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REKABENTUK KURIKULUM BAHARU :

KURSUS ORIGAMI
LATAR BELAKANG

Amat bermakna dilaksanakan kepada semua golongan pelajar terutamanya kepada


mereka yang semakin berminat dalam bidang seni dan mereka merupakan pelapis
masa depan negara.
Kebanyakkan pelajar pada masa kini tidak menyedari akan kepentingan atau manfaat
origami.
Seringkali dipandang sepi terutamanya di sekolah rendah.
Hal ini mungkin berlaku disebabkan kurang pendedahan tentangnya.
Mengambil inisiatif untuk merangka satu rekabentuk kurikulum bagi kursus origami
secara teori dan amali.
Sasaran : pelajar tahun 6 di SJK(T) Simpang Lima, Klang, Selangor.
Bilangan pelajar : seramai 160 orang dan 8 orang guru.
Kursus ini diadakan selama 4 hari.
PENGENALAN
Salah satu aktiviti yang dapat menarik minat pelajar untuk mendapat maklumat
tentang origami.
Tujuan kursus adalah untuk memberi gambaran yang jelas kepada pelajar
tentang teori dan amali origami.
Proses perlu dilalui oleh pelajar sebelum, semasa dan selepas kursus origami
dijalankan.
Lebih bersifat sebagai alat pendidikan.
Akan dapat menguasai ilmu pengetahuan mengenai origami.
Dapat menerapkan nilai-nilai murni di dalam diri pelajar.
RASIONAL KURSUS
Amat bermakna dilaksanakan kepada semua golongan pelajar terutamanya
mereka yang semakin berminat dalam bidang seni dan mereka merupakan
masa depan negara.
Kebanyakkan pelajar pada masa kini tidak menyedari akan kepentingan atau
origami.
Seringkali dipandang sepi terutamanya di sekolah rendah.
Hal ini mungkin berlaku disebabkan kurang pendedahan tentangnya.
Mengambil inisiatif untuk merangka satu rekabentuk kurikulum bagi kursus
secara teori dan amali.
Sasaran : pelajar tahun 6 di SJK(T) Simpang Lima, Klang, Selangor.
Bilangan pelajar : seramai 160 orang dan 8 orang guru.
Kursus ini diadakan selama 5 hari.
CURRICULUM TAUGHT
APPROACHES / UNIT / DAILY LESSON
PLAN
To teach target skills effectively, the following teaching approaches are suggested :

(1) Modelling
Children learn by imitating other people's behaviour. Modelling therefore underlies most of the learning
activities. The teacher can either demonstrate the behaviour to be learnt or point out the target behaviour
performed by other children and encourage the children to imitate it.

(2) Task Analysis


Task analysis is a way to break down target skills into smaller steps according to the children's abilities and
learning needs. The teacher can then teach the steps in a planned sequence. Task analysis should be used
with flexibility to help the children with further difficulties in learning the planned steps. The technique can
also be applied to a blocking step to further break down the planned steps into even smaller steps for easier
learning. Once the difficulty is overcome, the original teaching steps can be resumed until the target skill is
achieved.
CURRICULUM TAUGHT
APPROACHES / UNIT / DAILY LESSON
PLAN
To teach target skills effectively, the following teaching approaches are suggested :

(3) Chaining
This means breaking down a target skill into a series of steps to describe the action to be performed
in sequence. The sequence can be written in a forward or backward order, depending on the nature
of the target skill to be learnt. For example, most dressing and undressing skills can be taught by
chaining. The more effective approach to teach dressing skills is backward chaining because this
would ensure that the children will be able to complete the task. Forward chaining would be more
appropriate in teaching target skills such as operating a washing machine or writing ones own name.

