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AC MOTORS-PRACTICE

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Parts of Motor

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Name Plate Details

Ingress Protection KW/HP


Duty Voltage
Type of Enclosure Frequency
Connection Full load Current
Makers Name/Type Frame Size
S.No. RPM
Bearings Class of insulation

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Frame size
Say, the frame size is given as D112 S4
D denotes Manufacturers Code ( CG)
112 is the height of shaft centre from base in mm.
Suffix S denotes a Short rotor. (M and L will
denote Medium and Long rotors.)
Suffix 4 denotes no. of poles for which the motor is
wound. Also conveys that the sync speed of this
motor, when connected to 50Hz is 1500 RPM.

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Class of Insulation
Class A Max.Temp 105C
Class E Do 120C
Class B Do 130C
Class H Do 155C
Class F Do 180C
Class C Do >180C

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Enclosures
Drip Proof
Splash Proof
Totally Enclosed - TE
Totally Enclosed Fan Cooled - TEFC
Totally Enclosed Pipe Ventilated - TEV

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Ingress Protection
Mating surfaces of end shields,bearing caps and
terminal boxes are suitably constructed to prevent
entry of dust and moisture.
Degree of ingress protection is classified as IP 40,
IP 50 etc. The first digit is for dust and the second is
for moisture classification.
An example - IP 54 is dust & waterproof
IP 55 is dust & Hose proof
IP56 is dust & splash proof
Motors in weather deck are of IP 56 type

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General Failures of motors
Insulation Breakdown, causing burn-outs, due to
a. Over voltage
b. Over current
c. Over temperature
d. Loss of ventilation
e. Absorption of moisture/contaminants
Single Phasing Open or short-ckt.of one phase winding
Failure of mechanical components viz.
a. Worn out Bearings
b. Cracked Endshields
c. Loose Bed bolts
d. Unbalanced components (Rotor, Fan)

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Causes of failures
Environmental Stress
Electrical Stress
Mechanical Stress
Thermal Stress usually caused by one of, or
combination of the stresses above

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Environmental Stress
Pollution Dust/Dirt accumulation in T.B.s
Corrosion of hardware used for connections
High Humidity Results in moisture
accumulation in T.B.s
High ambient Temperature causes
accelerated ageing of insulation
Climate Rain/Water washing

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Electrical Stress
Overvoltage Switching/Lightning surges
Overcurrent Motors running above rated
load and due to undervoltage conditions
High Contact resistance improper cable
terminations
Single Phasing
Tracking in T.B.s

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Overload Protection

POWER SUPPLY MODERN OVERLOAD RELAYS PROTECT TH E MOTOR


AGAINST 'OVERLOADING' AND 'SINGLE-PH ASING'
R Y B
O/L RELAY IS TH E FIRST ONE TO ACT IN TH E
CONTROL EVENT OF A FAULT AND PROVIDES TH E PRIMARY
VOLTAGE PROTECTION FOR TH E MOTOR
FUSES Q1
BACK-UP PROTECTION TH REE BI-METAL ELEMENTS, EACH CARRYING TH E
LINE CURRENT, H EAT UP AND WH EN TH E LINE
CURRENT EXCEEDS TH E RATED FULL LOAD CURRENT,
CONTACTOR CONTACTOR BEND AND OPEN A CONTACT IN TH E CIRCUIT OF
C1 COIL TH E CONTACTOR COIL TH EREBY DISCONNECTING
TH E MOTOR FROM TH E POWER SUPPLY.

O/L RELAY IN CASE TH E 0/L RELAY FAILS TO OPERATE IN TH E


WITH SINGLE PH ASING O/L CONTACT EVENT OF OVERLOAD (OR) IF A SH ORT-CIRCUIT,
(DIFFERENTIAL PROTECTION) F1
OR A LOCKED ROTOR CONDITION TAKES PLACE,
PRIMARY PROTECTION TH E MAIN FUSE(S) BLOW AND SAFEGUARD TH E
U1 V1 W1 MOTOR AGAINST EXCESSIVE CURRENT. FUSES,
TH EREFORE, PROVIDE TH E BACK-UP PROTECTION.

