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INTRODUCTION

&
SOIL INVESTIGATION
BY HABTAMU ELIAS
INTRODUCTION

Our project is G+8 AMU dormitory building with


plan dimensions of 8.60m*45.66m and height
of 28.55m.
SOIL INVESTIGATION

To evaluate the general suitability of the site for the proposed


project.
To enable an adequate and economical design to be made.

To disclose and make provision for difficulties that may arise


during construction.
Site Investigation Phases

Phase I: Collection of Preliminary information

Phase II: Reconnaissance

Phase III: Site Investigation

Phase IV: Write a report


Soil Laboratory Tests

Gradation and Size Distribution


Determination of Consistency (Atterberg) Limits
Compaction Test
Specific Gravity
Shear and Consolidate
Moisture Content of Soils

Naturally occurring soils nearly always contain water as part of


their structure. The presence of water influences engineering
properties of soils to great extent.
Field Moisture Test at One Meter

Container number 16/35


Mass of wet soil + container (gm) 60.34
Moisture

Mass of dry soil + container (gm) 55.72


Mass of water, mw (gm) 4.62
Mass of container, mc (gm) 30.68
Mass of dry soil ms (gm) 25.04
Moisture Content, w=mw/ms (%) 18.45
Gradation and Size Distribution

Gradation helps determine almost every important property including stiffness,


stability, durability, permeability, workability.

At 1 meter
120.00

100.00

80.00

% Passing
60.00 D60

40.00 D30
20.00 D10
0.00
100 10 1 0.1 0.01
Grain Diameter (mm)

Well graded sand (SW)


liquid limit of the soil

Atterberg limits tests are conducted by air dry sample


passing No.40 (425 m) sieve.
28.50

28.00

Moisture Content 27.50

27.00

26.50

26.00
0 10 20 30 40
Liquid Limit at One Meter Number of Blows
Plastic Limit of Soils

In dry state the soil behaves brittle and particles


are broken apart when subjected to externally
applied pressure.
Compaction Test
To determine the Optimum Moisture Content and
Maximum dry density of a Given Soil Sample

1.90

1.85

1.80
Dry Density

1.75

1.70

1.65

1.60
0.00 5.00 10.00 15.00 20.00 25.00
Moisture Content
Compaction Test at Three Meter
Specific Gravity

Specific gravity is used to calculate


volumetric relation and to compute the
void ratio of soil, and in hydrometer
analysis.
Shear and Consolidate
To measure the shear strength of a soil under various normal loads, and to
establish values for cohesion (C) and the angle of internal friction () of
the soil.
AT ONE METER DEPTH
80.00
70.00
60.00
Shear Stress

50.00
40.00
30.00
20.00
10.00
0.00
0 20 40 60 80 100
Normal Stress

32.5
C 20.12
WIND & EARTH QUAKE
BY ZELEKE BELAY
WIND LOADS AND EARTHQUAKE FOR
STRUCTURE
To determine the design wind load for designing
the lateral load resisting structural system of a
structure to satisfy various design criteria.
Design Criteria
for lateral wind loads the following basic design
criteria need to be satisfied.
Stability

Strength
WIND LOAD ON ROOF
TO ACCOUNT FOR THE WIND LOAD
ON THE ROOF, ACCORDING TO EBCS-
1/95
ROOF CATEGORY DUO PITCH
ACCORDING TO EBCS-1/95(TABLE2.13) THE
CATEGORY OF THE ROOF IS UNDER H
VALUES OF ACTION EBCS-1/95
EBCS-1, 1995
CONT.
EXPOSURE COEFFICIENT
ROUGHNESS COEFFICIENT, CR (Z)
Cr (Z) = KT ln (Z/Z0).................for ZminZ200m
Cr (Z) = Cr (Zmin)....................for Z< Zmin
Where: Z0 = roughness length
Zmin = Minimum height which depends on the terrain
category as given in
sec. 3.8.3 table 3.2 EBCS 1/95
Cr(Z)=KT ln(Z/Z0) = 0.17ln(28.5/0.01) = 1.35
NET WIND LOAD
WNET =WE - WI =-2.19 KN/M2
CONT.

