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WISC-IV VS.

RIAS: Will the


Real IQ Please
Stand Up!!
A 2-year study comparing the
two IQ instruments.
HYPOTHESIS
RESEARCHER HYPOTHESIZED
THAT THE RIAS WOULD SCORE
HIGHER GIVEN THE
ADDITIONAL PSYCHOMOTOR
PROCESSING AND WORKING
MEMORY FACTORS ON THE
WISC-IV.
PLEASE REFER TO THE GAI
DATA AND SUPPLENTAL
TABLES FOR WISC-IV UPDATES.

ADDITIONALLY, BOTH
INSTRUMENTS MEASURE
DIFFERENT CONSTRUCTS.
THEREFORE, WE ARE
MEASURING SIMILAR YET
DIFFERENT ASPECTS OF
COGNITION. SQUARE FEET VS.
CUBIC FEET THINKING.
WISC and RIAS Verbal
Comparisons
WISC RIAS
3 Subtests 2 Subtests
General fund of General fund of
knowledge knowledge
Verbal associative Verbal associative
reasoning reasoning
Vocabulary Vocabulary one-
expressive language word responses
Moral judgment,
common sense,
independent thinking
WISC and RIAS
Comparisons Performance
WISC IQ
3 Subtests RIAS
Nonverbal 2 Subtests
associative and
categorical Nonverbal
reasoning associative and
categorical
Analyze and
synthesize abstract
reasoning
visual information Deduce essential
elements missing
in pictures from
gestalt
WISC and RIAS
Comparisons Working
Memory
WISC RIAS
2 Subtests 0 Subtests
measuring attention,
concentration,
Not part of the
sequencing, and CIX
short-term auditory
memory
WISC and RIAS
Comparisons Processing
Speed
WISC RIAS
2 Subtests 0 Subtests
Graphomotor Timed nonverbal
processing speed tasks involving
involving timed cognitive efficiency
paper and pencil and speed w/o paper
tasks and pencil
Visual-motor
coordination
Concentration and
visual memory
DESIGN
Random Select Selection
Select fine Psychologists from St.
Johns County school district
randomly selected students ranging
from 6-16 years of age and
administered both the WISC-IV and
RIAS IQ instruments. All students
were referred by the CST.
Abundance of data from the 2005-
06 SY. Psychologists gave raw
data to researcher to tabulate.
DESIGN
ONLY THE AGE OF THE
STUDENTS WAS USED AS
PREDICTOR VARIABLE. AGES
RANGED FROM 6-16. MAJORITY
OF STUDENTS WERE IN THE 7
YR. OLD THROUGH 10 YR. OLD
RANGE.
RACE AND GENDER NOT
USED FOR COMPARISONS
GIVEN LIMITED NUMBER

Only less than a handful of minority


African American and Hispanics
tested.
Gender not a major contributing
factor on how data is to be used.
Pearson Correlation
Coefficient
The Full Scale IQs and the Factor
Scores will be compared to check
for correlation coefficients.
WESSA.NET was used as the
software program to calculate
Pearson Product Moment
Correlation Coefficients.
TOTAL N = 121
BREAKDOWN BY AGE
N = Number
6 YEAR OLDS 09
7 YEAR OLDS 18
8 YEAR OLDS 33
9 YEAR OLDS 32
10 YEAR OLDS 18
11 YEAR OLDS 02
12 YEAR OLDS 02
13 16 YEAR OLDS 07
___________________________________

TOTAL SAMPLE N = 121


Age 6 (9 students)
131
130

124 126
129
128
127
126
125
124
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111
110
110
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
103
102
101 97 97
100
99
98
97 94
96
95
94
93
88 89 90
86
Standard score

92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40

VIQ PIQ WM PS FSIQ FSIQ Low FSIQ High

WISC 97 94 88 89 90 73 124

RIAS 97 110 103 86 126


Mean Factor Scores
Age 7 (18 students)
139
138
137
136
135
135
134
133
132
131
130
129
128
127
126
125
124
123
122
121
121
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111
110
105
104 106 106
109
108
107
106
Standard score

105
104
103
102
101
100
99 97 99
99
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60

VIQ PIQ WM PS FSIQ FSIQ Low FSIQ High

WISC 99 106 92 97 99 71 121

RIAS 104 106 105 85 135


Mean Factor Scores
Age 8 (33 students)

127 129
133
132
131
130
129
128
127
126
125
124
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
115

107
114
113

105
112
111

103
110
109
108
107
106
105
104
103
99
Standard score

102
101
100
99
98
96 94
97
96
95
94
93
92 91 89
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60

VIQ PIQ WM PS FSIQ FSIQ Low FSIQ High

WISC 99 96 92 91 94 75 127

RIAS 103 107 105 89 129


Mean Factor Scores
Age 9 (32 students)
128 128
132
131
130
129
128
127
126
125
124
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111

103
110

102
109

101 101
108
107
106
105

99
104
103
102
Standard score

101
100
99
98
97 94 96
96
95
94
93
92
91
91
90
89
88
87

79
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60

VIQ PIQ WM PS FSIQ FSIQ Low FSIQ High

WISC 99 101 91 94 96 71 128

RIAS 101 103 102 79 128


Mean Factor Scores
Age 10 (18 students)
119
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111

