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BIO101

Introduction to
Anatomy & Physiology
Stark State College
Virginia Johnson, MS, RN, LMT

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2015 Virginia Johnson
Chapter 14
Respiratory System

BIO101 | Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology


STARK STATE COLLEGE

Virginia Johnson, MS, RN, LMT

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2015 Virginia Johnson
Announcements
Make up work deadline
Monday, November 30, 2015

Reproductive system take home test


Due on Monday, December 7, 2015

Final exam review


Monday, December 7, 2015

Final exam
Monday, December 14, 2015 at 3:00 pm

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Chapter 14 | Respiratory System
Objectives

Discuss the generalized functions of the respiratory system.

List the major organs of the respiratory system

Compare, contrast, and explain the mechanism responsible for the exchange
of gasses that occurs during internal and external respiration.

Identify and discuss the mechanisms that regulate respiration.

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Chapter 14 | respiratory introduction
Respiratory system
lifeline
live a
few weeks without food
few days without water
few minutes without oxygen
Oxygen is the must crucial substance to the body!
Carbon dioxide elimination is crucial too!
Basic functions of respiratory system:
air distribution
gas exchange
filters, warms, and humidifies inhaled air

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Chapter 14 | structural plan
Respiratory organs
nose
pharynx
larynx
trachea
bronchi
alveoli
lungs
Function of alveoli (and respiratory system)
Distribute air close enough to blood for
gas exchange, via diffusion, to take place
between inspired air and blood.
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Chapter 14 | respiratory tracts
Upper respiratory tract superior to thorax
nose
pharynx
larynx
upper respiratory infection (URI) head cold

Lower respiratory tract within thorax


trachea
bronchial tree
lungs
pneumonia chest cold

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Chapter 14 | respiratory mucosa
Respiratory mucosa
structure
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
mucus-producing goblet cells
cilia
function
cleanse, warm & humidify inspired air
insects, dust, pollen, bacteria
mucous blanket
125 mL mucus produced daily
layer moves along cilia to carry debris out of lungs Cigarette smoke paralyzes cilia
mucociliary escalator Mucus accumulates
one-way, upward, direction Smokers cough results
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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
What are the two main functions of the respiratory system?
air distribution
gas exchange

What are the secondary functions of the respiratory system?


warm, humidify, and cleanse inhaled air

What occurs in the alveoli?


gas exchange between air and blood

The upper respiratory tract ends at the _____.


larynx
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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
The lower respiratory tract begins at the ______.
trachea

Respiratory mucosa is made of _________ tissue.


pseudostratified columnar epithelium

What type of specialized cell is located in the tissue?


mucus producing goblet cells

What is the function of cilia?


To move the mucus blanket along with debris up and out of lungs.

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Chapter 14 | nose
Nose
external nares (nostrils)
nasal cavities
lined with respiratory mucosa
nasal septum divides the 2 cavities
moist from mucus and blood flow
olfactory nerve endings
lacrimal sacs
collect tears and drain into nasal cavity
conchae
3 shelf-like structures
surface area to warm and humidify inhaled air

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Chapter 14 | nose
Nose
paranasal sinuses
inside frontal, maxillary, sphenoidal
and ethmoid bones
weight of skull
resonance
drain into nasal cavities
lined with mucous membrane
sinusitis
infection of the mucous membrane lining sinuses
function of nose
humidify and warm inhaled air

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Chapter 14 | pharynx
Pharynx (throat)
12.5 cm (5 inches) long
three portions
nasopharynx
eustachian (auditory) tubes
equalize air pressure
pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
oropharynx
palatine tonsils
laryngopharynx
leads to larynx
dual function
air passage
food passage
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Chapter 14 | larynx
Larynx (voice box)
made of cartilage
thyroid cartilage Adams apple
vocal cords
tense = high pitched voice
relaxed = low pitched voice
glottis
space between vocal cords
epiglottis
prevents food from entering trachea Video 0:44
https://www.youtube.com
/watch?v=qrAfEyane2Y

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Chapter 14 | trachea
Trachea (windpipe)
11 cm (4.5 inches) long
from larynx to bronchi
15 - 20 C-shaped rings of cartilage
function: prevent collapse of trachea
palpate: anterior throat, 1 above sternum
functions
air passageway
mucus-producing glands
cilia

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
What structures drain into the nasal cavities?
lacrimal sacs
paranasal sinuses

What are the functions of the nose?


warm and humidify inhaled air
olfaction

What is the function of the paranasal sinuses?


reduce the weight of the skull

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions

The pharynx is divided into _____ sections.


