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BLOOD

GROUP 4- Gueez, Hwang, Jacela, Labrador, Lam, Legaspi


FUNCTIONS OF THE
BLOOD
Transport of gases, nutrients, and waste
products
Transport of processed molecules
Transport or regulatory molecules
Regulation of pH and osmosis
Maintenance of body temperature
Protection against foreign substances
Clot formation
PLASMA

Is a pale yellow fluid that consist of about 91%


water,7% proteins, and 2% other components,
such as ions nutrients, gases, waste products,
and regulatory substances.

Plasma proteins include albumin, globulins, and


fibrinogen.
ALBUMIN

It makes up 58% of the plasma proteins

The water balance between the blood and the


tissues is determined by the movement of water
into and out of the blood by osmosis.
GLOBULINS

account for 38% of the plasma proteins.

globulin: transport lipids and fat soluble


vitamins

globulin:transport lipids and fat soluble vitamins

globulin:antibodies that function in immunity


FIBRINOGEN

IT Is a clotting factor that constitutes 4% of


plasma proteins.

Activation of clotting factors result in the


conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.

Fibrin is a threadlike protein that forms blood


clots.

Serum is plasma without clotting factors.


FORMED ELEMENTS

About 95% of the volume of the formed


elements consists of red blood cells
(erythrocytes).

The remaining 5% of the volume of the formed


elements consists of white blood cells
(leukocytes) and cell fragments called platelets
(thrombocytes).

Red blood cells are 700 times more numerous


than white blood cells and 17 times more
numerous than platelets.
PRODUCTION OF
FORMED ELEMENTS
Hematopoiesis is the process of blood cell
production.

In the fetus, hematopoiesis occurs several


tissues, including the liver, thymus, spleen,
lymph nodes, and red bone marrow. After birth,
hematopoiesis is confined primarily to red bone
marrow, but some white blood cells are
produced in lymphatic tissues.
PRODUCTION OF
FORMED ELEMENTS
All formed elements of blood are derived from
a single population of cells called stem cells or
hemocytoblasts.
These stem cells differentiate to give rise to
different cell lines, each of which ends with the
formation of a particular type of formed
element.
The development of each cell line is regulated
by specific growth factors.
Growth factors determine the types of formed
elements derived from the stem cells and how
many formed elements are produced.
RED BLOOD CELLS
RED BLOOD CELLS

Normal red blood cells are disk-shaped, with


edges that are thicker than the center of the
cell. The biconcave shape increases the cells
surface area compared to a flat disk of the
same size.

The greater surface area makes it easier for


gases to move into and out of the red blood
cell.

One-third of a red blood cells volume is the


pigmented protein hemoglobin which is
responsible for the cells color.
FUNCTIONS OF RBC

The primary function or red blood cells are:

To transport oxygen from the lungs to the


various tissues of the body .

To help transport carbon dioxide from the


tissues to the lungs.

Oxygen transport is accomplished by


hemoglobin, which consists of 4 protein chains
and 4 heme groups.
Each protein called a globin, is bound to one
heme, a red pigmented molecule.

Each heme contains one iron atom, which is


necessary for the normal function of
hemoglobin.

Each iron in a heme molecule can reversibly


bind to an oxygen molecule.

Hemoglobin that is bound to oxygen is bright


red

hemoglobin without bound oxygen is a darker


red.
OXYGENATED VS.
DEOXYGENATED
LIFE HISTORY OF RBC
Stem cells form proerythroblasts which give rise to
red blood cell line.

Red blood cell production involves a series of


divisions. After each cell division, the new cells
change and become more like mature red blood
cells.

In later divisions, newly formed cells manufacture


large amounts of hemoglobin.

After the final cell division, the cells lose their nuclei
and become completely mature red blood cells.
The process of cell division requires the B
vitamins folate and B12 which are necessary for
the synthesis of DNA.

Iron is required for the production of


hemoglobin.
Low blood oxygen levels stimulate red blood cell
production by increasing the formation and release of
the gycoprotein erythropotein (EPO), primarily by the
kidneys.
Erythropotein stimulates red bone marrow to produce
more red blood cells.
When oxygen levels in the blood decrease, the
production of erythropotein increases, which increases
RBC production.
The greater the number of RBC increases the bloods
capacity to transport oxygen and maintain homeostasis.
If blood oxygen level rises, less erythropotein is released,
and RBC prodction decreases.
RBC PRODUCTION
When RBC become old, abnormal, or
damaged, they are removed from the blood by
macrophages located in the spleen and liver.

Within macrophage the globin part of the


hemoglobin is broken down into amino acids
that are used to produce proteins.

The iron released from heme is transported in


the blood to the red bone marrow and used to
produce new hemoglobin.
The heme moecules are converted to bilirubin,
a yellow pigent molecule which is normally
taken up by the liver and release into the small
intestine as part of the bile.

