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Why is Food Safety Important?

No one likes to be sick.


Food safety includes:
Proper food storage
Good hygiene
Prevention of cross-
contamination
Cooking food to proper
temperatures
Avoiding mistakes in food
preparation
Food Safety Terms
Bacteria:
Tiny, one-celled microorganisms
found everywhere
Food-Borne Illness:
Illness caused by eating
contaminated food
Cross-Contamination:
Transfer of harmful bacteria
from one source to another
Conditions for Bacterial Growth
Remember: FAT TOM
Food
Acidity
Temperature
Time
Oxygen FA T TOM
Moisture
Food FA T TOM
Nutrients needed for bacterial growth
Protein
Meat
Poultry
Eggs
Milk
Fish
Carbohydrates
Cooked rice
Beans
Potatoes
FA T TOM
Acidity Microorganisms
Like a pH between
pH scale 6.6 and 7.5

Bacteria
Grow best in
neutral or }
slightly
acidic
environment
FA T TOM
Temperature
Bacteria grow the
fastest between 40-
140F Temperature
DANGER
Freezing and Zone
refrigerating will stop
or slow growth, but not
kill
FA T TOM
Time
Bacteria can double every
20 minutes
Dont leave food out more
than 2 hours
FA T TOM
Oxygen
Aerobic = requires oxygen
Anaerobic = no oxygen

OXYGEN
FAT TOM
Moisture
Microorganisms love a moist
environment
Dry foods safe to store at
room temperature
Salt and sugar help preserve
5 Steps to Food Safety
1. Cook
2. Separate
3. Chill
4. Clean
5. Avoid
Cook
Cook foods to the right internal temperature:

Ground Beef 160 F


Meat 145 F
Poultry 165 F
Eggs 160 F
Fish 145 F
Leftovers 165 F
Separate
Combat Cross-Contamination
At the grocery store
In your refrigerator
While preparing food
Chill
Dont Wait, Refrigerate!
Chill out! Set the correct temperature
on these appliances:
- Refrigerator: 40 F or lower
- Freezer: 0 F or lower
Refrigerate prepared foods
within 2 hours
Store perishables properly
Use a cooler
Clean
Keep it clean!
Wash your hands before
preparing or eating food
Wash produce under running
water
Keep food preparation surfaces
clean to prevent cross-
contamination
Avoid Risky Foods
Risky foods are those that are most likely to
produce a food-borne illness
Foods from an animal source
- Raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish,
non-pasteurized milk
& shellfish
Raw fruits & vegetables
produced in unsanitary
conditions
Soft cheeses
Product Dates & Recommendations
Sell-by date:
Tells the retailer how long to keep a product
out for sale
Use-by date:
Tells the consumer
the date by
which to use
the product
Whos at Risk?
Anyone and everyone
Especially dangerous for high-risk
populations:
- Very young
- Elderly
- Pregnant women
- People with a compromised
immune system
How Does
Food-Borne Illness Occur?
Contaminated foods carry microorganisms
into the body
Bodys defenses try to fight infection
Primary symptoms of most food-borne illnesses:
- Nausea
- Vomiting
- Abdominal cramps
- Diarrhea
Cook
Campylobacter me thoroughly!

Illness: Campylobacteriosis
Microorganism: Campylobacter
jejuni
Found in:
undercooked poultry
non-pasteurized milk
surface water
mountain streams
Symptoms: diarrhea, cramping, abdominal pain,
nausea, vomiting, fever, headache
Salmonella
Illness: Salmonellosis
Microorganism: Salmonella
Found in:
Raw meats
Poultry
Eggs
Non-pasteurized milk
Symptoms: diarrhea, fever, abdominal cramps,
vomiting
E. coli 0158:H7
Illness: E. coli
Microorganism: Escherichia coli 0157:H7
Found in:
Contaminated water
Raw milk
Raw or rare ground beef
Contaminated produce
Symptoms: painful stomach cramps, bloody diarrhea,
severe cases result in hemolytic uremic syndrome
(HUS)
Norovirus
Illness: Norovirus Gastroenteritis
Microorganism: Norovirus
Found in:
Contaminated water
Ready-to-eat food
Shellfish contaminated by sewage
Symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, nausea, abdominal
cramps
Listeria
Illness: Listeriosis
Microorganism: Listeria monocytogenes
Found in:
Soft cheeses Deli salads Cold smoked fish
Hot dogs Deli meats Raw milk
Symptoms: fever, muscle aches, occasionally nausea
or diarrhea.
Pregnant women: spontaneous abortion
Newborns: sepsis, pneumonia, meningitis
Botulism
Illness: Botulism
Microorganism: Clostridium botulinum
Found in:
Home canned or improperly canned foods
Oil infusions
Baked potatoes wrapped in foil
Vacuum-packed and tightly wrapped food
Symptoms: nausea, vomiting, muscle weakness, dry
mouth, headache, double vision, slurred speech,
difficulty swallowing
Staph
Illness: Staph infection
Microorganism: Staphylococcus aureus
Found in:
Deli meats
Salads including egg, tuna, chicken, and macaroni
Cream-filled pastries
Symptoms: nausea, vomiting and retching, abdominal
cramps
Youre the Expert
You have been hired as a restaurant critic
for a local newspaper. You visit a
restaurant and although you have no
complaints on the taste of the food, you
notice some disturbing food preparation
methods. You find that food is left out on
the counter for several hours, employees
rarely wash their hands between handling
different types of food, and utensils are
not always properly washed between
uses.
Applying What You Know
1. Create a food safety poster to be placed in a
restaurant kitchen. Include pictures and
descriptions of ways to ensure food safety using
the 5 Steps to Food Safety.
2. Research a food-borne illness and write a 1-2
page report on your findings. Be sure to include
causes of the illness, health effects, and
prevention tips.
Review Questions
Choose the best answer for the following questions.
1. When should hands be washed?
a. Before eating or cooking.
b. After using the bathroom.
c. After playing with a pet.
d. All of the above
2. This bacteria is found in deli meats, hot dogs, and soft cheeses and can
be especially dangerous for pregnant women.
a. Salmonella
b. Listeria monocytogenes
c. Shigella
d. Norovirus
3. Bacteria multiplies quickly when it is kept between ___ and ___ degrees
Fahrenheit.
a. 30 and 60
b. 130 and 150
c. 40 and 140
d. 200 and 240
Review Questions
4. Contaminated food ALWAYS looks, smells, and tastes bad.
True or False

5. It is safe to cut raw greens on a cutting board previously used for


raw chicken if the board is rinsed off first.
True or False

6. It is safe to eat a perishable food, like pizza, that has set out over
2 hours if it is thoroughly reheated.
True or False
Exploring the Web
Investigate the internet for more information on food safety.
Check out these websites:

US Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service


www.fsis.usda.gov
Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition
http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov
American Dietetic Association Home Food Safety
www.homefoodsafety.org
Gateway to Government Food Safety Information
www.foodsafety.gov
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
www.cdc.gov
More on Food Safety
From Learning ZoneXpress
Food Safety Bingo Game
Just the Facts Food Safety
Video
Kitchen Safety
Smart Video
Play It Safe Posters
Food Safety
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