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Definition

Literally means reading or recitation.


Technically means the book containing the speech of
Allah revealed to the Prophet Muhammmad SAW in
Arabic and transmitted to us by continuous testimony
(tawatur).
It consists of manifest revelation (wahyu zahir), which
is defined as communication from Allah to the
Prophet SAW conveyed by the angel Gabriel, in the
very words of Allah.
The Quran is divided into 114 chapters with different
topics and contains 86430 words and 6666 verses.
In order to facilitate its reading, the Quran is divided
into 30 convenient sections.
The shortest chapter consists of three verses and the
longest of 286 verses (excluding Bismillah)
The Quran was revealed within a period of 22 years, 2
months and 22 days according to the need of time and
to provide solutions to problems, which came before
Prophet Muhammad saw.
The first chapter (al- Alaq 1:5) was revealed in the cave
of Hira. The last verse of the Quran was (al-Maidah
5:3).

Al-alaq 1:5
- taught man what he knew not
This day We have perfected for you your religion and I
have completed my bounties and I am pleased with
Religion of Peace(Islam) (al-Maidah 5:3).
This verse was revealed on the 9th Zulhijjah in the
10th year of hijrah.
al-Maidah 5:3 Prohibited to you are dead animals,
blood, the flesh of swine, and that which has been
dedicated to other than Allah, and [those animals]
killed by strangling or by a violent blow or by a head-
long fall or by the goring of horns, and those from
which a wild animal has eaten, except what you [are
able to] slaughter [before its death], and those which
are sacrificed on stone altars, and [prohibited is] that
you seek decision through divining arrows. That is
grave disobedience. This day those who disbelieve have
despaired of [defeating] your religion; so fear them
not, but fear Me. This day I have perfected for you your
religion and completed My favor upon you and have
approved for you Islam as religion. But whoever is
forced by severe hunger with no inclination to sin -
then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful.
Distinctive Features of the Al-
Quran
The Quran is different from any other literature. There
are several features of that the Holy Quran has which
could not be found in any other discourse.
1. It is the actual word of Allah; the wording and
meaning of al-Quran were revealed for the benefit of
all mankind.
The Prophets tasks was only to convey the message
from Allah to mankind. Refer to (al-Shu ara: 192-194)
al-Shu ara 26: 192-194
192 - And indeed, the Qur'an is the revelation of the
Lord of the worlds.
193 - The Trustworthy Spirit has brought it down
194 - Upon your heart, [O Muhammad] - that you may
be of the warners
2. The Quran was revealed in Arabic, the language was
chosen by Allah for His revelation. (al-Shu ara: 195).
- 26 : 195 - In a clear Arabic language.

Consequently the translation of the Quran in any


language, or its commentary whether in Arabic or
other languages are not considered as al-Quran.
3. The Quran was transmitted with continuous
testament(mutawatir).
This means that the Quran was transmitted from the
Prophet saw to the next generation by such a large
number of people that they cannot altogether be
expected to agree upon a lie.
The implication of such kind of transmission is that
there is no doubt about the authenticity of the Quran,
as there is evidence of its transmission.
In addition Allah has promised to protect His Book.
Refer to (al-Hijr:9).
- al-Hijr 15:9 Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an
and indeed, We will be its guardian.
4. The Quran is Allahs eternal miracle to Prophet
Muhammad saw for all succeeding generations.
In response to those who doubt the authorship of the
Quran, Allah Almighty has challenge the most
articulate Arabs to produce something similar to al-
Quran. Refer to (al-Baqarah: 23-24)(al-Isra: 88)

al-Baqarah: 23-24
23 - And if you are in doubt about what We have sent
down upon Our Servant [Muhammad], then produce a
surah the like thereof and call upon your witnesses
other than Allah, if you should be truthful.
24- But if you do not - and you will never be able to -
then fear the Fire, whose fuel is men and stones,
prepared for the disbelievers.
al-Isra 17:88
Say, "If mankind and the jinn gathered in order to
produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce
the like of it, even if they were to each other
assistants.
5. It is complete and comprehensive.
Refer to (al-Nahl-:89)
We have sent down to you the Book explaining all
things, a Guide, a Mercy and Glad Tidings to Muslims.