If the liver is not functioning normally, or if the


flow of bile from the liver to the small intestine is
hindered, biliburin builds up in the circulation
and produces jaundice.
JAUNDICE
WHITE BLOOD CELLS
WHITE BLOOD CELLS

White blood cells are spherical cells that lack


hemoglobin.

When the component of the blood are


separated from one another, white blood cells
as well as platelets make up the buffy coat, a
thin white layer of cells between plasma and
RBC.

WBC can leave the blood and travel by


ameboid movement through the tissues.
FUNCTIONS OF WBC

To protect body from invading microorganisms


and other pathogens

To remove dead cells and debris from the


tissues by phagocytosis.
WBC TYPES

Granulocytes contains large cytoplasmic


granules.

Agranulocytes cannot be seen easily without


the light microscope

.
KIND OF GRANULOCYTES
KIND OF GRANULOCYTES

Neutrophils are the most common type of WBC


have small cytoplasmic granules that stain with
both acidic and basic dyes.

Their nuclei are lobed, with number of lobes


varying from 2-4.

Dead neutrophils, cell debris, and fluid can


accumulate as pus at sites of infections.
KIND OF GRANULOCYTES

Basophils are the least common of all WBC. It


contain large cytoplasmic granules that stain
blue or purple with basic dyes.

They release histamine and other chemicals


that promote inflammation .

They also release heparin which prevents


formation of clots.
KIND OF GRANULOCYTES

Eosinophils contain cytoplasmic granules that


stain bright red with eosin, an acidic stain.

They often have a 2 lobed molecules.

They are involved in inflammatory responses


associated with asthma and allergies.

Chemicals from eosinophils are involved in


destroyng worm parasites.
KINDS OF
AGRANULOCYTES
KINDS OF
AGRANULOCYTES
Lymphocytes are the smallest white blood cells.

They play an important role in the bodys


immune response.

Their diverse activities involve the production of


antibodies and other chemicals that destroy
microorganisms, contribute to allergic reactions,
reject grafts, control tumors, and regulate
immune system.
KINDS OF
AGRANULOCYTES
Monocytes are the largest of the WBC.

After they leave the blood and enter tissues,


monocytes enlarge and become
macrophages.

Macrophages phagocytized foreign substances


and processed substances to lymphocytes
causing activation of lymphocytes.
PLATELETS

Platelets are minute fragments of cells, each


consisting of a small amount of cytoplasm
surrounded by a cell membrane.

They are produced in the red bone marrow


from megakaryocytes, which are large cells.

Small fragment of these cells break off and


enter the blood as platelets which play an
important role in preventing blood loss.
PREVENTING BLOOD
LOSS
Vascular spasm is an immediate but temporary
constriction of the blood vessel that results
when smooth muscle within the wall of the
vessel contracts.
PLATELET PLUG
FORMATION
A platelet plug is an accumulation of platelets
that can seal up a small break in a blood vessel.

People who lack the normal number of


platelets tend to develop numerous
hemorrhages in their skin and internal organs.
First, platelets stick to the collagen exposed by
blood vessel damage; this phenomenon is
called platelet adhesion.

Most platelet adhesion is mediated through von


Willebrand factor, a protein produced and
secreted by blood vessel endothelial cells.

It forms a bridge between collagen and


platelets by binding to platelet surface
receptors and collagen.
In the platelet release action, platelets release
chemicals, such as ADP and thromboxane,
which bind to their respective receptors on the
surface of other platelets, activating the
platelets.
As platelets become activated, they express
surface receptors called fibrinogen receptors,
which can bind to fibrinogen.
In platelet aggregation, fibrinogen forms
bridges between the fibrinogen receptors of
numerous platelets resulting a platelet plug.
BLOOD CLOTTING

Blood clotting or coagulation results in to a


formation of a clot.

Clot is a network of threadlike protein fibers,


called fibrin., that traps blood, platelets, and
fluid.
The chemical reaction can be started in 2 ways:
1. -inactive clotting factors come in contact with
exposed connective tissue, resulting in their
activation
Chemicals, such as thromboplastin, are released
from injured tissue causing activation of clotting
factors.
A series of reaction results in which each clotting
factor activates the next until clotting factor
prothrombinase or prothrombin activator, is
formed.
2. Prothrombinase converts an inactive clotting
factor called prothrombin to its active form,
thrombin.

3. Thrombin converts the plasma protein


fibrinogen to fibrin.
CLOT RETRACTION AND
FIBRINOLYSIS
After a clot has formed, it begins to condense
into a more compact structure through a
process known as clot retraction.

Clots are dissolved by the process known as


fibrinolysis.

An inactive plasma protein called plasminogen


is converted to its active form, plasmin.
Thrombin, other clotting factors activated
during clot formation, and tissue plasminogen
activator (t-PA) released from surrounding can
stimulate the conversion of plasminogen to
plasmin.

Streptokinase, a bacterial enzyme, and t-PA,


produced through genetic engineering have
been use successfully to dissolve clots.
BLOOD GROUPING

Transfusion is the transfer of blood components


from one individual to another.

