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Tense agreement in conditional statements

My father wished he could have finished high school when


he was young, but he had to go to work to support his
family instead. When I was born, he wished that I
would not only finish high school but also go to college. He
worked hard to send me to college. I managed to graduate
with honors. Now, I have a child and I wish that he will go
to college. I encourage him to work hard. I wish he would
understand how hard his grandfather and father have
worked to give him a good life. He doesn't comprehend it
right now, but I hope he will when he is older.
Hypothetical Wish Past Agreement

A PAST WISH ABOUT AN EARLIER EVENT A PAST WITH ABOUT AN PAS EVENT

WISHED + PAST PERFECT Use had gone or would go

My father wished he had gone to college.


My father wished that I went to college
(I regret he didn't.)

A PAST WISH ABOUT A FUTURE EVENT

WISHED WOULD + VERB ( Action may or may not happen.)

My father wished that I would go to graduate school.


Hypothetical Wish Present Agreement

A PRESENT WISH ABOUT AN EARLIER EVENT A PRESENT WISH ABOUT A PRESENT EVENT

WISH + PAST PERFECT WISH + PAST

I wish father had understood my I wish my son understood his


appreciation.(I regret he didn't.) grandfather's efforts. (He doesn't.)

A PRESENT WISH ABOUT A FUTURE EVENT

WOULD + VERB
( Action may or may not happen.)

I wish my son would understand the


importance of hard work.
A Wish (that may become true)

A Wish (that may become true)

WISHED TO +VERB

My father wished to go to college. A PRESENT WISH ABOUT A FUTURE EVENT


(Maybe he did.)
WISH TO +VERB cannot use an
indirect object

I wish to go to graduate school.


(Maybe I will.)
Wishes Followed by a That-
Clause or an Infinitive Phrase

THAT-CLAUSES INFINITIVE
These words introduce a wish with a that-clause and will or would. These words introduce a
wish with an infinitive
phrase.

My mother hopes (that) I will be an engineer. My father wished me to


become an engineer.

My mother hoped (that) I would be an engineer. My grandfather wanted


me to be happy.

My grandfather prays (that) I will be happy. My grandfather would like


me to be happy.
Gerunds

Gerund adalah kata benda yang berasal dari kata


kerja ditambah ing, misalnya swimming, eating,
fishing, shopping, dancing, dan singing. Bila
diperhatikan, gerund mempunyai bentuk yang sama
dengan present participle, bedanya gerund
berfungsi sebagai kata benda, sedangkan present
participle sebagai kata sifat yang menerangkan kata
benda.
Dalam kalimat, gerund berfungsi sebagai:
a. subjek (subject)
b. pelengkap subjek (subjective
complement)
c. objek langsung (direct object)
d. objek preposisi (object of preposition)
e. aposisi (appositive)
Subject Subjective Complement
Gerund sebagai subjek pokok kalimat, contoh:
Gerund sebagai pelengkap subjek dalam kalimat
biasanya selalu
- Swimming is good service. didahului to be yang
- Your singing is very beautiful. terletak di antara subject dan
- Studying needs time and patience. subjective complement, contoh:
- Playing tennis is fun.
- Reading English is easier than speaking it.

- My favorite sport is running.


- My favorite activity is reading

Direct Object
Gerund sebagai objek langsung dalam kalimat, contoh:

- I enjoy dancing.
- She likes dancing.
- Thank you for your coming.
- I hate arguing.
Object of Preposition
Gerund sebagai objek preposisi yang terletak
setelah preposisi.
Preposisi yang sering dipakai adalah
of, on, no, with, without, at for,
after, before, because of, to, like, about, for, by, in.
Contoh:

- He is tired of gambling.
- I am fond of eating bakso.
- He insisted on seeing her.
- I have no objection to hearing your story.
Appositive
Gerund sebagai aposisi atau
penegas dalam kalimat, contoh:

- My hobby, fishing, is interesting.


- I do not like quarrelling, a useless job.
INFINITIVE

Infinitive adalah verbal berbentuk kata kerja dasar yang


umumnya ditambah to di depannya, misalnya to eat, to say, to
run, to work, to study.