(4) Discrimination Learning


When the target skill to be learnt involves choosing the right answer, discrimination learning is a
more effective approach. For example, a child is given several choices (including some distractors)
from which to pick out the correct answer. In this approach, it is necessary to control both the
characteristics and the number of the distractors used. At the initial stage, the difference between
the distractors and the target choice should be as great as possible and the number of distractors
used should be as small as possible. That means the strength of the distractors should be low (e.g. a
circle and a big square, then a circle and a square, and finally a circle and an eclipse). As the child
begins to master the initial step, the number of distractors used can be increased gradually.
CURRICULUM TAUGHT
APPROACHES / UNIT / DAILY LESSON
PLAN
To teach target skills effectively, the following teaching approaches are suggested :

(5) Information Gathering


Children may sometimes lack the information required to analyse the problems they encounter. The teacher
should teach them to gather relevant information from various sources, e.g. teachers, parents, newspapers or
the library and help them develop a more objective and systematic way to deal with problems. Activities, such as
organizing a birthday party or a picnic, would help the children understand the procedures of information
gathering and its importance.

(6) Induction
This is an approach to help the children form a holistic concept from the characteristics of different things. The
children are thus trained to observe the various characteristics of things --their similarities, differences as well
as relationships and then exercise induction.
CURRICULUM TAUGHT
APPROACHES / UNIT / DAILY LESSON
PLAN
To teach target skills effectively, the following teaching approaches are suggested :

(7) Discussion
This approach is often used in group teaching. Through discussions, the children learn to look into problems and
are thus motivated to think. Through discussions, they express their own views and at the same time listen to
other children's views, so that they can review their own. The teacher needs to ensure that each child is given
equal opportunity to participate in discussions. Thus, discussions can promote greater interaction among the
children. More important still, they help the children to realise the importance of accepting other people's views
while expressing their own.

The following are ways to teach target skills :

(1) Prompting
(2) Shaping
(3) Fading
(4) Generalization
CURRICULUM TAUGHT
APPROACHES / UNIT / DAILY LESSON
PLAN
The following are important considerations in formulating teaching approaches for children :

1. Observing the childrens behaviour, planning goals and targets appropriate to their ages, levels of
development and interests and building on their areas of strength.
2. Using situations familiar to the children and those which they can experience in their everday life.
3. Using activities which are as practical as possible.
4. Making the children feel secure and willing to express themselves and giving them opportunities to
learn by doing.
5. Breaking down a task into simple steps to facilitate learning.
6. Providing the children with opportunities for direct sensory contact, for manipulating real objects or
relating learning experiences to real life situations.
7. Using various media extensively and varying the teaching approaches and techniques according to
individual learning needs.
8. Using encouragement and reward to reinforce the children's motivation to learn.
TESTED CURRICULUM
FORMAL OR INFORMAL
The tested curriculum is the one embodied
in tests developed by the state, school system,
and teachers. The term "test" is used broadly
here to include standardized tests,
competency tests, and performance
assessments.
Data that provides an analysis of students
achievements in comparison to expectations
FORMAL AND
INFORMAL ASSESSMENTS
Assessment is a vital part of curriculum design and the
teaching /learning process.
Informal testing which may take place in the classroom is
designed to give students feedback on their progress in a
particular unit of study as well as to help teachers determine
whether learning is taking place as a result of their teaching
strategies.
Formal assessment is used in reporting to parents via the
Assessment Feedback Letters (AFLs) and end of Semester
Reports.
Formal assessment can take many forms including practical
assessments, in-class tests, investigations, research
assignments/ reports and formal examinations.
Students receive an AFL after each piece of formal assessment
in their Core Subjects.
A formal Semester Report is given after the examination
period at the end of each Semester. Students will receive
Standards Report as well as a School Report for streamed Core
Subjects.
All assessment tasks should comply with the principles of
assessment:
1. Valid: Assessment should provide valid information on the
actual ideas, processes and products expected of students.
2. Educative: Assessment should make a positive contribution
to the student learning process.
3. Explicit: Assessment criteria should be explicit so that
students are aware of the expectations of the
assessment. These expectations should be clear and public.
4. Fair: Assessment should be fair to all students and not
discriminate on grounds that may be irrelevant to a students
achievement of the outcome.
5. Comprehensive: Assessment types must be varied so that a
judgement on student progress and achievement is based on
multiple kinds and sources of evidence.