Infusion is the introduction of a fluid other than


blood, such as saline or glucose into the blood.

Surfaces of RBC have molecules called antigen,


and the plasma include proteins called
antibodies.
Antibodies are very specific meeaning that
each antibody can bind only to a certain
antigen.

When the antibodies in plasma bind to the


antigens in the surface of the RBC they form
molecular bridges that connect cells together,
as a result agglunitation occurs.
ABO BLOOD GROUPING
The ABO blood group is used to categorized human
blood.
Type A blood has type A antigens, type B blood has
type B antigens, and type AB has both type of
antigens. Type O blood has neither type A or type B
antigens.
Plasma for type A blood, contains anti-B antibodies
which act against type B antigens. Plasma from type
B blood contains anti-A antibodies, which act
against the type A antigens. Type AB blood has
neither type of antibody, and type O has both anti-
A and anti-B antibodies.
Rh BLOOD GROUP
It was first studied in the rhesus monkey.
Rh compatibility can pose a major problem in
pregnancy when the mother is Rh-negative and the
baby is Rh-positive which will cause disease of the
newborn (HDN) or eythroblastosis fetalis.
Prevention of HDN is often possible if the Rh-
negative mother is injected with a specifci
preparation called RhO(D) immunglobulin
(RhoGAM), which contains antbodies against Rh
antigens.
This treatment inactivates the fetal Rh antigens and
prevents sensitization of the mother.
DIAGNOSTIC
BLOOD
TEST
TYPE AND CROSSMATCH
BLOOD TYPING

- determines the ABO and Rh blood groups of


a blood sample.

The cells are separated from the serum and then


tested with known antibodies to determine the
type of antigen on the cell surface.

In CROSSMATCH, the donors blood cells are mixed


with the recipients cells.

The donors blood is considered safe for transfusion


only if no agglutination occurs in either match.
HEMOLYTIC DISEASE OF
THE NEWBORN (HDN)
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
(CBC)
is an analysis of blood that provides much useful
information.

it consists of red blood cell count, hemoglobin


and hematocrit measurements, and a white
blood cell count.
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
(CBC)
RED BLOOD COUNT
4.6 6.2 million RBC/microliter of blood normal
RBC for MALE

4.2 5.4 million RBC/microliter of blood normal


RBC for FEMALE

ERYTHROCYTOSIS is an overabundance of red


blood cells.
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
(CBC)
HEMOGLOBIN MEASUREMENT
amount of hemoglobin = gram of hemoglobin/100 mL of
blood

14-18 g of hemoglobin/100 mL of blood normal hemoglobin


measurement for a MALE

12-16 g of hemoglobin/100 mL of blood normal hemoglobin


measurement for a FEMALE

ANEMIA - an abnormally low hemoglobin measurement


- is either a reduced number of RBC or a
reduced amount of hemoglobin in each RBC.
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
(CBC)
HEMATOCRIT MEASUREMENT
HEMATOCRIT is the percentage of the total blood
volume that is composed of red blood cells.
one way to determine hematocrit is to place blood
in a capillary tube and spin it in a centrifuge.
RBC account of the total blood volume
40 - 52% for MALES
38 - 48% for FEMALES

It is affected by the number and size of RBC


because it is based on volume.
HEMATOCRIT
COMPLETE BLOOD COUNT
(CBC)
WHITE BLOOD COUNT
it measure the total number of WBC in the blood.
there are normally 5000-9000 WBC/microliter of blood.
LEUKOPONIA is a lower than normal WBC resulting from
decreased production or destruction of the red marrow.
It can caused by radiation, drugs, tumors, viral infections,
or a deficiency of the vitamins folate or B12 .
LEUKOCYTOSIS is an abnormally high WBC.
LEUKEMIA is cancer of the red marrow characterized by
abnormal production of one or more of the WBC types,
can cause leukocytosis.
DIFFERENTIAL WHITE BLOOD COUNT

It determines the percentage of each of the


five kinds of WBC.

60-70% - neutrophils

20-25% - lymphocytes

3-8% - monocytes

2-4% - eosinophils

0.5-1% - basophils
CLOTTING

PLATELET COUNT
250,000-400,000 platelets/microliter of blood is
the normal platelet count.
THROMBOCYTOPENIA the platelet count is
greatly reduced, resulting in chronic bleeding
through small vessels and capillaries.
- it can be caused by decreased platelet
production as a result of hereditary disorders, lack
of vitamin B12, drug therapy, or radiation therapy.
CLOTTING

PROTHROMBIN TIME MEASUREMENT

calculates how long it takes for the blood to


start clotting, which is normally 9-12 seconds.

Determined by adding thromboplastin to whole


plasma.

THROMBOPLASTIN is a chemical released from


injured tissues that starts the process of clotting.
BLOOD CHEMISTRY

The composition of materials dissolved or


suspended in the plasma (e.g., glucose, urea
nitrogen, bilirubin, and cholesterol) can be used
assess the functioning of many of the bodys
systems.
FUN FACT