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FACULTAD DE MEDICINA HUMANA Y CIENCIAS DE LA SALUD

ESCUELA ACADMICO PROFESIONAL DE PSICOLOGA HUMANA


The nervous system is
the master controlling
and comunicating
system of the body.

The nervous system


controls and
coordinates all
esential functions of
the human body.
Cerebral Hemispheres:

The two cerebral


hemispheres (the left
and the right side) form
the largest apart of the
brain, called the
cerebrum.

Each cerebral
The cerebral hemispheres are
hemisphere is divided by
involved in logical reasoning,
some fissures and sulci
moral conduct, emotional
into a number of lobes
responses, sensory
which are named for the
interpretation, and the initiation
cranial bones that lie over
of voluntary muscle activity.
them.
Pathways of nerve impulses are crossed
pathways meaning that the Left side of
the brain controls the RIGHT side of the
body, and the Right side of the brain
controls the LEFT side of the body.
Motor
Sensory
areas
areas

The cerebral
hemispheres has
three (3) types of
functional areas

Association
areas
Memory is the storage and retrieval of information.

Stages of Memory

Short-term memory (STM, or working memory) a


fleeting memory of the events that continually
happen. STM lasts seconds to hours and is limited to 7
or 8 pieces of information.

Long-term memory (LTM) has limitless capacity.

Transfer from STM to LTM


Factors that affect transfer of memory from STM to LTM include:
Emotional state: we learn best when we are alert, motivated,
and aroused
Rehearsal: repeating or rehearsing material enhances memory
Association: associating new information with old memories in
LTM enhances memory.
The spinal cord is a reflex center
and conduction pathway which
is found within the vertebral
canal.

It extends from the foramen


magnum to L1 or L2.
Nerve is a bundle of neuron
Nerve:
fibers found outside the CNS.

Cranial nerves are 12 pairs of nerves


that extend from the brain to serve the
head and neck region, except the
Vagus nerve, which extend into the
thorax and abdomen.

Spinal nerves are 31 pairs of nerves


formed by the union of the dorsal and
ventral roots of the spinal cord on each
side.
The PNS has two (2) functional divisions

Sensory or Afferent Division:


Consists of nerve fibers that convey impulses to the central
nervous system from sensory receptors located in various
parts of the body.

Sensory fibers that deliver impulses from the skin, skeletal


muscles, and joints are called somatic (soma = body)
sensory fibers.

Sensory fibers that transmit impulses from the visceral


organs are called visceral sensory fibers, or visceral
afferents.

The sensory division keeps the CNS constantly informed of


events going on both inside and outside the body.

Carries impulses from the CNS to effector organs,


muscles and glands.
Motor Division:

The Somatic Nervous System (SNS):

Allows us to consciously, or voluntarily, control our


skeletal muscles.

This subdivision is often referred to as the voluntary


nervous system, however, skeletal muscle reflexes
are also initiated involuntarily by fibers of this same
subdivision.

The Autonomic Nervous System (ANS):

Regulates events that are automatic, or


involuntary, such as the activity of smooth
muscles and glands.

This subdivision is commonly called the


involuntary nervous system
Motor Division (Autonomic Nervous
System):

It is the fight or flight subdivision, which


prepares the body to cope with some
threats

Its activation results in increased heart


rate and blood pressure.

Parasympathetic (inhibits)

It is the housekeeping system and


is in control most of the time.

This division maintains homeostasis


by seeing that normal digestion and
elimination occur and that energy is
conserved.
Reflexes are programmed,
rapid, predictable, and
involuntary responses to
stimuli.

Reflexes may be inborn or


learned (acquired).

Reflexes occur over neural


pathways called reflex arc
and involve both CNS and
PNS structures.
Reflex Arc
Five (5) Basic Element of Reflex Arc
Receptor
Sensory neuron
Integration center
Motor neuron
Effector
Include all reflexes that stimulate
the skeletal muscle (e.g. When you
Somatic Reflexes quickly pulled your hand away from
a hot object, a somatic reflex is
working).

Types of Reflexes
Regulate the activity of smooth
muscles, the heart, and glands
(i.e. Secretion of saliva and
changes in the size of the eye Autonomic Reflexes
pupils); autonomic reflexes
regulate such body functions as
digestion, elimination, blood
pressure and sweating.