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Financial Performance

PowerPoint Authors:

Brandy Mackintosh

Lindsay Heiser

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning Objective 13-1

uses of horizontal, vertical,

and ratio analyses.

13-2

Horizontal, Vertical, and Ratio

Analyses

Horizontal (trend) analyses are conducted to help financial statement

users recognize important financial changes that unfold over time.

12/31/12 12/31/13

in Gross Profit $

Trend Analysis

and/or % from 2012

Vertical analyses focus on important relationships between items on the

same financial statement.

2013

Amount Percent

Sales $200,000 100%

Cost of Goods Sold 150,000 75%

Gross Profit $ 50,000 25%

13-3

Horizontal, Vertical, and Ratio

Analyses

Ratio analyses are conducted to understand relationships among

various items reported in one or more of the financial statements.

Receivable

Net Sales Revenue

Turnover =

Average Net Receivables

Ratio

to an interpretation that helps financial statement users understand and

evaluate a companys financial results

13-4

Learning Objective 13-2

to recognize financial changes

that unfold over time.

13-5

Horizontal (Trend) Computations

Trend analyses are usually calculated in terms of

year-to-year dollar and percentage changes.

13-6

Horizontal (Trend) Computations

$48,815 $47,220

100

$47,220

Now

Now lets

lets calculate

calculate the

the percentage

percentage

Calculate

Now

Canlets

Calculate

NowCan you

lets look

the

you calculate

look

the change

at the

calculate

change

at the remainder

the

in dollars

dollar

remainder

the

in dollars and

for

of

of the

dollarbetween

and

for Net

the

Net

change

change in

in Net

Net Sales

Sales Revenue

Revenue between

Sales

trend

percentage

Sales

trend analysis

Revenue

percentage

analysis

Revenue change

of

ofbetween

the

change Income

for

between

the Income

for Cost

2010

Cost

2010 Statement.

of

ofand

Sales?

2009.

Statement.

and

Sales?

2009.

2009 and 2008.

2009 and 2008.

13-7

Learning Objective 13-3

analysis to understand

important relationships within

financial statements.

13-8

Vertical (Common Size) Computations

Vertical,

Vertical, or

or common

common size,

size, analysis

analysis focuses

focuses on

on

important

important relationships

relationships within

within financial

financial statements.

statements.

Income Statement Sales = 100%

Balance Sheet Total Assets = 100%

Cost of Sales

100

Net Sales Revenue

13-9

Learning Objective 13-4

assess profitability,

liquidity, and solvency.

13-10

Ratio Computations

Ratio

Ratio analysis

analysis compares

compares the

the amounts

amounts for

for one

one or

or more

more line

line

items

items to

to the

the amounts

amounts for

for other

other line

line items

items in

in the

the same

same year.

year.

Solvency

Solvency ratios

ratios

Profitability

Profitability ratios

ratios examine

examine aa companys

companys

examine

examine aa companys

companys ability

ability to

to pay

pay

ability

ability to

to generate

generate interest

interest and

and repay

repay

income.

income. debt

debt when

when due.

due.

Liquidity

Liquidity ratios

ratios

help

help us

us determine

determine ifif aa

company

company has has sufficient

sufficient

current

current assets

assets to

to repay

repay

liabilities

liabilities when

when due.

due.

13-11

Common Profitability Ratios

13-12

Common Liquidity Ratios

13-13

Common Solvency Ratios

13-14

Learning Objective 13-5

financial analyses.

13-15

Interpreting Horizontal and Vertical

Analyses

Lowes began relying more on debt and

less equity financing. Long-term

liabilities increased 28.7 percent and Lowes assets

stockholders equity decreased by 5%. grew only by

2.1% in fiscal

2010.

13-16

Interpreting Horizontal and Vertical

Cost of sales and operating expenses

Analyses are the most important determinants of

the companys profitability.

The increase in Net

Income in fiscal 2010

is explained by the

increase in Net Sales

Revenue and the

decreases in Cost of

Sales and Operating

Expenses as a

percentage of sales.

13-17

Interpreting Horizontal and Vertical

Analyses Lowes has experienced a small

decrease in its percentage of Cost of

Lowes did a better job of

Sales in relation to Sales Revenue from

controlling its Operating

fiscal 2009 to 2010. Decreasing cost of

Expenses between 2009

sales means higher Gross Profit.

and 2010.

13-18

Ratio

Calculations

13-19

Ratio Calculations

13-20

Profitability Ratios

Net Profit Margin The slowly improving economy helped boost

Lowes profits in 2010 as shown by the increase in Net Profit

Margin.

how much profit was made on each dollar of sales after deducting

the Cost of Goods Sold.

