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FOSFOR

Many tropical soils are depleted of P

without phosphate, even weeds barely grow

Courtesy Potash and Phosphate Institute


P Tanah
P tanah berasal dari batuan dan mineral
:Batuan Fosfat Alam (BFA), Feldspar; Mineral
vivianiteFe3(PO4)2.8H2O, strengite FePO4.H2O
Variscite AlPO4.2H2O
Bentuknya : organik & anorganik,
Larut dan tidak larut
Sifatnya : sangat reaktif dan dapat berikatan dengan Fe, Al
dan Mn pada tanah masam

Merupakan unsur pembatas pada beberapa


tanah yg tidak dipupuk dan tanah masam
Total P dlm tanah 0.03 to 0.3 % P, dan
tidak berhubungan dengan P tersedia
utk tanaman serta kebanyakan P tidak
tersedia utk tanaman.
P yg di tambahkan dpt diikat oleh Fe, Al
dan Ca menjadi Fe,Al, Ca fosfat. (tdk
tersedia untuk tanaman ).

Dlm tanaman 0,2 0,4% dr brt kering


P Tanah
P tanah berasal dari batuan dan mineral
:Batuan Fosfat Alam (BFA), Feldspar; Mineral
vivianiteFe3(PO4)2.8H2O, strengite FePO4.H2O
Variscite AlPO4.2H2O
Bentuknya : organik & anorganik,
Larut dan tidak larut
Sifatnya : sangat reaktif dan dapat berikatan dengan Fe, Al
dan Mn pada tanah masam

Merupakan unsur pembatas pada beberapa


tanah yg tidak dipupuk dan tanah masam
Bentuk P tanah

Organik
berbagai bentuk P berasosiasi dg humus.
Anorganik - mineral P,
P terikat/teradsorpsi
P dalam larutan (bentuknya ion)
The Phosphorus Cycle

Plant uptake
Mineralization
Solid Inorganic Dissolved Organic P
P compounds Inorganic P
Microbial
immobilization

Adsorbed P
P Organik
Mineralisasi-Immobiliasi P
Organik P Inorganik P

Immobilization and Mineralization of soil P sama


dengan N
If added organic materials have a C:P ratio of
>300, akan tjd immobilisasi P
if <200 there will be net mineralization of P
P anorganik yg dlm bentuk ion ortofosfat primer dan
sekunder (HPO4-, H2PO42-) dapat diserap tanaman.
Slide 10.13
Cycling: A slow release mechanism
Organic-P

immobilization

mineralization
(available P)
HxPO4x-3

Solid Phase-PO4
(unavailable)
Bentuk Mineral dr P
In neutral to alkaline soils, most mineral
P will be as Ca-phosphates.
Kebanyakan tdk larut.
In acid soils, most mineral P will be as
Fe and Al-phosphates. Cukup larut.
Ketersediaan P utk tanaman rendah
sebab sebagian besar P mineral tidak
larut
Slide 10.7
Inorganic P Compounds
(precipitates/mengendap)

Acid soils
8 Fe and Al phosphates
FePO4l2H2O, AlPO4l2H2O

Alkaline soils
4 Ca and Mg phosphates
Hubungan pH dg ikatan P

P- H
Retention
M Al, Fe Ca phosphates
phosphates
L

3 5 7 9
Soil pH
Phosphorus availability and pH

Brady and Weil, Figure 13.10


P Teradosrpsi/terikat
Phosphate ions (HPO4-, H2PO42-) are terikat
kuat pada permukaan dr:
Besi oxides, terutama utk tanah masam
CaCO3, terutamapada tanah alkaline /basa
Ikatan terkecil pada pH netral (6-7)
Reaksi pengikatan ini juga menyebabkan
ketersediaan P dalam tanah
rendah/terbatas/ limited.
P Availability/Ketersediaan P
Governed by:/dikendalikan oleh
Mineralization-Immobilization of humus P
But primarily by/utamanya oleh
Adsorption-desorption reactions of ionic P
with Al and Fe oxides or CaCO3 .
(Rekasi pengikatan pelepasan P dg Al, Fe
oksida atau CaCO3
Solubility of various P minerals - Fe and Al
phosphates in acid soils, and Ca phosphates
in alkaline soils (Kelarutan mineral P)
Hubungan ketersediaan P dengan
hasil tanaman
100
90

