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BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY

IN
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

By

SHREYANSH PANDEY 131113008


PRAVIN JAMRE 131113062
NOOR ALAM 131113058
PRADEEP RAJPOOT 131113056
SHUBHAM KUMAR 131113010

Under the guidance of

DR. MUKESH KIRAR


In India irrigation i.e. water pumping load constitutes around 19% of the total load according
to CEA report. So a major portion of countrys electricity is consumed in water pumping
loads.

A solar-powered pump is a pump running on electricity generated by photovoltaic panels or


the radiated thermal energy available from collected sunlight as opposed to grid electricity or
diesel run water pumps.

In water pumping load, majority is of irrigation load and water distribution loads in cities
constitutes the rest. There are numerous issues involved with the irrigation load. The two
main issues are:

Poor quality of power supply leading to damage to water pump sets.


Irregularity in power supply timings.
Agricultural fields are long distance away from the residential area of the farmers.

In many cases the irrigation fields are long distance away from the house of the farmers.
Mostly electricity utilities supplies power 6 to 8 hours to irrigation loads and that too in the
night time. So the farmers face double troubles.
So a remote operated solar irrigation pump with robust protection for the pump
sets at cost similar to existing systems, is a perfect solution for their problems.

Also, the feature that this pump can also be operated using conventional grid
supply adds value to this project.

Today, solar energy has come out as the most important source of energy. The
increasing decline in fossil fuel reserves has led us to start working on developing
solar powered devices and solar pump is one of them.

Fully automated SCADA systems are costly so they are not used at small scale.
Android App based operation of water pumps provides the features similar to
SCADA system but at the same time it ensures the low cost and reliability of
operation.

Also huge wastage of all important water is seen in cities due to delay in turning
off the water pumps. Generally this kind of situation is visible in government
buildings, hostels and residential apartments.
Alternating current induction motors (IMs) are critical components in many
industrial processes.

It is well known that IM monitoring has been studied by many researches and
reviewed in a number of works. A number of reviews have been presented of
various stator faults, their causes, detection techniques, latest trends and diagnosis
methods supported by artificial intelligence, microprocessor, computer and other
techniques in the monitoring and protection technology.

In other works, ball bearing failures , speed ripple effect, air gap eccentricity ,
broken rotor bars, shaft speed oscillation, damaged bearings, unbalanced voltage,
inter-turn faults, stator winding temperature and microcontroller based digital
protector have been subjects recently studied.
Android app will enable the user to communicate with the pump at remote location.

Basic Start and Stop operation of Pump along with options like timer mode setting and
machine rating are given in the App.

According to the options selected by the user a string will be generated and the same will be
sent to the Pump terminal by SMS.

The SMS sent by App will be received by GSM module at pump terminal. The message will
be extracted by the microcontroller and further actions will be initiated.

Microcontroller will provide the necessary signals to the contactor through MOSFET and
relay for starting the pump. If the pump is turned on successfully then microcontroller will
feedback this status to the app by generating SMS, which will be sent by GSM modem.

The timer options as selected by user will be implemented by the microcontroller and it will
turn on and turn off the pump according to the timer settings.
If the solar power supply is available then microcontroller will send SMS
through GSM modem to inform the user.

The currents and voltages of the machine will be sensed by the sensors and
microcontroller will read their values. Current (AC) is obtained by sampling while
voltage is obtained by directly reading a DC voltage proportional to supply voltage.

If solar power supply is not available then microcontroller will check if Grid
Supply is available.

Currents and voltages will monitored continuously by microcontroller in both


cases.

Microcontroller will send SMS through GSM modem to inform the user.

Protection against various types of faults like thermal overload, single phasing,
under/over voltage, voltage imbalance is provided by protection algorithm in the
microcontroller. Also reverse rotation of pump is detected by phase sequence of the
currents and pump is turned off if phase sequence is reversed.
In case of any fault in pump or problems in power supply the microcontroller will
trip the pump and communicate the message back to user through GSM modem.
Thus user will remain updated about the status of the motor.

The trip signal from the microcontroller will be amplified suitably by MOSFET
and will be passed on to relay. The relay will be connected in series with the tripping
coil of the contactor. Thus relay will finally operate the contactor according to the
signal received from microcontroller.

The power supply for the whole electronic circuitry will be taken from the main
supply. SMPS of 12V is used to power microcontroller, GSM modem, current
sensors and relay.
Thermal overload protection.

