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Performance of the 3GPP LTE SpaceFrequency

Block Codes in Frequency-Selective Channels


With Imperfect Channel Estimation
Liang Heng et al IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 64, NO. 5, MAY 2015
Overview
Background
Main contribution
Literature review
SFBC OFDM System model
Performance Analysis
Improved SFBC decoding
Result analysis
Sample reproduced output
Conclusion

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Background
Linear decoding of spacefrequency block codes
(SFBCs) based on the Alamouti structure with
orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing
(OFDM) requires the channel to be constant
across two consecutive tones.
However, time-dispersive multipath fading
channels exhibit frequency-selective behavior
wherein the channel across two tones will vary.

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Main contribution
This paper provides analytical tools for evaluating the performance of
SFBCs with OFDM in frequency-selective channels.
The analysis uses the average signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratio
(SINR) as a sufficient statistic to describe the performance of SFBCs in
frequency selective channels.
A unified formula is derived to characterize the channel correlation
between two consecutive tones for various frequency-selective
channels.
A closed-form solution of the average SINR is obtained, which takes into
account imperfect channel estimation and frequency selectivity.
An interpolation method of the channel estimate is proposed, which is
shown to improve the bit-error-rate performance by 3 dB at a high SNR.
The accuracy of the theoretical analyses is verified by numerical
simulations under multipath channels such as the International
Telecommunications Union (ITU) pedestrian and vehicular models.
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Literature Review
Orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) was developed
as an effective approach to addressing this problem by converting a
frequency-selective channel into a set of parallel frequency-flat sub
channels [1].
Multi-antenna technology, which is also referred to as multiple
input multiple output(MIMO), promises a significant boost in
performance for OFDM systems by introducing the advantages of
spatial multiplexing and transmit diversity [2].
There are two modes in which MIMO can improve LTE system
performance. One of the transmission modes is spatial multiplexing,
which is employed to obtain capacity gains [2].
The other mode is transmit diversity where spacefrequency block
codes (SFBCs) [4] are used to obtain diversity gains.
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Literature Review (continued)
3GPP LTE SFBCs follow the structure of the Alamouti space
time block coding (STBC)[5], by replacing the time domain
with the frequency domain.

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Literature Review (continued)
A key design criterion of the Alamouti STBC is
that the channel is constant across two
consecutive symbols so that optimal maximum-
likelihood two-symbol decoding is achievable
using linear decoding. However, it has been
shown that the performance of Alamouti STBC
deteriorates in the presence of high Doppler [7].
The impact of channel estimate error in STBC was
addressed in [8], and
the frequency-selectivity effect on the channel
estimation error on SFBC was introduced in [9].
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SFBC OFDM System model
Block diagram

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SFBC OFDM System model
Mathematical Model
Encoding

Decoding

Correlated Fading Channel Model

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Performance Analysis
Imperfect channel estimation

Desired Term

Self Interference

Noise

Imperfect channel estimation leads to self interference and boosted noise

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Performance Analysis :
Frequency Selectivity

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Performance Analysis: Calculating BER

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Improved SFBC decoding
To reduce such self-interference, authors consider interpolating the
estimated channel responses between every two adjacent OFDM
subcarriers, i.e.,

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Improved SFBC decoding
The SFBC decoding result using H is given by

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Improved SFBC decoding
The self-interference term due to imperfect channel estimation has an
average power

The self-interference due to frequency selectivity has an average power

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Results and
Analysis

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Simulation Settings
MIMO scheme: number of transmit antennas Nt = 2;
number of receiver antennas Nr = 1, 2, and 4.
OFDM scheme: number of subcarriers Nsc = 2048,
and a subcarrier spacing f = 15 kHz. The basic time
unit Ts = (Nscf)1 32.552 ns;
modulation schemes: QPSK, 16-QAM, and 64-QAM;
frame structure: Each radio frame occupies Tf = 10
ms and consists of 20 slots. Each slot occupies Tslot =
0.5 ms = 15360 Ts and consists of seven OFDM
symbols.The first OFDM symbol in each frame has a
cyclic prefix (CP) of length 160 Ts, and each of the
remaining six OFDM symbols has a CP of length 144 Ts,
(2048 7 +160 + 144 6 = 15360);
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Results: improvement by Improved decoding
Fig. 1 compares the
average BER using the
traditional method
of applying the channel
estimate with that using
our interpolation
method on the
itur3GPBx channel
model Fig. 1 shows that
the new interpolation
method provides an
improvement in the BER
performance by roughly
3 dB at a high SNR.

