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part: Phyllotaxis

Dr. Iis Nur Ayiah

Phyllotaxis : Arrangement of leafs
on stem
Phyllotaxis: is the term applied to the sequence
of origin of leave on a stem
The phyllotaxis of any one plant is ussually
constant and often of diagnostic value
In monocotyledons only one leaf is borne at
node. Leaves of dicotyledons are present one to
many at a node
Phyllotaxis of plant can play a considerable role in
determining the branching pattern of that plant,
particularly for woody perrenials
1. One leaf per node
monostichous: all leaves on one side of
stem, that is ane row as seen from above,
very rare the leaves are arranged in
shallow helix and the phyllotaxis is termed
spiromonostichous, ex. Costus sp.
distichous (orthodistichous): the leaves are
arranges in two rows as seen from above,
usually with 180 o between the rows, and the
phyllotaxis is termed spirodistichy, ex.
Bupleurum falcatum
Tristichous: leaves in three rows with 120 o
between rows, and the phyllotaxis is termed
spirotristichous, ex. Pandanus tectorius
Spiral : more 3 longitudinal rows of leaves
5 rows, ex. Nicotiana tabacum
8 rows, ex. Brassica oleracea
2. Two leaves per node: the two leaves at each
node are 180 o a part and form two row as
seen from above. When succesive pairs are
oriented at 90 o to each other, four rows of
leaves will be visible from above, the
phyllotaxis is opposite dessucata (berhadapan
bersilangan), ex. Morinda citrifolia
3. Three or more leaves per node: ex. Nerium
oleander daun berkarang= verticiltata
Filotaksis Types

(Folia sparsa) (Oposita)
Berhadapan bersilangan
Tersebar Berhadapan

Dalam lingkaran/berkarang Distikha

Fibonacci sequence

It is customary to describe the phyllotaxis of plants

having one leaf per node

The Fibonacci numbers occur when counting both the number of

times we go around the stem (spiral genetic) , going from leaf to
leaf, as well as counting the leaves we meet until we encounter a
leaf directly above the starting one = called Leaf Formula.

,, 2/5 , , 5/13, etc. (Fibonacci sequence)

(Different plants)
One estimate is that 90 percent of all plants exhibit this
pattern of leaves involving the Fibonacci numbers. Some
common trees with their Fibonacci leaf arrangement numbers

1/2 elm, linden, lime, grasses

1/3 beech, hazel, grasses, blackberry
2/5 oak, cherry, apple, holly, plum, common groundsel
3/8 poplar, rose, pear, willow
5/13 pussy willow, almond

Scheme of Leaf/divergence

The Stem is imagined as a cylinder

Imaginative vertical line through certain leaf

Imaginative Spiral line through every leaf
position started from older leaf to younger
leaf respectively
Diagram of Leaf
Stem is imagined as a cone shape

RD = 2/5
Gb. Diagram daun menurut rumus 2/5
Folia sparsa
Diagram of Leaf

Folia disticha Folia verticillata