Mathematical equation for the relay characteristic.

Single phasing protection.

Fault protection.

Under/over voltage protection.

Voltage unbalance protection.

Protection from phase reversal.

Lightning Protection.(Used in PV array)

Surge Protection.(Used in PV array)


S. No Component Type Ratings Qty Make

1 Current Sensors Hall effect 20A, 100 A peak 2 Allegro Microsystems

2 Voltage Sensors Step Down Transformer 230V/12-0-12V 3 -

3 Rectifier IC Full bridge 280 V, 1.5 A 3 Taiwan Semiconductor

3 Arduino Board Uno ATmega 328 P 12V, 500mA 1 Sparkfun Electronics

4 Relay Electro-mechanical 12A,120 V DC 2 -

5 MOSFET IRF520 100V,9.2A 1 Vishay Siliconix

6 Contactor MNX 18 415V,18A 1 Larsen & Tourbo

5V, 0.5 A,
7 Modem GSM 1 SIM900A
2A (peak)

8 Power Adapter SMPS DC 12 V, 3 A 1 Huawei


Conventional c-Si solar cells, normally wired in series, are
encapsulated in a solar module to protect them from the weather.

The module consists of a tempered glass as cover, a soft and flexible


encapsulant.The smallest element of a PV panel is the solar cell.

Each solar cell has two or more specially prepared layers of


semiconductor material that produce direct current (DC) electricity
when exposed to light.

This DC current is collected by the wiring in the panel.

It is then supplied either to a DC pump, which in turn pumps water


whenever the sun shines, or stored in batteries for later use by the
pump.
The I-V and P-V curves of a solar cell is obtained by
simulation on MATLAB Simulink. The figure below
shows the circuit diagram used in Simulink, to obtain
the characteristics.
The I-V curves obtained from the simulation of the above
circuit are respectively shown below:
The P-V curves obtained from the simulation of the above
circuit are respectively shown below:
The purpose of the controller is two-fold.

Firstly, it matches the output power that the pump receives with the input power
available from the solar panels.

Secondly, a controller usually provides a low voltage protection, whereby the


system is switched off, if the voltage is too low or too high for the operating voltage
range of the pump. This increases the lifetime of the pump thus reducing the need
for maintenance.
An inverter is an electronic device or circuitry that changes Direct Current (DC) to
Alternating Current (AC).

The input voltage, output voltage and frequency, and overall power handling depend
on design of the specific device or circuitry.

The inverter does not produce any power. The power is provided by DC source.

The inverter is used after the DC current is generated by the solar PV array. This is
required as the motor used is a 3-phase induction motor.

The inverter has IP54 protection.


Power inverters work as an electrical converter which
allows a direct current to change into alternating
current. This is the commonly known as a DC-AC
power conversion. The simulation circuit is shown
below.
The output sinusoidal waveform obtained from the
simulation circuit of the single phase Inverter is shown
below:
Electrical controllers and safety devices are incorporated into PV-powered water
pump systems to control the electric power input to the pump and to provide
necessary electrical protection and switching.

The controller normally includes a main switch to provide an electrical disconnect


of the PV array from all other system components.

Since the amount of power produced by the array depends on the intensity of
incoming solar radiation, the controller can cause the pump to be switched off until
sufficient power is available to meet the pumps specified minimum operating
power input range.

Likewise, when the PV panels produce too much power, the controller can limit
the power output to the pump to prevent it from running faster than its maximum
rated speed.
A current sensor is used to sense the current on the solar PV side as well as on
the Grid side.

Two current sensors, one on solar side and second on grid side are used.

A voltage sensor is used to sense the voltage on the solar PV side as well as on
the Grid side.

Two voltage sensors, one on solar side and second on grid side are used.
Alternating output of voltage sensor is rectified using Rectifier IC.

This rectified output is fed to the Microcontroller.


Arduino Uno is a open source microcontroller board based on the
ATmega328P.

It has 14 digital input/output pins (of which 6 can be used as PWM outputs),
6 analog inputs, a 16 MHz quartz crystal, a USB connection, a power jack, an
ICSP header and a reset button.
A relay is an electrically operated switch. It is mainly used to control higher
voltage circuits with lower voltage.

The 'control' and 'controlled' circuits are electrically isolated from each other.