13-21

Profitability Ratios

Asset Turnover Ratio indicates the amount of sales revenue

generated for each dollar invested in assets during the period.

generates in sales for each dollar invested in fixed assets,

Home

Home Depot

Depot 2010

2010 fixed

fixed asset

asset turnover

turnover ratio

ratio was

was 2.69

2.69

13-22

Profitability Ratios

Return on Equity (ROE) Compares the amount of net income to

average stockholders equity. ROE reports the net amount earned

during the period as a percentage of each dollar contributed by

stockholders and retained in the business.

generated for each share of outstanding common stock.

13-23

Profitability Ratios

Price /Earnings (P/E) Ratio Shows the relationship between EPS

and the market price of one share of the companys stock.

13-24

Liquidity Ratios

Lets change our attention to an examination of liquidity

ratios. The analyses in this section focus on the

companys ability to survive in the short term, by

converting assets to cash that can be used to pay current

liabilities as they come due.

Receivable

Receivable Turnover

Turnover Ratio

Ratio Most

Most retail

retail home

home improvement

improvement

companies

companies have

have low

low levels

levels of

of accounts

accounts receivable

receivable relative

relative to

to sales

sales

revenue

revenue because

because they

they collect

collect the

the majority

majority of

of their

their sales

sales

immediately

immediately inin cash.

cash.

Receivable

Net Sales Revenue

Turnover =

Average Net Receivables

Ratio

13-25

Liquidity Ratios

Inventory

Inventory Turnover

Turnover Ratio

Ratio The

The inventory

inventory turnover

turnover ratio

ratio indicates

indicates how

how

frequently

frequently inventory

inventory is

is bought

bought and

and sold.

sold. The

The days

days to

to sell

sell indicates

indicates the

the

average

average number

number ofof days

days needed

needed toto sell

sell each

each purchase

purchase ofof inventory.

inventory.

Home Depot sells its inventory in an average of 85 days in 2010.

Current

Current Ratio

Ratio The

The current

current ratio

ratio measures

measures the the companys

companys ability

ability to

to

pay

pay its

its current

current liabilities

liabilities

13-26

Liquidity Ratios

Quick

Quick Ratio

Ratio The

The quick

quick ratio

ratio is

is aa much

much more

more stringent

stringent test

test of

of

short-term

short-term liquidity

liquidity than

than isis the

the current

current ratio.

ratio. Lowes

Lowes quick

quick ratio

ratio

increased

increased slightly

slightly in

in 2010,

2010, just

just as

as its

its current

current ratio

ratio did.

did.

Solvency ratios focus on a companys ability to survive over the long

term, that is, its ability to repay debt at maturity and pay interest prior to

that time.

13-27

Solvency Ratios

Debt

Debt to

to Assets

Assets Ratio

Ratio indicates

indicates the

the proportion

proportion of

of total

total assets

assets that

that

creditors

creditors finance.

finance.

Times

Times Interest

Interest Earned

Earned indicates

indicates how

how many

many times

times the

the companys

companys

interest

interest expense

expense was

was covered

covered by

by its

its operating

operating results.

results.

13-28

Learning Objective 13-6

depend on key accounting

decisions and concepts.

13-29

Underlying Accounting Decisions

and Concepts

Accounting Decisions

e.g. type of financing. e.g. quality of items sold.

Difference in Accounting

Methods, e.g. FIFO vs. LIFO.

13-30

Accounting Concepts

Companies may elect to use any acceptable generally

accepted accounting principle (GAAP) as long as they

apply the principle consistently.

13-31

Conceptual Framework for Financial

Accounting and Reporting

13-32

Factors Contributing to Going-Concern

Problems

Factors that commonly contribute to

going-concern problems are listed below.

13-33

Chapter 13

Supplement 13A

Items

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Nonrecurring Items

Extraordinary Items

Very few events qualify as

extraordinary items.

Accounting Methods

Direct adjustment to Retained Earnings rather

than income reporting.

Discontinued Operations

For discontinued component two items are reported:

1. Operating income prior to the date of disposal.

2. Gain or loss on sale or disposal of net assets.

13-35

Nonrecurring Items

NONRECURING ITEM

Discontinued Operations.

13-36

Other Special Items

Comprehensive Income includes:

1. Gains or losses from certain foreign currency

exchange rate changes.

2. Gains or losses resulting from the change in value

of certain types of investments.

because they are likely to

disappear before they are

ever realized.