Reaction Force from Lattice Purilin


qd = 2.24 KN/M + 0.412 * 2 =3.1KN/m
Fy = 0, VA= VB
VA = VB = *3.1*4.4m= 6.82 KN
FINALLY USE SAP_2000/11
EARTHQUAKE

EARTHQUAKE EFFECTS CAUSE DAMAGE


GROUND SHAKING
SURFACE RUPTURE
LANDSLIDES
LIQUEFACTION
EARTH QUICK LOAD ANALYSIS
Step 1.Modelling a building with sap software
Step 2.Mass center determination
The mass center coordinates x and y are calculated by
considering, slab, wall, beam, stair and column weight
at each floor to concentrate at a position from selected
reinforce axis and calculated
X = S Gk *x or = My Y= S Gk *y or = Mx
Gk Gk Gk Gk
Step 3. Calculation of earth quake force at each story level
according to [EBCS 8, 1995]
THE EARTH QUAKE FORCE AT EACH STORY LEVE

Earth Quake Force Where:


Fi=the horizontal force

Where: Sd (T1)-ordinate of design spectrum at period T1


Fb =Sd *(T1)*W T1- fundamental period of vibration of the
structure for translational motion in direction
Ft=0.07 T1Fb considered.
W- Seismic dead load
CONT.
T1=Ci*H3/4
H - height of building above the base in meter
Ci - 0.075 for reinforced concrete moment resisting
frames.
Sd (T1) =
- is ratio of design bed rock acceleration to the
acceleration of gravity (g) & is given by = oI
o -the bed rock acceleration ratio for the site & depends
on the seismic zone
I - the importance factor given from table 2.4
EBCS 1/95
THE BEHAVIOR FACTOR
= o KD KR KW 0.70
Where =the behavior factor
KD=factor reflecting the ductility class
KD=2 for DC-L
o= basic value of behavior factor depends on the Structural
type
= 0.2 for frame system
KR = factor reflecting the structural regularity in elevation
=1.00 for regular structures
KW = factor reflecting the prevailing failure made in structural
systems with walls
= 1.0 for frame and frame equivalent dual system
CHECK THE CRITERIA

T1 = 0.75*28.553/4=0.926sec < 2sec


=1.2*1.5 /0.9262/3=1.89 2.5

= 0.2*2*1*1= 0.4 0.70

Therefore, the building meets the criteria for


regularity in plan and elevation explained
above.
FB IS DISTRIBUTED TO THE DIFFERENT LEVELS

Lateral Earthquake Load Distribution


Level Hi(m) Wi(KN) Wi*Hi(KN-m) Fb-Ft Fi(KN)
Roof 31.05 2,431.01 75,482.85 4141.27 657.73
8th 28 5,397.79 151,138.19 4141.27 741.99
7th 25 5,397.79 134,944.81 4141.27 662.50
6th 22 5,397.79 118,751.44 4141.27 583.00
5th 19 5,397.79 102,558.06 4141.27 503.50
4th 16 5,397.79 86,364.68 4141.27 424.00
3rd 13 5,397.79 70,171.30 4141.27 344.50
2nd 10 5,397.79 53,977.93 4141.27 265.00
1st 7 5,397.79 37,784.55 4141.27 185.50
Ground 4 3,092.34 12,369.37 4141.27 60.73
Total 48,705.69 843543.18 4,428.43
STRUCTURAL LOAD ANALYSIS
BY NEBIL ZEKARIYA
ISOLATED FOOTING
BY FREZER KORBAIDO
Isolated Footing

