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Submitted By:

Ramashish Kumar
Roll No: 14106092
Branch ICE
Automation Switches
Types of Automation Relays
Industrial Automation Our PLC
Advantages of Industrial Programming Languages in
Automation PLC
Tools of Automation Ladder Logic Programming
Programmable Logic Ladder Logic symbols
Controller Timer
Advantages of PLC Latching
Leading Companies of Conclusion
PLC References
Components of PLC
Addressing of different
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Automation is basically the delegation of human
control functions to technical equipment aimed
towards achieving:
Higher productivity.
Superior quality of end product.
Efficient usage of energy and raw materials.
Improved safety in working conditions etc..

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Building automation
Example: lifts, smoke detectors
Office automation
Example: printers, cctv cameras
Scientific automation
Example: rocket launching
Light automation
Example: street solar lightening
Industrial automation
Example: automated bottle filling stations , steel
factories etc
It is used to control the system with the
application of computer, robots and
information technology.

Plant Control System


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Reduction in production Time
Increase accuracy
Less Human error
Improve product quality
To raise the level of safety
To provide optimum cost of operation
Higher volume production
Perform repeated task more efficiently
Speed in production
ANN: Artificial Natural Network
DCS: Distributed Control System
HMI : Human Machine Interface
PLC: Programmable Logic Controller
SCADA: Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

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A PLC is a digital computer used for automation of
typically industrial electromechanical process.

The automation of many different processes, such as

controlling machines or factory assembly lines, is done
through the use of small computers called a
programmable logic controllers (PLCs).
Smaller physical size
Easier and faster to make changes

Reliable due to absence of moving port

Low power consumption

Capable of handling very complicated logical

Counter, timer and comparator can be
American European Japanese

Allen Bradley Siemens Mitsubishi

Gould Medicon Klockner & Omron
Texas Moeller Fanul
Instrument Festu Toshiba
General Telemecanique

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Processor T
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Input Module

Limit Switches
Motor Starter
Toggle switches
Solenoid Valve
Push button
Indicator Lights
Central Processing Unit
CPU or Microprocessor is the brain of PLC

Consists of microprocessor, memory and

integrated circuit to store and retrieve the
Communication Ports

Peripherals Devices

One controller can control more than one

processes at a time
Processors are linked together
RAM or Random Access memory is a volatile
memory that would lose its information if
power were removed. This is why some
processors units incorporate battery backup.
RAM normally used is CMOS.
CMOS( Complementary Metal Oxide
CMOS RAM is used for storage of user
program (ladder logic program) and storage
Read Only Memory
Nonvolatile type of memory
Dont need power source to keep information
Information can be read but cannot be changed
It is used for internal use and operation of the
processor unit.
Electrically Erasable Programmable Read
Only Memory
Used to back up the main program in CMOS
RAM of the processor
In many cases the processor can be
programmed to load EEPOMs program to
RAM if RAM is lost or corrupted.
PLC Allen Mitsubishi Siemens
Input I X I

Output O Y Q

Relays B M M

Timers T T T

Counters C C C

Registers B,D,F,N D D,M

A switch is a device which is used to open or close an
electrical circuit in an convenient way.

Classification of Switches:

Latch Switch: The latch switch holds its state whether

on or off until the new command initiated.
Momentary Switch: Hold the state only when the
specific command is presents.
Push Button
This button is used in many electronic circuit and
can handle small of current.
Switch makes contact when the button is pressed
and breaks when the button is released.

Momentary Push Button

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Toggle Switch
A toggle switch is a class of electrical switches
that are manually actuated by a mechanical
lever, handle, or rocking mechanism.
Most of all household applactions have toggle

SCI TA105A1 Mini Toggle


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Limit Switch
A limit switch is an electromechanical device
that consists of an actuator mechanically linked
to a set of contacts. When an object comes into
contact with the actuator, the device operates
the contacts to make or break an electrical

Limit Switch

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Relays are switches that open and close circuits
electromechanically or electronically
Relays control one electrical circuit by opening
and closing contacts in another circuit. As relay

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FBS- 20MAR2-AC(D24)
12 input pints
8 output points( relay and
86 control functions
20 K programmable space
20K Data Space
1 Built in RS-232 , USB Port
Power Supply : 100-240 V
AC & 24V DC
Software: WinProladder

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Ladder Logic
Structural Text
Instruction List
Sequential Function Chart
Functional Block Diagram

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Ladder logic is a programming language used
to develop software for PLC used in industrial
control applications.



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Normally open contact(NO)
Normally closed contact(NC)
Relay Coil (Output)
Negative Output

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It is a 16 bit device.
Fatek Fs Series has 256 timers that can be
represented by T0- T255.
T0-T49: .01s timer
T50-T199 : 0.1s timer
T200- T255 : 1 s timer
Timer time = Time Base x Present Value

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There are often situation where it is necessary
to hold an output energized , even when input
A simple example is motor which started by a
push button.
Though switch contacts do not remain closed,
the motor is required to continue running until
a stop button is pressed.
The latch circuit is used for the circuit used to
carryX0out such
X1 an operation.

Latched Circuit
Y0 14106092 28
Light Control
Motor Start and Stop
Logic gates implementation
Half Adder , Full Adder
Half Subtractor, Full Subtractor
Timer Light Control
Motor related problem
Water level Control

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The PLC have in recent years experienced an
unprecedented growth as universal element in
industrial automation.

It can be effectively used in applications ranging

from simple control like replacing a small number
of relays to complex automation problems.

Today the PLCs are used for control & automation

job in a single machine & it increases up to full
automation of manufacturing / testing process in a

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[1]"",, 2017. [Online].
Available: [Accessed: 27- Oct-
[2]"Programmable logic controller",, 2017.
[Online]. Available:
oller. [Accessed: 27- Oct- 2017].
[3]"Switch",, 2017. [Online]. Available: [Accessed: 27- Oct-
[4]Principles of power system. .

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