13-37

Chapter 13

Supplement 13B

Reviewing and

Contrasting IFRS and

GAAP

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Overview

At a basic level both IFRS and GAAP are concerned with

accounting rules that describe

1) when an item should be recognized in the accounting

system,

2) how that item should be classified (asset , liability, equity,

expense, or revenue), and

3) the amount at which each item should be measured.

IFRS fair value.

GAAP

13-39

Chapter 13

Solved Exercises

3, E13-4, E13-10, E13-13

McGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

M13-1 Calculations for Horizontal Analyses

Using the following income statements, perform the calculations

needed for horizontal analyses. Round percentages to one decimal

place.

13-41

M13-1 Calculations for Horizontal Analyses

($100,000 $75,000)

100 = 33.3%

$75,000

13-42

M13-2 Calculations for Vertical Analyses

Refer to M13-1 . Perform the calculations needed for vertical analyses.

Round percentages to one decimal place.

$21,000

100 = 21.0%

$100,000

13-43

M13-6 Inferring Financial Information Using Gross Profit

Percentage and Year-over-Year Comparisons

A consumer products company reported a 25 percent increase in sales

from 2012 to 2013. Sales in 2012 were $200,000. In 2013, the company

reported Cost of Goods Sold in the amount of $150,000. What was the

gross profit percentage in 2013? Round to one decimal place.

Cost of Goods Sold (given) (150,000) -60.0%

Gross Profit $100,000 40.0%

$100,000

100 = 40.0%

$250,000

13-44

E13-1 Preparing and Interpreting a Schedule for Horizontal

and Vertical Analyses

The average price of a gallon of gas in 2010 jumped $0.43 (18 percent) from $2.36 in

2009 (to $2.79 in 2010). Lets see whether these changes are reflected in the income

statement of Chevron Corporation for the year ended December 31, 2010 (amounts in

billions).

Required:

1. Conduct a horizontal analysis by calculating the year-over-year changes in each

line item, expressed in dollars and in percentages (rounded to one decimal place).

How did the change in gas prices compare to the changes in Chevron Corp.s total

revenues and costs of crude oil and products?

2. Conduct a vertical analysis by expressing each line as a percentage of total

revenues (round to one decimal place). Excluding income tax and other operating

costs, did Chevron earn more profit per dollar of revenue in 2010 compared to 2009?

13-45

E13-1 Preparing and Interpreting a Schedule for Horizontal

and Vertical Analyses

Req. 1

The 18% increase in the average gas price was less than the 19.2%

increase in total revenues and more than the 16.0% increase in cost of

crude oil and products. It appears from this analysis that the increase in

gas prices explains only part of Chevrons increase in total revenues. Note

that the percentage increase in total revenues was similar to the

percentage increase in the cost of crude oil and products, suggesting the

costs of crude oil really did increase a lot in 2010, necessitating the

increase in gas prices.

13-46

E13-1 Preparing and Interpreting a Schedule for Horizontal

and Vertical Analyses

Req. 2

and products was higher in 2009 (58.1%) than in 2010

(56.6%). This implies that Chevron earned more profit

(excluding income tax and other operating costs) per dollar

of revenues in 2010 than in 2009.

13-47

E13-3 Preparing and Interpreting a Schedule for Horizontal and

Vertical Analyses

According to the producer price index database maintained by the Bureau of Labor

Statistics, the average cost of computer equipment fell 4.8 percent between 2009 and

2010. Lets see whether these changes are reflected in the income statement of

Computer Tycoon Inc. for the year ended December 31, 2010.

Required:

1. Conduct a horizontal analysis by calculating the year-over-year changes in each

line item, expressed in dollars and in percentages (rounded to one decimal place).

How did the change in computer prices compare to the changes in Computer

Tycoons sales revenues?

2. Conduct a vertical analysis by expressing each line as a percentage of total

revenues (round to one decimal place). Excluding income tax, interest, and operating

expenses, did Computer Tycoon earn more profit per dollar of sales in 2010 compared

to 2009?

13-48

E13-3 Preparing and Interpreting a Schedule for Horizontal and

Vertical Analyses

Req. 1

The 4.8% decrease in the average price of computer equipment was less

than the 16.7% decrease in total revenues. It appears from this analysis

that the 4.8% decrease in computer prices was not offset by an increase in

Computer Tycoons sales volume. In fact, the sales volume also decreased,

leaving an overall decrease in sales revenues of 16.7%.

13-49

E13-3 Preparing and Interpreting a Schedule for Horizontal and

Vertical Analyses

Req. 2

(i.e., looking at gross profit), we see that Computer Tycoon

earned 40.0% gross profit in 2010, which is down from

40.4% in 2009. In other words, Computer Tycoon earned

0.4 cents less (40.0 40.4) per dollar of revenues in 2010

than in 2009.

