic
Do not exist in elemental form in nature
Form ionic salts
Form molecular compounds with each other
GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Group 8A elements (ns2np6, n
2)

All monatomic
Filled valence shells
Considered inert until 1963
when Xe and Kr were used to
form compounds
No major commercial use
GENERAL TRENDS IN CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Comparison of Group 1A and Group 1B
Elements
Have single valence electron
Properties differ
Group 1B much less reactive than 1A
High IE of 1B - incomplete shielding of nucleus by
inner d - outer s electron of 1B strongly
attracted to nucleus
1B metals often found elemental in nature
(coinage metals)
PROPERTIES OF OXIDES ACROSS A PERIOD