- al-Nahl 16:89
And [mention] the Day when We will resurrect among
every nation a witness over them from themselves. And
We will bring you, [O Muhammad], as a witness over
your nation. And We have sent down to you the Book as
clarification for all things and as guidance and mercy
and good tidings for the Muslims.
Rationale of Graduality
1.Afforded the believers the opportunity to reflect over
it and to retain it in their memories.
2.Facilitated continuous contact with Allah and
renewal of spiritual strength so that the hostility of the
unbelievers towards them did not weaken the heart of
Muslim.
In al-Furqan: 32: The unbelievers says, why not the
Quran been sent down to Muhammad all at once.
Thus (it is revealed) that your hearts may be
strengthened, and We rehearse it to you gradually, and
well arranged.
3.To avoid hardship to the believers in matters which
touched the lives of the people. Ex: ban on the
consumption of the wine(liquor). Refer to surah 2:219
, 4:43 , 5: 90-91
surah 2:219
They ask you about wine and gambling. Say, "In them
is great sin and [yet, some] benefit for people. But
their sin is greater than their benefit." And they ask
you what they should spend. Say, "The excess [beyond
needs]." Thus Allah makes clear to you the verses [of
revelation] that you might give thought.
surah an-nisa 4:43
O you who have believed, do not approach prayer
while you are intoxicated until you know what you are
saying or in a state of janabah, except those passing
through [a place of prayer], until you have washed
[your whole body]. And if you are ill or on a journey or
one of you comes from the place of relieving himself or
you have contacted women and find no water, then
seek clean earth and wipe over your faces and your
hands [with it]. Indeed, Allah is ever Pardoning and
Forgiving.
surah al-ma'idah 5: 90
O you who have believed, indeed, intoxicants,
gambling, [sacrificing on] stone alters [to other than
Allah ], and divining arrows are but defilement from
the work of Satan, so avoid it that you may be
successful.
91 - Satan only wants to cause between you animosity
and hatred through intoxicants and gambling and to
avert you from the remembrance of Allah and from
prayer. So will you not desist?
4.In view of illiteracy of the Arabs at the time, had the
Quran been revealed all at once, they would found
difficult to understand.
Characteristic of Quranic Legislation
i)Definitive and Speculative

Definitive:
A definitive text is one which a ruling is clear and specific.
It has only one meaning and admit no other
interpretations.
For examples:
a)The text on the entitlement of the husband in the estate
of his deceased wife.
In what your wives leave, your share is a half , if they leave
no child . (al-Nisa:12).
al-Nisa 4:12
And for you is half of what your wives leave if they
have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one
fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may
have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if
you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for
them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest
you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman
leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a
brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth.
But if they are more than two, they share a third, after
any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there
is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from
Allah, and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing.
b)Prescribed the penalty
The adulterer, whether a man or a woman, flog them
each a hundred stripes.(an-Nur:2)
an-Nur 24:2
The [unmarried] woman or [unmarried] man found
guilty of sexual intercourse - lash each one of them
with a hundred lashes, and do not be taken by pity for
them in the religion of Allah, if you should believe in
Allah and the Last Day. And let a group of the believers
witness their punishment.
Those who accuse chaste women of adultery and fail
to bring 4 witnesses ( to prove it) flog them 80
stripes.(an-Nur:4).

An-Nur 24:4
And those who accuse chaste women and then do not
produce four witnesses - lash them with eighty lashes
and do not accept from them testimony ever after. And
those are the defiantly disobedient,
The quantitive aspects of these rulings, namely ,100
stripes and 80 stripes are self evident and therefore
not open to interpretation.
The rulings of the Quran on the essential of the faith
such as, salat and fasting, specific shares in inheritance
and prescribed penalties are qati.
Their validity may not be disputed by anyone.
Everyone is bound to follow them, and they are not
open to ijtihad.
.
Speculative:
A speculative text is one which a ruling is open to
interpretation. The interpretation can be obtained from
the Quran itself/Sunnah/companions .
Ex: Prohibited to you are your mothers and your
daughters.(al-Nisa (4): 23).

Surah An-Nisa 4: 23
Prohibited to you [for marriage] are your mothers, your
daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your mother's
sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's daughters,
your [milk] mothers who nursed you, your sisters through
nursing, your wives' mothers, and your step-daughters
under your guardianship [born] of your wives unto whom
you have gone in. But if you have not gone in unto them,
there is no sin upon you. And [also prohibited are] the
wives of your sons who are from your [own] loins, and that
you take [in marriage] two sisters simultaneously, except
for what has already occurred. Indeed, Allah is ever
Forgiving and Merciful.
The text is definitive in the prohibition of marriage
with ones mother and daughters.
But the word banatukum could be two meanings; a
female child born to a person either through marriage
or through adultery.
There are two views:
1.Hanafi School: Prohibition not only to marry
legitimate child but also illegitimate one.
2.Shafie School: Marriage with ones illegitimate
daughter is not forbidden as the text refers to a
daughter through a marriage.
Consequently the illegitimate daughter has no right to
inheritance and he is not her guardian (wali).
Ex: the requirements of ablution (wudu) is wipe your
heads (al-Maidah: 6).
al-Maidah: 6
O you who have believed, when you rise to [perform]
prayer, wash your faces and your forearms to the elbows
and wipe over your heads and wash your feet to the ankles.
And if you are in a state of janabah, then purify yourselves.
But if you are ill or on a journey or one of you comes from
the place of relieving himself or you have contacted women
and do not find water, then seek clean earth and wipe over
your faces and hands with it. Allah does not intend to make
difficulty for you, but He intends to purify you and
complete His favor upon you that you may be grateful.