A footing carrying a single column is called a single or isolated


footing.
Area Proportioning
Categories of loads representing all the other loads:
Category Mx(KN.m) My(KN.m) Unfactored Load Factored Load
I 291.48 263.2 1466.3 2218.4
II 320.65 268.62 1778.31 2383.87
III 320.61 274.14 5323.55 3397.14

For each category and state of loading, initial or final, assume


values for Df, B and L and calculate the ultimate bearing capacity
and show whether the dimensions of B and H are safe.
Using Meyerhof s equation:
qult = cNcScdc + qNqSqdq + BNSd
For initial loading condition, assuming the wedge zone
lies in the clay layer (u = 0; Cu = 110 KPa)
Calculate the maximum soil pressure:
q = P/A where, A = B*L
from Meyerhos equation and qall= qult /Fs +D find H by
equating them.
Follow the same steps as the above by changing the
assumption until H become less than the expected depth.
Check the section adequacy.
Settlement
Settlement is the direct result of decrease in the soil pressure.
Total settlement is regarded as two-phase.

Immediate occurs rapidly within hours or period of about 7 days


after load is applied.

Consolidation is time dependent deformation that occur in


saturated and partially saturated clay.

Since, in our case, the soil is clay, we dont have to check for
immediate settlement because it is insignificant .
But check for consolidation settlement.
Consolidation Settlement
Using the types of deposit of soil with Cc , ( KN/m2), Gs ,
OCR and thickness of each layers:

ST = Se + Sc where, Se = 0

If settlement is beyond allowable limit(75mm), increase dimension


of footing and depth of footing .

Since once again settlement is beyond allowable limit, increase the


dimension. But interference will appear between the pressure bulbs
of any adjacent columns .
Structural design for isolated footing

This isolated footing is not an option for this particular project


because of settlement. However, the design for category I
load is tried to be made.
Assuming adequate Fs and concrete cover, depth is
determined using:
1. punching shear
2.wide beam shear
Finally check depth for flexure
COMBINED FOOTING
BY GETAHUN CHORAMO
. Combined footings are designed to support two or more adjacent
columns.
Used when
*If they are near the property line
*If they are near mechanical equipment
*It is not possible to place the column at center of a spread footing.
But, for this particular project the above points are not factor.
.Area proportioning using soil strength parameters using
MEYERHOF equation.
qult =CNcScdcic+ qNqSqdqiq+ 0.5BNSdi
Also qult= R*F.S/A Where A=L*B
By equating the above two equation B is obtained

check for settlement


CHECK FOR SETTLEMENT
Immediate settlement

Primary Consolidation settlement

Structural Design
Depth determination
-Punching shear criteria
-Wide beam shear criteria
REINFORCEMENT

The reinforcement bars placed according to the


moment requirement.
-total number of bars
-spaces
-The basic bond and anchorage length of a bar
is determined.
UNIFORM MAT FOUNDATION
BY SEWENETYOHANNES
The commonest use of mat foundation is on soils of low bearing
capacity where the foundation pressures must be spread over as
wide an area as possible.

Design of uniform mat foundations on clay are assessed from


considerations of the permissible total settlements.

We check the mat foundations safety against bearing failure by


comparing max with all.

max = P/A (Peyy/Ix) (Pexx/Iy )

all = qult/FS

If max all, the foundation is safe against bearing failure


To check settlement, we take a point where
maximum un-factored load occurs.
Total immediate settlement is found by adding
the immediate settlements of each part on the
mat slab.

Consolidation settlement of the slab is


calculated by:
Sc = Cc*H*log(0 + )/(1+e0)*0
Design of Uniform Mat

Methods of Design
There are several methods for designing a mat
(plate) foundation.
1) The rigid method
2) Elastic method (an approximate
method)

An Approximate Method
Mat is divided into strips loaded by a line of
columns and resisted by soil pressure.
Method of Analysis

General formula for stress:


= R/A (Mxy/Ix) (Myx/Iy)
Mx = R*ex
My = R*ey
where, R = P = sum of all loads on the mat
A = area of the mat
ex, ey = eccentricity of R with respect to x and
y axis
Ix, Iy = moment of inertia of the mat with
respect to x and y axis
x, y = coordinates of any point on the mat
where (stress) is to be determined

The origin of the coordinate (0,0) is determined from centroid of the


mat.
Depth Determination

Determine the mat thickness based on punching shear


at critical columns.

