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Prepared by: Kye Esdrelon

-are elevators which are powered by a piston that travels inside a
cylinder. An electric motor pumps hydraulic oil into the cylinder to
move the piston. The piston smoothly lifts the elevator cab. The
absence of cables, drums, m-g sets, elaborate controllers and safety
devices, and penthouse equipment make this system inherently
inexpensive and often the indicated choice for low speed (up to 200
fpm), low rise (up to 75 ft).
This system operates very much the same way as a hydraulic automobile jack. Oil from a reservoir is pumped
under the plunger thereby raising it and the car. The pumped is stopped during downward motion, the car
being lowered by gravity and controlled by the action of bypass values, which also control the positioning of the
car during upward motion.
-Although recognition of the special needs of the
handicapped has only of late been made official
through legislation, and only for public buildings, the
elevator industry has been providing for the
handicapped for years, on a private basis.

Typical layout for a single seat, folding chair lift.

The seat is rigidly attached to a rolling truck
mounted inside an enclosed steel track. The track is
pulled by a steel cable operated from a winding
drum in the power unit at the top of the stairs.
A wheelchair lift installed relatively
unobtrusively on a stair. The platform
forms of bottom, step, leaving the stair
open for normal use.
The operating mechanism is similar to that of the chair lift in. The
cab is rigidly attached to a rolling truck that is lifted by a winding
drum. The track, within which the truck rolls, 1s readily seen here,
although in an enclosed installation it is concealed. The power unit
and drum can be located at the top, bottom, or center of the
installation. Limit switches prevent overrun. Control is manual or
automatic as selected.
The prime consideration is the most economical solution to the problem of vertically transporting a
given tonnage of freight efficiently, economically and quickly. If much freight is to be handed, a
straight freight car is used. Factors to be considered in freight elevator selection, in addition to
tonnage movement per hour, are size of load, type of doors, and speed and capacity of cars. These
factors are interrelated to that the actual process of selection involves making assumptions on the
basis of recommendation and then by trial, deciding on a solution, very much as was done for
passenger elevators.
Freight Car Capacity
There are three load classifications for freight elevators as established by the ANSI Code for Elevators.

Class "A" General Freight Loading, by hand truck. Single items may not exceed 2~of the car-rated load.
Rated load, is based on 50 pounds per square foot (psf) of net inside platform area.
Class "B" Motor Vehicle Loading. Car will carry automobiles or automobile trucks. Rating is based on a
load of 30 psf of platform area.
Class "C" lndustrial truck loading. Maximum loading, 15% of rated capacity, based on a figure of 50 pasf
of net inside platform area.
The need to transport materials within a building has always existed and until
approximately a decade ago was done largely manually, with mechanical
assistance. Thus Offices used messengers; hospitals used dumbwaiters, service
elevators, conveyors, and chutes. The single exception to this situation was the
extensive use of pneumatic tube systems in large stores.

1. Elevator-type systems
2. Pneumatic Systems
3. Conveyor-Type Systems
Elevator-type systems
These are vertical lift car type systems including the common dumbwaiter and ejection lifts,
which are basically automated dumbwaiters.
These include sophisticated pneumatic tube systems
and pneumatic trash and linen systems.
These include horizontal and
vertical conveyors.
The use of dumbwaiters in various types of structures often provides the most convenient
and economical means of transporting relatively small articles between levels. In
department stores such units transport merchandise from stock areas to selling or pick up
countries; in hospitals dumbwaiters are often utilized for transporting food, drugs, linens
and other necessary small items. In multilevel restaurants, office dining rooms, and the
like, dumb-waiters are almost always used for delivery of food from the kitchen and for
return of soiled dishes.
Dumbwaiter cars are limited to a platform
area of 9 sq. ft. ( .81 sq. ml a maximum
height of 4 ft. (1 .20 m). The car may be,
and frequently is, compartment by shelves.
Normal speed ratings are 45 fpm to 150
fpm, with a capacity of up to 500 lb
(226. 75 kg.)