13-50

E13-4 Computing Profitability Ratios

Use the information in E13-3 to complete the following requirements.

Required:

1. Compute the gross profit percentage for each year (one decimal place).

Assuming that the change for 2009 to 2010 is the beginning of a

sustained trend, is Computer Tycoon likely to earn more or less gross

profit from each dollar of sales in 2011?

2. Compute the net profit margin for each year (expressed as a percentage

with one decimal place). Given your calculations here and in

requirement 1, explain whether Computer Tycoon did a better or worse

job of controlling operating expenses in 2010 relative to 2009.

3. Computer Tycoon reported average net fixed assets of $54,200 in 2010

and $45,100 in 2009. Compute the fixed asset turnover ratios for both

years (round to two decimal places). Did the company better utilize its

investment in fixed assets to generate revenues in 2010 or 2009?

4. Computer Tycoon reported average stockholders equity of $54,000 in

2010 and $40,800 in 2009. Compute the return on equity ratios for both

years (expressed as a percentage with one decimal place). Did the

company generate greater returns for stockholders in 2010 or 2009?

13-51

E13-4 Computing Profitability Ratios

Req. 1

then it is likely that Computer Tycoon will have lower total

revenues in 2011, and a decline in gross profit

percentage. The gross profit percentage of 40.0% means

that the company generated 40.0 cents of gross profit on

each dollar of sales in 2010, which was down almost half

of one cent from 2009. If this continues, the company

could be expected to generate even less gross profit from

each dollar of sales in 2011.

13-52

E13-4 Computing Profitability Ratios

Req. 2

the cost of goods sold) in 2010 relative to 2009 because the net profit

margin decreased 2.5% (5.0 2.5) at the same time that the gross

profit percentage decreased only 0.4% (from 40.4% to 40.0%).

13-53

E13-4 Computing Profitability Ratios

Req. 3

2009. Its fixed asset turnover ratio fell from 2.66 in 2009 to

1.85 in 2010. The 2010 ratio means that the company

generated $1.85 of sales revenue for every dollar invested in

fixed assets.

13-54

E13-4 Computing Profitability Ratios

Req. 4

in 2009 (14.8%) than in 2010 (4.6%).

13-55

E13-10 Inferring Financial Information from Profitability and

Liquidity Ratios

Dollar General Corporation operates approximately 9,400 general

merchandise stores that feature quality merchandise at low prices to meet

the needs of middle-, low-, and fixed-income families in

southern, eastern, and mid-western states. For the year ended January 28,

2011, the company reported average inventories of $1,643 (in millions) and

an inventory turnover of 5.39. Average total fixed assets were $1,427

(million), and the fixed asset turnover ratio was 9.13.

Required:

1. Calculate Dollar Generals gross profit percentage (expressed as a

percentage with one decimal place). What does this imply about the

amount of gross profit made from each dollar of sales? TIP: Work

backward from the fixed asset turnover and inventory turnover ratios to

compute the amounts needed for the gross profit percentage.

2. Is this an improvement from the gross profit percentage of 31.3 percent

earned during the previous year?

13-56

E13-10 Inferring Financial Information from Profitability and

Liquidity Ratios

Req. 1

We can get the net sales number from the fixed assets turnover ratio and the

cost of goods sold number from the inventory turnover ratio, as shown below.

9.13 = Net sales $1,427,000,000

9.13 x $1,427,000,000 = Net sales

$13,028,510,000 = Net sales

5.39 = Cost of goods sold $1,643,000,000

5.39 x $1,643,000,000 = Cost of goods sold

$8,855,770,000 = Cost of goods sold

So, Gross profit percentage = (Net sales Cost of goods sold) Net sales

= ($13,028,510,000 $8,855,770,000) $13,028,510,000

= 0.320 or 32.0%

13-57

E13-13 Analyzing the Impact of Selected Transactions on the

Current Ratio

The Sports Authority, Inc., is a private full-line sporting goods retailer.

Assume one of the Sports Authority stores reported current assets of

$88,000 and its current ratio was 1.75, and then completed the

following transactions:

1) paid $6,000 on accounts payable,

2) purchased a delivery truck for $10,000 cash,

3) wrote off a bad account receivable for $2,000, and

4) paid previously declared dividends in the amount of $25,000.

Required:

Compute the updated current ratio rounded to two decimal places,

after each transaction.

13-58

E13-13 Analyzing the Impact of Selected Transactions on the

Current Ratio

13-59

End of Chapter 13

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