102
110
109
108
107
106
102
97
105
104
103
102
101

92 93
100
99
98
97

90 90
96
95
94

87
93
92
91
90
89
88
84
Standard score

87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52

45
51
50
49

40
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40

VIQ PIQ WM PS FSIQ FSIQ Low FSIQ High

WISC 90 93 90 84 87 45 102

RIAS 92 102 97 40 119


Mean Factor Scores
Ages 11 thru 16 (11 students)
128
127
126
125
124
124
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
105
104
104
103
102
101

93
100
Standard score

99

92 91
98
97
96
95
94
93
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84 82
84
83
82
81
80
80
79
78
77
76 76
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69

63 61
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60

VIQ PIQ WM PS FSIQ FSIQ Low FSIQ High

WISC 84 80 76 82 76 63 104

RIAS 92 93 91 61 124
Mean Factor Scores
All Ages 6-16 (121 students)
135
139
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
131
130
129
128
128
127
126
125
124
123
122
121
120
119
118
117
116
115
114
113

104
112
111
110
109
108
107
106
102
100
Standard score

105
104
103
102
101
100
99
98
96 96
97
96
95
94
93 90 91 92
92
91
90
89
88
87
86
85
84
83
82
81
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60

VIQ PIQ WM PS FSIQ FSIQ Low FSIQ High

WISC 96 96 90 91 92 45 128

RIAS 100 104 102 40 135


Mean Factor Scores
Correlations Between the
RIAS Index Scores and the
WISC-III IQ Scores
Reynolds Manual pg. 105.
WISC-III IQ
Verbal IQ Performance Working Processing FSIQ
IQ Memory Speed

RIAS Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean


Index IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ
108.2 104.6 ------ ------ 107.8

VIX 102.1 .86 ---- ---- ---- ----

NIX 101.0 ---- .33 ---- ---- ----

CIX 100.3 ---- ---- ---- ---- .76


Pearson Correlations Between the
RIAS Index Scores and the WISC-IV
Factor Scores Ages 6 16 (N = 121)

WISC-IV IQ
Verbal Perceptual Working Processing FSIQ
Comprehension Organization Memory Speed

RIAS Mean IQ Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean


Index IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ

96.2 95.8 89.7 90.7 92.2

VIX 99.9 .83 ---- ---- ---- ----

NIX 104.1 ---- .54 ---- ---- ----

CIX 101.6 ---- ---- .62 .45 .79


Pearson Correlations Between the
RIAS Index Scores and the WISC-IV
Factor Scores Primary Grade
Ages 7 9 (N = 83)
WISC-IV IQ
Verbal Perceptual Working Processing FSIQ
Comprehension Organization Memory Speed

RIAS Mean IQ Mean Mean Mean Mean Mean


Index IQ IQ IQ IQ IQ
99.0 100.0 91.7 93.4 95.6

VIX 102.5 .83 ---- ---- ---- ----

NIX 105.4 ---- .42 ---- ---- ----

CIX 103.7 ---- ---- .58 .36 .75


Limitations of Study
The sample was taken from students
already referred for assessment.
Approximately 90% were referred for
Special Needs/reevals and 10% for
Gifted evaluation.
Majority of sample from 7-10 year old
range. Older MS/HS population not
adequately represented in sample.
Majority of sample Caucasian and from
Middle Class SES. Minorities and/or
Low SES not adequately represented.
CONCLUSIONS
RIAS tends to score approximately
10 points higher than the WISC-IV
on global cognitive ability measure.
Strongest correlations between
RIAS VIX and WISC-IV VC of .83
followed by RIAS CIX and WISC-IV
FSIQ of .79 correlation.
Weakest link between RIAS CIX
and WISC-IV PS of .45 correlation.
IMPLICATIONS
The range of scores among all age groups
tends to favor the RIAS in regards to
scoring higher on both ends of the
distribution. This may influence ESE
placement decisions.
Working Memory and Processing Speed
tends to depress the WISC FSIQ by
approximately 4 points. This may
influence ESE placement decisions.
Even though RIAS scores higher on all
measures and through all age groups,
both instruments correlate fairly well with a
high degree of confidence when
comparing global IQ scores. This indicates
fairly good reliability and validity.
FUTURE
RECOMMENDATIONS
Assess minority populations and
compare results with current data.
Assess Low SES w/o regard for race
and compare with current data.
Assess middle and high school
students to a larger extent.
Assess pre-K students with WPPSI-
III and RIAS and compare data.
Excerpt from Dr. Cecil
Reynolds e-mail ..
It is clear the difference is really in the nonverbal
sections of the tests, just as we have argued for
some time. The WISC-IV in my view confounds
nonverbal intelligence with a host of tangentially
related factors (speed confounded with motor for
example, and the differential acquiescence of kids
.. to work as quickly as they can, etc.), especially
for referral samples wherein you also see a far
higher incidence of mild motor issues. I think the
RIAS gives a more accurate view of NV intelligence
for these kids and that seems to be your conclusion
as wellwe do not see this difference in
nonreferred samplesrandom samples of normal
kids score at about the same level on both.
Cecil R. Reynolds, PhD
Professor of Educational Psychology
Professor of Neuroscience