3

Name the sections of the pharynx.


nasopharynx
oropharynx
laryngopharynx

The pharynx serves as a passage way for ________ and _______.


air and food

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
The vocal cords and epiglottis are located within the _________.
larynx

The function of the epiglottis is:


prevent food from entering respiratory tract

The larynx is also known as _________.


the voice box

The trachea is also known as _________.


the windpipe

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
The thyroid cartilage is also known as
the Adams apple

Multiple C-shaped cartilage rings are located in the _______,


trachea

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Chapter 14 | bronchi, bronchioles, & alveoli
Bronchi
primary bronchi
cartilage C rings
branch off of trachea
right bronchus & left bronchus
secondary bronchi
smaller
cartilage rings
Bronchioles
tiny branches
smooth muscle walls (no cartilage)

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Chapter 14 | bronchi, bronchioles, & alveoli
Alveolar ducts (bunch of grapes)
Alveolar sacs (cluster of grapes)
Alveoli (single grape)
O2 CO2 exchange
single layer of
simple squamous epithelial cells
100 square meters

Surfactant
liquid lining inside alveoli
reduces surface tension
prevents collapse of alveoli
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Chapter 14 | bronchi, bronchioles, & alveoli
Respiratory membrane
less than 1 micron thick
alveolar
single layer of
simple squamous epithelial cells

capillary
single layer of
simple squamous epithelial cells

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Chapter 14 | bronchi, bronchioles, & alveoli
Alveoli
Capillaries
Respiratory membrane
Surfactant
Gas exchange

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Chapter 14 | lungs & pleura

Lungs
3 lobes on right
2 lobes on left
heart takes up space
apex under clavicle
rests on diaphragm

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Chapter 14 | lungs & pleura
Pleura
thin, moist, slippery membrane
parietal pleura
intrapleural space
visceral pleura

pleurisy
inflammation of pleura
membranes rub together = pain
pneumothorax
air in intrapleural space
lungs collapse due to pressure
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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
The initial branches off of the trachea are called ______?
primary bronchi (right bronchus and left bronchus)

What is the difference in the walls of the bronchi vs. bronchioles?


cartilage ring walls in bronchi
smooth muscle walls in bronchioles

The main functional unit of the lungs is:


the alveoli

What is the main function of the lungs?


gas exchange (O2 CO2)
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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
What are the walls of the alveoli made of?
single layer of simple squamous epithelium

The liquid lining of the alveoli is called:


surfactant

What is the function of surfactant?


reduce surface tension, which prevents collapse of alveoli

The single layer walls of the alveoli and capillary together are called:
respiratory membrane

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
The lungs have ____ lobes on the right and ____ on the left.
3 right, 2 left

The apex of the lungs is at the top. True/False.


true

What is the name of the inner layer of the pleura?


visceral pleura

Pleurisy means:
inflammation of intrapleural space

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Chapter 14 | respiration
Respiration | exchange of gases
between organism & environment
Pulmonary ventilation
gas exchange: environment lungs
External respiration
gas exchange: lungs blood
Internal respiration
gas exchange blood cells O2 IN
Cellular respiration CO2 OUT
use of oxygen by cells
metabolism

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Chapter 14 | respiration | mechanics of breathing
Inspiration
air into lungs

Exhalation
air out of lungs

Air moves from an area of high pressure to low pressure

Thoracic cavity changes shape and size based on air pressure in lungs

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Chapter 14 | respiration | mechanics of breathing
Inspiration
chest cavity enlarges
lungs expand
air rushes in
inspiratory muscles
diaphragm flattens
phrenic nerve
external intercostals
pressure in lungs is reduced

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Chapter 14 | respiration | mechanics of breathing
Expiration
chest cavity shrinks
lungs deflate
air rushes out
inspiratory muscle relax
passive process (no energy)
forced expiration (active process)
expiratory muscles
abdominal muscles
internal intercostals