% Relative
Yield

00

0 0.05
Soil Solution P (ppm P)
Fungsi P dlm tanaman
Komponen Asam amino,Protein, DNA dan
RNA.
Reaksi transfer Energi (ATP).
Membrans sel (fosfolipid)
Gejala kekurangan P
Deficiency symptoms:
stunted plants/tanaman kerdil
dark green color/warna hijau gelap
purple spots on leaves/ warna keunguan pada
daun.
HUBUNGAN P dengan pH tanah

P- H
Retention
M Al, Fe Ca phosphates
phosphates
L

3 5 7 9
Soil pH
Nutrient Mobility in Soil
Soil volume exploited Soil volume exploited
for mobile nutrients: for immobile nutrients:
N, S, Cl Most others
Apply
immobile
nutrients here
(close to
roots)

Because P is immobile, we cannot rely


on movement of irrigation water to transport P.
Crop absorption of soil-P.

Absorption is from
just a thin cylinder of
soil around each
root.
CaHPO4 + H2O <== = (dissolves slowly) Ca2+ + HPO42-
Plant uptake of broadcast,
incorporated P Fertilizer.

P
Fertilizer

Only 10 to 15 % of incorporated P fertilizer is absorbed by crop.


85 to 90 % of P fertilizer reacts with soil to build up soil test.
Plant uptake of banded P Fertilizer.

Banded P-fertilizer
Expanded sorption
zone

Most of fertilizer P is used by crop and there is little soil test build-up.
Normal (left) and phosphorus-deficient (right) corn plants.
Note stunting and purple color
Phosphorus Deficiency
Corn Tomato
Phosphorus Sources
Inorganic P Sources
Rock Phosphate
Bone Meal
P fertilizer
Organic-based P sources
Green Manures - ?
Manures
Composts
Composted Manures
Composted Plant Biomass
Phosphorus Fertilizers
Manufactured from mined apatite minerals
Apatite is treated with H2SO4 or H3PO4 to form
various inorganic P fertilizers:

superphosphate (0-20-0)
solid
triple superphosphate (0-45-0) solid
mono ammonium phosphate (11-52-0) solid
di ammonium phosphate (18-46-0) solid
ammonium polyphosphate (10-34-0) liquid
Phosphoric Acid (0-52-0) liquid
Organic: manures contain 0.5 to 2.0% P

P analysis in commercial fertilizers is


expressed as %P2O5
Common phosphate fertilizers with
ammonium
Monoammonium phosphate (MAP)
NH4H2PO4
pH of 0.1M solution is 4.0
H2PO4- HPO42- + H+
Diammonium phosphate (DAP)
(NH4)2HPO4
pH of 0.1M solution is 7.8
HPO42- H2PO4- + OH-
Ammonium polyphosphate (APP)
pH 6.0 6.5
Hydrolysis reaction

Photos courtesy of Agrium

Sauchelli, 1965
BFA Pupuk P
BFA

H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4 H2SO4


HCl

H3PO4 H3PO4 NH3 NH3


Normal Asam
Super Super
Fosfat TSP Fosfat Fosfat
NH3 Amonium NH3
nitrat
0-20-0 0-46-0 Fosfat
11-55-0
Superfosfat NH3
18-46-0
beramonia
8-16-0
Amonium
SP 36 Fosfat
Amonium
0-36-0 Polifosfat 11-55-0
18-46-0
Methods of P fertilization
Most common application of P fertilizers: Broadcast
fertilizer over the soil surface and then incorporate it
with a tillage operation.

Alternative: Band with the seed, or two inches below


and to the side of the seed at planting.

Broadcast-incorporation is less time consuming and


is popular when large acreages must be fertilized and
planted in a short period of time, or labor is scarce.
Methods of nutrient placement
Broadcasting
Broadcast TSP followed
by listing (making beds)

Maricopa, AZ
Preplant Applications
Broadcast
Uniform distribution
of dry or liquid
materials over the
soil surface
Can be
mechanically
incorporated
Can be
incorporated by
rain or irrigation Liquid manure from hog feeding being pumped onto farmland in
Iowa, USDA-NRCS
Band Application

Surface band near Side-dressing lettuce with


transplanted liquid N fertilizer, Yuma
broccoli, sprinkler-irrigated
Oregon
Fertigation
Nutrient Considerations
Phosphorus
Banding minimizes soil:fertilizer contact
Minimizes reversion
Banding is generally more efficient in soils
with lower amounts of available P
At higher levels of available P banding and
broadcasting result in similar efficiencies
Apply just before or at planting
Less time for reversion to occur
Model Response Curve

Maximum
Crop Response

Profit

Maximum
Yield

Amount of Input