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RATE OF MASS TRANSFER

PARTS OF FREEZE DRYING


When heat reaches the sublimation front, it raises the temperature and the water vapour
pressure of the ice. Vapour then moves through the dried food to a region of low vapour pressure in
the drying chamber. 1 g of ice forms 2 m3of vapour at 67 Pa and, in commercial freeze drying, it is
therefore necessary to remove several hundred cubic metres of vapour per second through the pores
in the dry food.
Water vapour pressure gradient factor control Collapse temperatures for selected foods in freeze
drying
Drying chamber pressure
Vapour condenser temperature
(should be < as possible)
Ice at the sublimation front temperature
(should be > as possible)

What happen to foods above critical collapse


temp?
Irreversible collapse of food structure
Drying operation will end

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RATE OF MASS TRANSFER (2)
PARTS OF FREEZE DRYING
During drying, the moisture content falls from the initial
high level in the frozen zone to a lower level in the dried
layer, which depends on the water vapour pressure in
the cabinet.
kd x 2 M1 M2 s
P = P + (s i ) td =
b 8k d (s i )

Through layer NOTE


From through dry layer
Pi : partial pressure of water at s : surface temperature (oC)
sublimation front (Pa) i : temperature at sublimation
Ps : partial pressure of water at front
surface (Pa) (oC)
Kd: thermal conductivity of dry td : drying time (s)
layer (Wm-1K-1) x : thickness of food (min)
b : permeability of dry layer (kgs- : density (kg m-3)
1m-1) M1: initial moisture content
s : latent heat of sublimation (J M2: final moisture content in dry
Graph shows changes through
kg-1) layer
Generated by
each sample

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EQUIPMENT
Contact (or conduction) freeze driers

Vacuum chamber: contains trays to hold food Food is placed onto ribbed trays which rest on heater
during drying plates.
Heaters: supply latent heat of sublimation Differences
Uneven contact
Refrigeration coils: condense vapours directly More slow than
(reduce
between drying
to ice others rates top and
heat transfer)
bottom layers
Defrosting devices: keep coils free of ice area
maximum for vapour condensation
Fine particles of
Vacuum pumps: remove non condensable Vapour velocity: 3 product may be Higher capacity
vapours m s-1 carried over in than others
Condensor efficiency =
Microprocessors: to monitor and control vapour and lost


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