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Chapter 14 | respiration | mechanics of breathing

Video 2:06
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aw9OJLTlClQ
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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
Are muscles necessary for expiration to occur? Why?
no
expiration is a passive process (no energy/effort needed)

When are muscles used for expiration?


forced expiration

Name the muscles used for forced expiration.


abdominals and internal intercostals

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
What are the muscles of inspiration?
diaphragm, and external intercostals

What nerve supplies the diaphragm, and thus controls inspiration?


phrenic nerve

With inspiration the pressure in the lungs is ________


compared to the external environment.
reduced

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Chapter 14 | respiration | air exchange & ventilation
Pulmonary ventilation
Tidal volume (TV) Vital capacity (VC)
normal inhale and normal exhale 500 mL largest amount of air exhaled 4800
tidal volume = ERV & IRV mL
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV) VC = TV + IRV + ERV
forcefully exhaled air Residual volume
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV) air that always remains in lungs, even
after forceful expiration
forcefully inhaled air
Spirometer
device to measure amount of air
exchanged in breathing

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Chapter 14 |
respiration |
air exchange
& ventilation

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Chapter 14 | regulation of respiration
Respiration
12-20 breaths per minute
with exercise; respiration tidal volume

Regulation of respiration
cerebral cortex
chemo-reflexes
pulmonary stretch reflexes

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Chapter 14 | regulation | cerebral cortex
Cerebral cortex regulation of respiration

medulla
inspiratory center
expiratory center

rate of respiration
autonomic control through medulla
voluntarily controlled through cerebral cortex

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Chapter 14 | regulation | reflexes of respiration
Chemo-reflexes
sense CO2 levels in blood
carotid body receptors (carotid artery)
aortic bodies receptors (aortic arch)
blood PCO2 is most powerful respiration stimulus

Pulmonary stretch reflexes


Inhale expands lungs to the point that
stretch receptors are stimulated.
Inhibitory signals sent to inspiratory center in brain
Inspiratory muscles inhibited, expiration occurs
Stretch reflexes inhibited
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Chapter 14 | regulation | reflexes of respiration

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
A normal inhale followed by a normal exhale is called:
Tidal volume (TV)

What is meant by expiratory reserve volume (ERV)?


air forcefully exhaled (amount beyond the normal exhale)

What is meant by inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)?


air forcefully inhaled (amount beyond the normal inhale)

What is the name of the device that measures respirations?


spirometer

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
How many breaths do we take on average?
12 20 per minute

What structure(s) automatically control respiration?


medulla, chemo-reflexes, stretch-reflexes

What structure(s) voluntarily control respiration?


cerebral cortex

Where are the inspiratory and expiratory centers located?


medulla

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Chapter 14| practice
Answer the following questions
What is the strongest stimulus for breathing?
Pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2) in the blood

Carbon dioxide is an alkaline (basic) substance. True/False


False CO2 is acidic

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References
AnatomyWorld (2014). Function of the epiglottis [Video]. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrAfEyane2Y

Bitterjug, (2012). Figure walking and speaking through megaphone [Image]. Retrieved from

https://openclipart.org/detail/169403/announcing

Nucleus Medical Media, (2011). Lung anatomy. Retrieved from

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aw9OJLTlClQ

PowerPoint (2010). Clipart.

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References
Patton, K. T. (2013). Anatomy and physiology (8th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier Mosby.

Smiley faces [Image]. (n.d.). Creative commons. Retrieved from images.google.com.

Thibodeau, G. A. & Patton, K. T. (2012). Structure and function of the body (14th ed.). St. Louis, MO:

Elsevier Mosby.

Voldyne 5000 Incentive spirometer [Image]. (n.d.) Retrieved from

http://www.medshop.com/voldyne-5000-incentive-spirometer-

64844.html?utm_source=google_shopping&185=673&gclid=CjwKEAiAmqayBRDLgsfGiMmkxT0

SJADHFUhP9bp_k4OG0gCuahgcZoX5mPs7O2XNs5BBJrr7MuaS4RoCgvDw_wcB

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