Edge columns
Pp = Pmax Area* avg
Punching resistance of concrete:
VRd1 = 0.25*fctdK1K2Ud
Equating both of the above equations and solving for d:
Consider each strips (bands) in longitudinal and
transverse direction.
Soil pressure at any point on the mat is not uniform. So,
we need to calculate the average soil pressure as
avg = (1 + 2)/2 taking points on the edge of
the strips

2
1
There will be some shear transfer between adjoining
strips, therefore we need to find an average load.
Qavg = (downward load + upward load)
= [(Q1 + Q2 Qn) + qav*L*B)]
where Q1,Q2,Q3 are column loads
qav = soil pressure
The modified soil pressure is calculated as:
qavg(modified) = qavg(Qavg/qavg*L*b)

Prepare BMD using SAP-2000 Analysis for the


modified column load and modified average
soil pressure.
Reinforcement Design

Take the maximum positive and negative moment from


the BMD to calculate top and bottom reinforcement.

Using general design chart No.1


us = Md/(fcd*b*d2)

Using us from design chart, find


kz = z/d to find z
and As1 = Msd/(z*fyd)
No. of bars required (nb) = As1/av

Spacing, S = as*b/As
RIBBED MAT
BY SURAFEL MICHAEL
In situations where loads coming from column are very large
or bearing capacity of soil is low, ribbed mat is more
adoptable.
Ribbed mat is also used in areas where the problem of
differential settlement is difficult to tackle.
Ribbed mats are frequently used in practical and are found to
be economical than uniform mat.
A system of heavy beams along each column row is
introduced in both column direction to withstand the column
loads and the soil pressure transferred to the beam from the
mat.
The mat is then designed as two way slab supported by the
beams and the beams are heavily reinforced for bending and
shear.
Depth Determination
For panels
Using Span ratio. Ly/Lx
By linear interpolation a

Therefore the larger value d govern


D = d + cover + /2
Equation of earth pressure
Pressure distribution on the foundation column is
calculated using the following formula:-
qi= P/A ( P*ex/Iy)Y( P*ey/Ix)X
qi= P/A+_My*X+_Mx*Y.
Pressure on each slab
Column pressure on a single slab divided by the number of
column pressure
Design Load for each slab
Design load: - Pd=q-P
Where, P=1.3DL+1.6LL
Dead load
Weights of floor finish.(KN/m2)
Weight of cement screed (KN/m2)
Weight of slab ground floor(KN/m2)
Weight of hard core .(KN/m2)
Weight of selected ...(KN/m2)
Live load ..2(KN/m2)
Moment Calculation for each slab
Using codes coefficient method
Using Ly/Lx
Moment coefficient xs ,ys ,xf, xs
Mi=i*Pd*Lx2
Adjustment of Support Moment
Since the difference of support moments of two adjacent span greater than
20% we use cross moment distribution method if not average method.
Adjustment of Span Moment
Mf-adj=Mi+Mf
Where: - Mf=Cx * Ms

Check the depth for the maximum moment


Madj=Mmax=0.8fcd*X*b(d-0.4X), X=0.4d for
under reinforced slab
d= {Mmax/0.2688fcd*b}1/2
dreq<dsup
If the depth,d obtained from the above equation is
greter than the depth alredy used, revise the
depth by increasing its section size.
Slab Reinforcement for support & span
As=Msd,s/Zfyd
Where:-Z= KZ*d

KZ is read from chart-1 using sd,s


sd,s= Msd,s/fcdbd2, assume b=1.0m
As>Asmin=minbd, min=0.5/fyk
Spacing, S=asb/As Smax
Design of Girders
Load transfer to the beam from the slab