Seperti halnya dengan gerund, infinitive pun dapat berfungsi


sebagai kata benda (noun). Bedanya, penggunaan infinitive lebih
luas daripada gerund yang hanya berfungsi sebagai kata benda.
Infinitive mempunyai tiga fungsi, yaitu sebagai kata benda (noun),
kata sifat (adjective), dan kata keterangan (adverb).
Infinitive sebagai kata benda (noun)

- To say is easy but to do is difficult.


- To understand English is not an easy job.
- To dry an ocean is nonsense.

Infinitive sebagai kata sifat (adjective)

- I have no time to go.


- The desire to success is strong in youth.
- I have had the money to pay this ticket.

Infinitive sebagai kata keterangan (adverb)

- I come to meet you.


- We read to get new information.
Present perfect
We use the Present Perfect to say that an action
happened at an unspecified time before now. The
exact time is not important. You CANNOT use the
Present Perfect with specific time expressions
such as: yesterday, one year ago, last week,
when I was a child, when I lived in Japan, at that
moment, that day, one day, etc. We CAN use the
Present Perfect with unspecific expressions such
as: ever, never, once, many times, several times,
before, so far, already, yet, etc.
Example :

I have seen that movie twenty times.


I think I have met him once before.
There have been many earthquakes in California.
People have traveled to the Moon.
People have not traveled to Mars.
Have you read the book yet?
Nobody has ever climbed that mountain.
A: Has there ever been a war in the United States?
B: Yes, there has been a war in the United States.
You can use the Present Perfect to describe your
experience. It is like saying, "I have the experience
of..." You can also use this tense to say that you have
never had a certain experience. The Present Perfect is
NOT used to describe a specific event.
Examples:
I have been to France.
This sentence means that you have had the
experience of being in France. Maybe you have been
there once, or several times.
I have been to France three times.
You can add the number of times at the end of the
sentence.
I have never been to France.
This sentence means that you have not had the
experience of going to France.
I think I have seen that movie before.
He has never traveled by train.
Joan has studied two foreign languages.
A: Have you ever met him?
B: No, I have not met him.
Simple Past
Use the Simple Past to express the
idea that an action started and finished
at a specific time in the past.
Sometimes, the speaker may not
actually mention the specific time, but
they do have one specific time in mind.

[VERB+ed] or irregular verbs


Examples:

II saw
saw aa movie
movie yesterday.
yesterday.
II didn't see a play
didn't see a play
yesterday.
yesterday.
Last
Last year,
year, II traveled
traveled toto
Japan.
Japan.
Last
Last year,
year, II didn't
didn't
travel to Korea.
travel to Korea.
Did
Did you
you have
have dinner
dinner last
last
night?
night?
She
She washed
washed her her car.
car.
He
He didn't wash his car.
didn't wash his car.
We
Weuse
Weusethe
usethe Simple
the SimplePast
Simple Past tototo
Past list
lista aseries
list aseriesofofof
series
completed
completed
completedactions
actionsininthe
actions inthepast.
the past. These
past. These actions
These actions
actions
happen
happen1st,
happen1st, 2nd,
1st,2nd,3rd,
2nd,3rd, 4th,
3rd,4th, and
4th,and so
andso on.
soon.
on.
Examples:
Examples:
Examples:
I Ifinished
Ifinished work,
finishedwork,
work,walked
walked
walked tototo
the beach,
the
thebeach,
beach,
and
and found
andfound a nice place
founda anice to
niceplace swim.
placetotoswim.
swim.
He
Hearrived
Hearrived from
arrived from
fromthe
theairport
the atatat
airport
airport
8:00,
8:00,checked
8:00,checked
checked into
intothe
intothehotel
thehotelatat9:00,
hotel at9:00,
9:00,
and
andmet
andmet the
metthe others
theothers at 10:00.
othersatat10:00.
10:00.
Did
Did you
Didyouadd
youadd
addflour, pour
flour,
flour,
pourininthe
pour milk,
inthe
the and
milk,
milk,and
and
then
then add
thenaddthe
addthe eggs?
theeggs?
eggs?