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Effect of imperfect channel estimation only

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Effect of frequency selectivity only

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Effect of both imperfect channel estimation and
frequency selectivity

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Effect of only correlated transmit antennas

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Effect of small Doppler spread

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Effect of large Doppler spread

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Effect of ISI in both small and large Doppler
spread

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Effect of improved decoding for both small and
large Doppler spread

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Sample reproduced output showing
improved decoding as in Fig 1
0
10

-1 64 QAM
10

-2
10
Average BER

-3 qpsk
10

-4
10 16 QAM

-5
10

ideal
-6
10 itur3GPBx, traditional
itur3GPBx, interpolated
-7
10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Average SINR per bit(dB)

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Sample reproduced output showing
the imperfect channel estimation error
as in Fig 2
0
10
( 2=0 theoratical
-1 QAM 64 simulated
10 2e=0.005
( 2>0 theoratical
-2
10
Average BER

QAM 16
-3 2e=0.0075
10

-4
10 QPSK
2e=0.01
-5
10

-6
10

-7
10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
Average Eb/N0 per bit(dB)

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Conclusion
In this paper, the performance of the 3GPP LTE SFBCs has been evaluated
through both theoretical analyses and numerical simulations. Three non
ideal factors were considered in the analysis:
imperfect channel estimation, delay spread, and transmit antenna
correlation.
The major contributions of this paper are summarized as follows:
1) a unified formula (slide 9) to find the correlation between the
complex channels over two consecutive subcarriers for various channel
models;
2) a closed-form expression of the average SINR (slide 12) and a
validation of using the average SINR to approximate the BER
performance;
3) an interpolation method for channel estimation that improves
BER performance by 3 dB at the high SNR.
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References (selected only)
[1] L. Cimini, Analysis and simulation of a digital mobile channel using orthogonal frequency
division multiplexing, IEEE Trans. Commun., vol. COM-33, no. 7, pp. 665675, Jul. 1985.
[2] A. Paulraj, R. Nabar, and D. Gore, Introduction to SpaceTime Wireless Communications.
Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2003.
[3] Evolved Universal Terrestrial Radio Access (E-UTRA); Physical Channels and Modulation,
3GPP Std. TS 36.211, 2011.
[4] H. Blcskei and A. J. Paulraj, Spacefrequency coded broadband OFDM systems, in Proc.
IEEE Wireless Commun. Netw. Conf., Chicago, IL, USA, Sep. 2000, vol. 1, pp. 16.
[5] S. M. Alamouti, A simple transmit diversity technique for wireless communications, IEEE
J. Sel. Areas Commun., vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 14511458, Oct. 1998.
[6] W. Su, Z. Safar, and K. J. R. Liu, Full-rate full-diversity spacefrequency codes with
optimum coding advantage, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 229249, Jan. 2005.
[7] S. P. Alex and L. M.A. Jalloul, Performance evaluation of MIMO in IEEE802.16e/WiMAX,
IEEE J. Sel. Topics Signal Process., vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 181190, Apr. 2008.
[8] M. B.M. Stege and G. Fettweis, On the performance of spacetime block codes, in Proc.
IEEE Veh. Technol. Conf. Spring, 2001, pp. 22822286.
[9] M. Horvat, C. Carbonelli, Z. Bai, and P. Jung, On the performance of an LTE SFBC system in
frequency-selective channels in the presence of channel estimation errors, in Proc. IEEE
GLOBECOM, Dec. 2010, pp. 16.

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