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dr.Lina Nurbaiti,M.Kes,FISPH, FISCM

The Trace Minerals
O An essential mineral nutrient
found in the human body in
amounts less than 5 grams, also
known as micro minerals
O Excess of one may cause a deficiency of another
(a slight of manganese overload, may aggravate
iron deficiency)
O A deficiency of one may interfere with the work
of another (a selenium deficiency halts the
activation of the iodine-containing thyroid
O A deficiency of a trace mineral may even open
the way for the contaminant mineral to cause a
toxic reaction (iron deficiency makes the body
vulnerable to lead poisoning)
A. Iron
OBoth too little and too much in the body can be
Ferrous iron (reduced): Fe ++
Ferric iron (oxidized): Fe +++
Iron as a Cofactor to enzymes
involved in oxidation-reduction
O Hemoglobin formation
O The iron-containing protein in red blood
cells that carries oxygen
O Part of myoglobin
O Carries oxygen in the body
O Energy utilization
Iron Absorption
Iron Recycled in the Body
Iron deficiency
O The Most Common Nutrient Deficiency
O Affecting 1.2 billion people
O 50% of School Children and Pregnant Women
Suffer from Iron Deficiency Anemia (Developing
O High Risk : Women in their reproductive year,
Pregnant Women, Infants and Young Children,
Anemia Kurang Zat Besi

Anemia Tidak Anemia Tidak Anemia Anemia

Pucat Tidak pucat Tidak pucat Pucat
Toxicity Symptoms
OIron overload
O Infections
O Liver injury
O Acidosis
O Shock
Heme & Nonheme Iron
Food Sources
Green leafy veggies
Fortified grains
RDA of Iron

O Men = Women 51+ = 8 mg/day

O Women 19-50 = 18 mg/day
O Vegetarian RDA = RDA x 1.8
O UL for Adults = 45 mg/day
O Young children, 200 mg/day = deadly
B. Zinc
O Functions:
O Needed for protein & enzyme
O Immunity & wound healing
O Vitamin A transport
O Taste
O Fetal development
Enteropancreatic Circulation of Zinc
Deficiency Symptoms
O Growth failure in children
O Loss of taste
O Poor wound healing
O Poor appetite

Toxicity Symptoms
O Loss of appetite, impaired
immunity, low HDL, copper
and iron deficiency
Food Sources
O Protein-containing foods:
O Meat
O Fish & shellfish
O Poultry
O Grains
O Vegetables
RDA of Zinc

O Men = 11 mg/day
O Women = 8 mg/day
O UL for Adults = 40 mg/day
C. Iodine
O Amount of iodine in food is reflected
in the soil
O Functions:
O Part of thyroxine, which regulates
Deficiency symptoms
O Goiter: an enlargement of the thyroid gland due
to an iodine deficiency, malfunction of the
gland, or over consumption of a goitrogen.
O Cretinism: severe mental & physical retardation
of an infant caused by severe iodine deficiency
in the mother during pregnancy

Toxicity Symptoms:

O Under active thyroid gland, elevated TSH,

O RDA of Iodine :
O Adults = 150 g/day

O Adults = 1100 g/day

D. Fluoride
O Functions:
O Formation of bones & teeth
O Helps make teeth resistant to decay
O Helps make bones resistant to mineral
Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
O Deficiency Symptoms:
O Tooth decay

O Toxicity Symptoms: (rare in humans)

O Fluorosis: discoloration of teeth
O The first symptom of excess fluoride
O Nausea
O Vomiting
O Diarrhea
Food Sources
ODrinking water, Tea, Seafood
ORDA of Fluoride :
OMen = 3.8 mg/day
OWomen = 3.1 mg/day
OUL for Adults = 10 mg/day
E. Copper
O Functions:
O Helps make hemoglobin
O Part of several enzymes
O Food Sources:
O Legumes
O Whole grains
O Seafood
O Nuts
Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
O Deficiency Symptoms: (rare in humans)
O Anemia
O Bone changes (abnormalities)
O Toxicity Symptoms:
O Nausea
O Vomiting
O Diarrhea
O Liver damage
RDA of Copper
O Adults = 900 g/day
O UL for Adults = 10 mg/day or equal to 10,000
F. Manganese
O Functions:
O Along with enzymes, facilitates many cell
O Involved in bone formation
O Food Sources:
O Widely distributed in plant foods
Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
O Deficiency Symptoms:
O Poor growth
O Nervous system disorders
O Abnormal reproduction
O Toxicity Symptoms:
O Poisoning
O Nervous system disorders
RDA of Manganese

O Men = 2.3 mg/day

O Women = 1.8 mg/day
O UL for Adults = 11 mg/day
G. Chromium
O Functions:
O Enhances insulins action
O Required for release of energy from
O Food Sources:
O Meat (especially liver)
O Unrefined foods
O Brewers yeast
O Whole grains
Deficiency & Toxicity Symptoms
O Deficiency symptoms:
O Abnormal glucose metabolism
(Diabetes-like condition)
O Toxicity symptoms:
O Occupational exposures damage skin &
RDA of Chromium

O Men = 35 g/day
O Women = 25 g/day
O UL for Adults = not yet established
H. Selenium
O Functions:
O Protects body from oxidation (antioxidant)
O Works with vitamin E

O Food Sources:
O Seafood
O Meats
O Grains
O Vegetables (depends on soil conditions)
Deficiency Symptoms
O Fragile red blood cells
O Cataracts
O Growth failure
O Heart damage (cardiac tissue becoming
fibrous, Keshan Disease)
Toxicity Symptoms
ONausea, Abdominal pain, Nail & hair
changes, Liver & nerve damage
ORDA of Selenium :
OAdults = 55 g/day
OUL for Adults = 400 g/day