The text is definitive on the requirements of wiping of the


head but speculative on precise area of the head to be
wiped.
The jurists are unanimous in regard to the first but
have differed in regards to the second aspect of this
injunction.
For example:
Syafei : It is sufficient if you wiped any part of your
head , at least 3 pieces of hair.
Hanafi: Wipe whole of the head.
ii)Brevity and detail
Detail (Tafsil):
The Quran contains detailed rules on family matters,
the prohibited degrees of relationship in marriage,
inheritance and specific punishments for certain
crimes.
The purpose of regulating them in detail is to prevent
conflict among people.
1) Family matters ;
Refer to (Al-Baqarah: 228,229,230,231,232, 234,236,237)
Divorce and waiting period(iddah)

Al-Baqarah: 2
228 Divorced women remain in waiting for three
periods, and it is not lawful for them to conceal what
Allah has created in their wombs if they believe in
Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have more
right to take them back in this [period] if they want
reconciliation. And due to the wives is similar to what
is expected of them, according to what is reasonable.
But the men have a degree over them [in responsibility
and authority]. And Allah is Exalted in Might and
Wise.
229
- Divorce is twice. Then, either keep [her] in an
acceptable manner or release [her] with good
treatment. And it is not lawful for you to take anything
of what you have given them unless both fear that they
will not be able to keep [within] the limits of Allah .
But if you fear that they will not keep [within] the
limits of Allah, then there is no blame upon either of
them concerning that by which she ransoms herself.
These are the limits of Allah, so do not transgress
them. And whoever transgresses the limits of Allah - it
is those who are the wrongdoers.
230
- And if he has divorced her [for the third time], then
she is not lawful to him afterward until [after] she
marries a husband other than him. And if the latter
husband divorces her [or dies], there is no blame upon
the woman and her former husband for returning to
each other if they think that they can keep [within] the
limits of Allah . These are the limits of Allah, which He
makes clear to a people who know.
231
And when you divorce women and they have [nearly]
fulfilled their term, either retain them according to
acceptable terms or release them according to
acceptable terms, and do not keep them, intending
harm, to transgress [against them]. And whoever does
that has certainly wronged himself. And do not take
the verses of Allah in jest. And remember the favor of
Allah upon you and what has been revealed to you of
the Book and wisdom by which He instructs you. And
fear Allah and know that Allah is Knowing of all
things.
232
And when you divorce women and they have fulfilled
their term, do not prevent them from remarrying their
[former] husbands if they agree among themselves on
an acceptable basis. That is instructed to whoever of
you believes in Allah and the Last Day. That is better
for you and purer, and Allah knows and you know not.
234
And those who are taken in death among you and
leave wives behind - they, [the wives, shall] wait four
months and ten [days]. And when they have fulfilled
their term, then there is no blame upon you for what
they do with themselves in an acceptable manner. And
Allah is [fully] Acquainted with what you do.
236
- There is no blame upon you if you divorce women
you have not touched nor specified for them an
obligation. But give them [a gift of] compensation -
the wealthy according to his capability and the poor
according to his capability - a provision according to
what is acceptable, a duty upon the doers of good.
237
- And if you divorce them before you have touched
them and you have already specified for them an
obligation, then [give] half of what you specified -
unless they forego the right or the one in whose hand
is the marriage contract foregoes it. And to forego it is
nearer to righteousness. And do not forget
graciousness between you. Indeed Allah, of whatever
you do, is Seeing.
2)Inheritance
(An-Nisa: 11-12)