1. Normally-Open (NO): The circuit is disconnected i.e. open when the relay is
inactive.
2. Normally-Closed (NC): The circuit is connected i.e. closed when the relay is
inactive.
A contactor is an electrically controlled switch used for switching an
electrical power circuit, similar to a relay except with higher current ratings. A
contactor is controlled by a circuit which has a much lower power level than
the switched circuit.
A GSM modem will be used to send and receive messages using android
application, for the operation of motor.
SMPS adapter will be used in this project to power Arduino board, GSM SIM900,
tripping circuit and the current sensors. SMPS adapter are compact and efficient
compared to IC regulated supply.
Based on the outlines of working of the project described in the previous
chapter, the hardware needed at the pump terminal is shown in next slide.

The pump (three phase induction motor) is connected to the supply through
contactor. The pump is turned on or off by contactor. The contactor is
controlled by its trip coil. The trip coil of contactor is controlled by relays and
these relays are controlled by MOSFET. And finally MOSFET is controlled by
signal given by microcontroller. So these components are required to control
the pump.

To provide protection to the pump current and voltage sensors are needed to
monitor the operating conditions. Therefore current and voltage sensors are
also needed here. The protection algorithm is programmed in the
microcontroller (Arduino Uno board).

The Android App will communicate with the microcontroller through GSM
modem SIM900. Therefore all the commands will be received by SIM900 and will
be passed on to Arduino. The feedback status of the pump will be sent back to
the App by Arduino through SIM900.
In this project the following protections are provided:

Thermal overload protection

Single phasing protection

Fault protection

Under voltage protection

Over voltage protection

Voltage Imbalance protection

Phase sequence reversal protection


S. No Fault Impact General causes

Under voltage, voltage imbalance,


1 Thermal overload Damage to stator and rotor windings. Life of insulation decreases [27]-[29].
overloading etc

Current in remaining phases increases significantly thus leads to excessive heating and thermal
2 Single phasing overload. Slip increases, power factor becomes poor, maximum loading capacity decreases [30]- Fuse of one phase melts.
[31].

Faults
3 Stator and rotor windings may be damaged permanently [28], [29]. Mechanical bearings failure.
(3 phase and blocked rotor)

It may result in thermal damage to cores due to excessive high flux in the magnetic circuits.
4 Over voltage Low loading on distribution system.
Excess flux saturates the core steel and core losses increases [20], [27].

5 Under voltage High loading on distribution system.

Motor draws higher current which leads to overloading. Slip increases, ohmic losses increases,
efficiency goes down, life of motor reduces [20], [32].

Large negative sequence components are introduced. Excessive overheating of motor, derating Open delta connection, unbalanced loading
6 Voltage Unbalance
of motor [8], [20], [34]. and impedances.
This algorithm is programmed in the microcontroller. First of all the output
pins and SIM900 are initialized. This initialization process is carried out only
once after the power is given to Arduino board. Then the program goes into
a loop which runs continuously till power is available to the Arduino board.

The first task in the loop is to check the supply by reading the voltage
sensors. Then if supply voltage is balanced and within the specified limit
then message in the SIM900 is checked. If message is available then it read
by microcontroller otherwise supply is again checked and again the same
process is repeated.

When the message to turn on the pump is received then the motor is turned
on by the signal generated by microcontroller through the means of
contactor. Then the protection loop starts and continues till the time motor
is turned off.

In the beginning of the protection loop the message in SIM900 is checked


every time. If turn off command is received then pump is turned off. If any
fault is detected in the pump then pump is turned off and the information of
the event is sent to the App by microcontroller through SIM900.
analogRead(AX) With this function the microcontroller reads the analog
pin and converts the voltage at analog pin into digital count. The details
of microcontroller are given in report.

The 3- currents are read by the algorithm shown in Figure. These


currents are further used for protection from single phasing, thermal
overload and instantaneous fault. Ten current samples are taken from the
two current sensors present in the two lines and then the third line
current is obtained by these two line current samples.

Then these samples are squared and added then square root of their
mean is obtained. Finally this value is multiplied by multiplying factor to
obtain final currents.
The phase sequence of the supply is determined by the algorithm shown
in next slide. The current samples are compared and a sequence is
generated based on comparison.

Then a sequence with no repeating elements is obtained. This sequence is


compared with the correct phase sequence and if the two does not match
then the motor is turned off.
MARCH-APRIL:

Sensors testing and calibration.

Design of Remote Operation.

Final Assembly and Testing.