According to EBCS-2/95 , the design loads on


supporting beam is assumed to be distributed over a
length of 0.75m times the span length of beam and the
shear force are determined as follow
Vx = vx .Pd . lx
Vy = vy .Pd . Lx
Where, vx& Bvy are .shear force cofficient given by the
code as the funcition aspect ratio According
to the transferred loads on the girder, we prepare
BMD&SFD for each girder usising SAP 2000 vversion 11
analysis.
Design of Girder Beams of the Ribbed Mat
The shear force and the bending moment are analyzed
using SAP-2000
Girder Beam
Assume (Dxbw) beam

Initially assume the stress block is in the flange


Effective width be:
be bw+le/5
Spacing of the beam
Effective depth, d
For the girder that is to be designed , we choose
Mmax & Vmax from its BMD & SFD
Check for T-Beam Analysis d=D-C-
main/ 2- stirup
Initially assumme the stress block is in the flange
be={ bw+le/5 or c/c spacing
Assuming the section as rectangular with width be
= Mu / [fcdbed2] max
Therefore: the section is singly reinforced
Depth of equivalent stress block for rectangular
section
Y=0.8X,hf, No T-Beam analysis is required
Where:- X=md, m=fyd/0.8fcd
Therefore: the section design as rectangular
Reinforcement Design
Flexural reinforcement
For top & bottom reinforcements of the girder section,
sd=Md/fcd*bd2
Area of steel required for flexure
As=Ms,ds/ ( z.fyd) where, z=d/2(1+ (1-
2 )
As> As,min=minbed
#of bar =As/as
Shear Reinforcement
Design shear force, Vsd of the whole beam at critical
section @ d distance from the face of support is
calculated using similarit of triangles or Vsd=Vs+Vc
Where:- Vc=0.25fctd*K1*K2*bw*d --- shear strength of
concrete,
Vs=(av*fyd*d)/S,------ shear w/c must be resisted by the
stirrups
If Vc<Vsd----- provide shear reinforcement for
excessive shear
Check depth of beam for diagonal compression
The diagonal Compression failure is checked by
Vrd=0.25fctdbwd./EBCS-
2/95/
Vsd < Vrd No diagonal shear failure.
Where: -
fctd=[0.21fck2/3]/c
=As / (bwxd)
K1=1+502.0
K2=1.6-d1
Spacing of minimum shear reinforcement,
Smax{0.5d, for Vsd<2/3*Vrd or 300mm}
0.3d, for Vsd>2/3*Vrd or 200mm}
Spacing of excess shear, Sv=(av*fyd*d)/Vs <Smax
PILE FOUNDATION
BY NUHAMIN SISAY
In designing pile foundation we consider two
things
Geometrical

Structural Consideration
In Geometrical Design
1) Assume pile diameter, no of pile & pile
spacing
2) Length is computed by Single pile failure &
Block pile failure .Take the governing Value
3) Calculate for Settlement
i) Immediate Settlement
ii) Consolidate Settlement
If the settlement is below permissible Value
(100mm) continue to the next.
In Structural Design
Pile Cap is Design
Depth determination
1) Punching Shear
Vp=Total Load
VRd=0.25 * fctd * k1 * k2 *U * d
2) Wide beam Shear
Vw (1-1) =PA1+PA2
Vw (2-2) =PA2+PB2
Vc=0.25 * fctd * k1 * k2 * bw * d
3) check depth for Flexure

Reinforcement
1) Flexural Reinforcement
2) Shear Reinforcement
3)Pile Shaft Reinforcement
COST ANALYSIS
Cost analysis is done for
- Uniform Mat
- Ribbed Mat
- pile Foundation
In the calculation we consider
- Excavation
- Back fill
- Concrete
- Form work
- Reinforcement
CONCLUSION
Due to consideration of Safety & Economy