An-Nisa 4:11
Allah instructs you concerning your children: for the male,
what is equal to the share of two females. But if there are
[only] daughters, two or more, for them is two thirds of
one's estate. And if there is only one, for her is half. And for
one's parents, to each one of them is a sixth of his estate if
he left children. But if he had no children and the parents
[alone] inherit from him, then for his mother is one third.
And if he had brothers [or sisters], for his mother is a sixth,
after any bequest he [may have] made or debt. Your parents
or your children - you know not which of them are nearest
to you in benefit. [These shares are] an obligation
[imposed] by Allah . Indeed, Allah is ever Knowing and
Wise.
An-Nisa 4:12
- And for you is half of what your wives leave if they
have no child. But if they have a child, for you is one
fourth of what they leave, after any bequest they [may
have] made or debt. And for the wives is one fourth if
you leave no child. But if you leave a child, then for
them is an eighth of what you leave, after any bequest
you [may have] made or debt. And if a man or woman
leaves neither ascendants nor descendants but has a
brother or a sister, then for each one of them is a sixth.
But if they are more than two, they share a third, after
any bequest which was made or debt, as long as there
is no detriment [caused]. [This is] an ordinance from
Allah, and Allah is Knowing and Forbearing.
3) Prohibited degree of relationship in marriage.
Refer to (An-Nisa: 22-23)

An-Nisa 4:22
And do not marry those [women] whom your fathers
married, except what has already occurred. Indeed, it
was an immorality and hateful [to Allah ] and was evil
as a way.
An-Nisa 4:23
- Prohibited to you [for marriage] are your mothers,
your daughters, your sisters, your father's sisters, your
mother's sisters, your brother's daughters, your sister's
daughters, your [milk] mothers who nursed you, your
sisters through nursing, your wives' mothers, and your
step-daughters under your guardianship [born] of your
wives unto whom you have gone in. But if you have not
gone in unto them, there is no sin upon you. And [also
prohibited are] the wives of your sons who are from
your [own] loins, and that you take [in marriage] two
sisters simultaneously, except for what has already
occurred. Indeed, Allah is ever Forgiving and Merciful.
Brevity(mujmal):
The Quran almost in major topics laid down general
guidelines.
Hence its contents require a great deal of elaboration.
The Quranic legislation on civil,economic,
constitutional and international affairs is confined to
the general principles .
Ex: God has permitted sale and prohibited usury.
(2:275).

2 : 275
- Those who consume interest cannot stand [on the
Day of Resurrection] except as one stands who is being
beaten by Satan into insanity. That is because they say,
"Trade is [just] like interest." But Allah has permitted
trade and has forbidden interest. So whoever has
received an admonition from his Lord and desists may
have what is past, and his affair rests with Allah . But
whoever returns to [dealing in interest or usury] -
those are the companions of the Fire; they will abide
eternally therein.
Varieties of usurious transactions are matters not
elaborated by the Quran and some had been explained
by the Sunnah and the rest it is for the mujtahid to
interpret.
Ex: Allah commands perform salah. The Prophet
SAW has ordered his followers to perform salah the
way you see me performing it
Inimitability Of The Quran
The ijaz can be reflected as follows:
a)In its linguistic excellence.
Word structure are unique.
It is spiritual miracle of Muhammad, who never
learned to read or write, and it is beyond his own
ability to produce a linguistic artifact.
B)In its narration of events which took place centuries
ago. The accuracy of the Quranic narratives of such
events is confirmed by historical evidence. Ex: About
the history of Adam,Ibrahim, Nuh and others.
c)In its accurate prediction of future events, such as
victory of the Muslims in the battle of Badr(al-anfal:7),
the conquest of Mecca(al-Fath:27) and the eventual
defeat of the Persians by the Roman empire (al-
Rum:2).
Badr(al-anfal 8:7),
- [Remember, O believers], when Allah promised you
one of the two groups - that it would be yours - and you
wished that the unarmed one would be yours. But Allah
intended to establish the truth by His words and to
eliminate the disbelievers
the conquest of Mecca(al-Fath:27)
- Certainly has Allah showed to His Messenger the vision
in truth. You will surely enter al-Masjid al-Haram, if
Allah wills, in safety, with your heads shaved and [hair]
shortened, not fearing [anyone]. He knew what you did
not know and has arranged before that a conquest near
[at hand].
and the eventual defeat of the Persians by the Roman
empire (al-Rum:2).
-The Byzantines have been defeated.

d)In its scientific truth concerning the creation of the man,


earth and the planetary system(al-Muminum:12-14)

d)In its scientific truth concerning the creation of the man,


earth and the planetary system(al-Muminum:12-14
12 - And certainly did We create man from an extract of clay.
13 - Then We placed him as a sperm-drop in a firm lodging.
14 - Then We made the sperm-drop into a clinging clot, and
We made the clot into a lump [of flesh], and We made [from]
the lump, bones, and We covered the bones with flesh; then
We developed him into another creation. So blessed is Allah,
the best of creators.