M FUSES MAY BE REPLACED BY CIRCUIT BREAKERS WITH


SH OR T CIRCUIT PROTECTION.
~

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Single-Phasing

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Motor Protections
Overload protection
Single Phase protection
Locked rotor or Overcurrent protection
Ground Fault protection
Winding Temp protection
Differential protection
Under Voltage Protection
Over voltage protection
Degree of Protection provided depends on
Size, Cost and importance of application

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Mechanical Stress
Vibration Loose bed bolts, unbalanced
components (rotor, fans)
Loose contacts/overtightening
Broken/Cracked insulators,terminal bars,studs
etc.
Improper end terminations
Straining of cables due to cramped
housing/glanding
Defective Bearings
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Bearings used in Motors
Sleeve Bearings - For Large Motors
Ball Bearings normally for Drive end
Roller Bearings normally for Non Drive end
Angular Contact Bearings for Vertical Motors

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Effect of Bearing wear
Motors have small and equal air gaps
between stator and rotor.
Excessive bearing wear will cause the rotor to
rub against the stator, resulting in damage to
the magnetic core and windings.
Excessive bearing wear causes unequal
magnetic attraction of the rotor, thus creating
additional load on the bearings, heating of the
bearings and set up vibrations of the motor.

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Seizure of Bearings
Can occur if the motor shaft is heated.
As it heats, the shaft becomes larger and the bearing has to
shift in the end shield by the same amount.
In ball bearings with close axial clearance, if the outer race of
the bearings fits too tightly in the endshield housing, the balls
will be jammed between the races as the shaft becomes
heated.
As a result, the bearings become stiff and may even stop
rotating.
This fault is eliminated by relieving the fit of the bearing race
in the endshield bearing housing.

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Lubrication of Bearings
Oil is used for lubrication of Sleeve Bearings
Grease, recommended by manufacturer, is used for
lubricating Ball and Roller Bearings.
Over-greasing is as harmful as lack of grease.
Excessive friction taking place between the grease (in
fully packed bearing housing) and rotating parts of
the bearing, heats the bearing and causes the grease
to become thin and to leak from the housing.
Pack grease only to half the bearing housing, just
sufficient for lubrication.

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Bearing Inspection & Renewal
Before opening up a bearing, the space around the motor to
be clean & dry.
Remove endshields taking care not to damage the winding
overhangs.
Use bearing pullers of the correct size.
Clean bearings ( if to be reused) in a solvent and dry them
using clean and dry compressed air.
Lightly lubricate taking care not to overfill.
Ensure shaft is clean and apply a light coat of grease.
Tap the bearing in place applying light, uniform force on the
inner race of the bearing as close as possible.
While replacing, use bearing of correct size and clearance.

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Routine Inspection
General Cleanliness
Clogging of fins, blocking of ventilation
Feel (By touch) for any unusual temp of
Bearings, rotor or stator
Listen for any unusual sound from bearings or
vibrations due to loose bed-bolts.
Look for any unusual variations in the motor
current (where local ammeters are provided)
and for Condition of earthing leads.

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Routine Testing of Motors
Insulation resistance
Winding resistance
No load current
Protective devices

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IR/Continuity/Resistance Checks

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Replacement of motors
Important Points to be considered
a. Frame Size
b. RPM
c. Winding
d. Ingress protection
e. Class of Insulation
f. Duty
g. HP

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Rewinding of Motors
Datas to be gathered from the old coil or original data sheets
Gauge of the wire used
Pitch of the coil
Number of turns
Details of end connections
Insulation used
Method of execution
Prepare former for the coil
Wind coil(s). use the correct type of insulation and shape them to fit into
the slots
Embed the coils in the slots
Wedge the coils tightly in their slots.
Prepare the end connections
Bring out the lead wires to the terminal block

Tests to be carried out after rewinding


Insulation Resistance
Winding resistance
High Voltage Withstand Test
(By applying 2KV for one minute)

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